Semantic-Based Bluetooth-RFID Interaction for Advanced Resource Discovery in Pervasive Contexts

Semantic-Based Bluetooth-RFID Interaction for Advanced Resource Discovery in Pervasive Contexts

Tommaso Di Noia (Politecnico di Bari, Italy), Eugenio Di Sciascio (Politecnico di Bari, Italy), Francesco Maria Donini (Universita della Tuscia, Italy), Michele Ruta (Politecnico di Bari, Italy), Floriano Scioscia (Politecnico di Bari, Italy) and Eufemia Tinelli (Politecnico di Bari and Universita degli Studi di Bari,)
Copyright: © 2009 |Pages: 25
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-298-5.ch013
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We propose a novel object discovery framework integrating the application layer of Bluetooth and RFID standards. The approach is motivated and illustrated in an innovative u-commerce setting. Given a request, it allows an advanced discovery process, exploiting semantically annotated descriptions of goods available in the u-marketplace. The RFID data exchange protocol and the Bluetooth service discovery protocol have been modified and enhanced to enable support for such semantic annotation of products. Modifications to the standards have been conceived to be backward compatible, thus allowing the smooth coexistence of the legacy discovery and/or identification features. Also noteworthy is the introduction of a dedicated compression tool to reduce storage/transmission problems due to the verbosity of XML-based semantic languages.
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Introduction And Motivation

Radio-frequency identification (RFID) is an increasingly widespread and promising wireless technology interconnecting via radio a transponder carrying data (tag) located on an object, and an interrogator (reader) able to receive the transmitted data. Tags usually contain a unique identification code, which can be used by readers to identify the associated object. Since low-cost tags can be fastened to objects unobtrusively, preserving their common functions, RFID de facto increases the “pervasiveness” of a computing environment. Current RFID applications focus on retrieving relevant attributes of the object the tag is clung to, via a networked infrastructure from a fixed information server. This identification process involves the code associated to the transponder exploited as index key. Nowadays, tags with larger memory capacity and on-board sensors enable new scenarios and further applications, not yet explored.

We believe that in the era of semantic technologies and mobile computing, there is room for more advanced and significant applications of RFIDs extended with structured descriptions, so that a good equipped with an RFID can semantically describe itself along its whole life-cycle. We therefore conceived a unified framework where a semantic-enhanced RFID-based infrastructure and an advanced Bluetooth service discovery—also endowed of semantic-based discovery features—are virtually “interconnected” at the application layer permitting innovative services in u-environments. In our mobile framework, tagged objects expose to a reader not simply a string code but a semantically annotated description. Such objects may hence describe themselves in a variety of scenarios (e.g., during supply chain management, shipment, storing, sale and post-sale), without depending on a centralized database. The exploitation of these annotations calls for discovery/interaction protocols that are able to effectively deal with rich and articulated descriptions. Therefore, a novel multi-protocol and interactive discovery mechanism has been designed. In this effort, we borrowed from ideas and technologies devised for the semantic Web initiative. To simply illustrate our proposal, we set our stage in a u-marketplace context1, where objects endowed with RFID tags are dipped into an enhanced Bluetooth framework.

In particular, building on previous works that enhanced the basic discovery features of Bluetooth with semantic-based discovery capabilities (Ruta et al., 2006a), we propose an extension of EPCglobal specifications for RFID tag data standards, providing semantic-based value-added services. Coping with limited storage and computational capabilities of mobile and embedded devices, and with reduced bandwidth provided by wireless links, issues related to the verbosity of semantic annotation languages cannot be neglected. Compression techniques become essential to enable storage and transmission of semantically annotated information on mobile devices. We hence devised and exploited a novel efficient XML compression algorithm, specifically targeted for DIG 1.1 (Bechhofer et al., 2003) document instances. Benefits of compression apply to the whole ubiquitous computing environment, as decreasing data size means shorter communication delays, efficient usage of bandwidth and reduced battery drain for mobile devices in a Mobile ad hoc NETwork (MANET).

The remainder of the article is structured as follows. In the next section, relevant technological bricks of the proposed framework are surveyed. Section 3 outlines the framework, explaining the discovery process as well as proposed semantic-based enhancements to RFID standards. The compression algorithm for semantic annotations is outlined in section 4. Section 5 exemplifies the approach in a u-commerce scenario. Results on key performance measures to assess the feasibility of the proposed approach, are provided in section 6. Conclusion closes the article.


In this section, we survey relevant aspects of languages, technologies and protocols we use and adapt, concentrating on key features our proposal is based on. We assume the reader is familiar with at least basic elements of Semantic Web and ontologies (Berners-Lee et al., 2001; Horrocks et al., 2001; Martin et al., 2002; McGuinness et al., 2002; Shadbolt et al., 2006), of OWL ( and related languages, such as Description Logics (DLs) (Borgida, 1995; Donini et al., 1996). We therefore move straightforwardly to analyze issues closely related to our proposal.

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Editorial Advisory Board
Table of Contents
Olaf Diegel
Judith Symonds, John Ayoade, David Parry
Chapter 1
Chin Boo Soon
This chapter describes the history and development of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID). Key information on RFID such as the ratification of the... Sample PDF
Radio Frequency Identification History and Development
Chapter 2
John Garofalakis, Christos Mettouris
The continuous evolution of wireless technologies has made them ideal for use in many different applications, including user positioning. Until now... Sample PDF
Using Bluetooth for Indoor User Positioning and Informing
Chapter 3
John Ayoade, Judith Symonds
Standards organisations such as EPC Global work to provide global compatibility between RFID readers and tags (EPCGlobal, 2007). This is essential... Sample PDF
RFID for Identification of Stolen/Lost Items
Chapter 4
Filippo Gandino, Erwing Ricardo Sanchez, Bartolomeo Montrucchio, Maurizio Rebaudengo
This chapter deals with the use of RFID technology for improving management and security of agri-food products. In order to protect health and to... Sample PDF
RFID Technology for Agri-Food Tracability Management
Chapter 5
Lena Mamykina, Elizabeth Mynatt
In the last decade, novel sensing technologies enabled development of applications that help individuals with chronic diseases monitor their health... Sample PDF
Interpreting Health and Wellness Information
Chapter 6
Bryan Houliston
Hospitals are traditionally slow to adopt new information systems (IS). However, health care funders and regulators are demanding greater use of IS... Sample PDF
RFID in Hospitals and Factors Restricting Adoption
Chapter 7
David Parry, Judith Symonds
Radio-frequency Identification (RFID) offers a potentially flexible and low cost method of locating objects and tracking people within buildings.... Sample PDF
RFID and Assisted Living for the Elderly
Chapter 8
Ashir Ahmed, Ly-Fie Sugianto
This chapter introduces an activity-based framework for the adoption of radio frequency identification (RFID) in emergency management. The framework... Sample PDF
RFID in Emergency Management
Chapter 9
Bin Shen, Yu-Jin Zhang
This chapter is concerned with online object tracking, which aims to locate a given object in each of the consecutive frames. Many algorithms have... Sample PDF
Subsequence-Wise Approach for Online Tracking
Chapter 10
John Ayoade
The aim of Fixed-Mobile Convergence (FMC) is to provide both fixed-line and mobile telephony services to users through the same handset which could... Sample PDF
From Fixed to Mobile Convergence
Chapter 11
Sarita Pais, Judith Symonds
RFID tags can store more data and can update this data through local processing. This is in contrast to the EPC global standard of data-on-network.... Sample PDF
Handling RFID Data Using a Data-on-Tag Approach
Chapter 12
Maryam Purvis, Toktam Ebadi, Bastin Tony Roy Savarimuthu
The objective of this research is to describe a mechanism to provide an improved library management system using RFID and agent technologies. One of... Sample PDF
An Agent-Based Library Management System Using RFID Technology
Chapter 13
Tommaso Di Noia, Eugenio Di Sciascio, Francesco Maria Donini, Michele Ruta, Floriano Scioscia, Eufemia Tinelli
We propose a novel object discovery framework integrating the application layer of Bluetooth and RFID standards. The approach is motivated and... Sample PDF
Semantic-Based Bluetooth-RFID Interaction for Advanced Resource Discovery in Pervasive Contexts
Chapter 14
Indranil Bose, Chun Wai Lam
Radio frequency identification (RFID) has generated vast amounts of interest in the supply chain, logistics, and the manufacturing area. RFID can be... Sample PDF
Facing the Challenges of RFID Data Management
Chapter 15
Masoud Mohammadian, Ric Jentzsch
The cost of health care continues to be a world wide issue. Research continues into ways and how the utilization of evolving technologies can be... Sample PDF
A Mobile Computing Framework for Passive RFID Detection System in Healthcare
Chapter 16
Masoud Mohammadian, Ric Jentzsch
When dealing with human lives, the need to utilize and apply the latest technology to help in saving and maintaining patients’ lives is quite... Sample PDF
Intelligent Agents Framework for RFID Hospitals
Chapter 17
David Wyld
We are in the midst of what may become one of the true technological transformations of our time. RFID (radio frequency identification) is by no... Sample PDF
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Technology
About the Contributors