Simulation of Small-Scale Fading in Mobile Channel Models for Next-Generation Wireless Communications

Simulation of Small-Scale Fading in Mobile Channel Models for Next-Generation Wireless Communications

Stelios A. Mitilineos (National Center for Scientific Research, “Demokritos,” Greece), Christos N. Capsalis (National Technical University of Athens, Greece) and Stelios C.A. Thomopoulos (National Center for Scientific Research, “Demokritos,” Greece)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-108-7.ch015
OnDemand PDF Download:
$37.50

Abstract

Small-scale fading strongly affects the performance of a radio link; therefore radio channel simulation tools and models are broadly being used in order to evaluate the impact of fading. Furthermore, channel simulation tools and models are considered to be of utmost importance for efficient design and development of new products and services for Next Generation (Wireless) Networks (NGNs and NGWNs). In this chapter, a brief description of the most popular and broadly accepted mobile radio channel models and simulation techniques is given, mainly with respect to small-scale fading. In addition, certain research results on radio channel simulation are presented. The authors hope that the information provided herein will help researchers to acquire an insight to small-scale fading simulation techniques, which will be useful for a solid understanding of the underlying physical layer properties of NGWNs.
Chapter Preview
Top

I. Introduction

According to the ITU definition (ITU, 2004), a Next Generation Network (NGN) is principally an heterogeneous network. NGNs are packet and IP-based networks, able of providing services (such as navigation or telecommunications services) using multiple broadband transport technologies, while service-related functions are independent from the underlying transport technologies. A user of a NGN enjoys different services from different providers seamlessly, anytime, anywhere (ubiquitous computing – ubiquitous communications). From a business-oriented point of view, NGNs will allow unrestricted access by users to different service providers; a specification that is expected to bring revolutionary effects to business models and functionality of all Information and Communication Technology (ICT) enterprises. One of these effects is the already noticed unification of business sectors that were separated until now, like fixed and mobile telephony, internet and entertainment. From the user point of view, this means that she will be able of watching a streaming-video movie or placing a transatlantic call through a unique internet provider, or watching the weather forecast and hear her favourite songs from her mobile phone on the way to work. Furthermore, NGNs will naturally comply with all current and future regulatory requirements, regarding e.g. emergency communications (E-112 or E-911 for E.U. and U.S.A. respectively), or security and privacy/ethical issues, etc.

The heterogeneity of NGNs consists in services as well as physical networks. NGNs will offer a wide range of services, from relatively simple voice telephony and data transfer, to more demanding applications like streaming video, virtual private networks, public network computing or unified messaging. Furthermore, several futuristic services have been proposed like interactive and location-based gaming, distributed virtual reality, remote home/office management etc. The ultimate goal is nowadays considered to be the full integration of navigation and communications networks in order to provide exotic new services to end users (Ruggieri, 2006). On the other hand, as long as physical networks are concerned, NGNs will comprise of lines ranging from simple PSTN to DSL broadband in wired cases, and from 2G to 4G cellular or WLAN, WiMAX, Wireless Sensor Networks, and other more exotic ones like interplanetary internet (Akan 2004), in wireless cases. This means that NGNs will be capable of seamlessly internetworking through legacy and broadband networks and will be characterized by generalized mobility. So far, the only means of achieving these goals is considered to be an all-IP approach, i.e. using the IP protocol in order to interconnect the most diverse devices and networks; therefore NGNs are often referred to all-IP networks as well, while the IPv6 protocol is expected to significantly contribute towards this direction (Dixit, 2006). At the same time, the most attractive physical layer means of implementing NGNs is via wireless infrastructure and/or ad-hoc networks (Next Generation Wireless Networks, NGWNs) in conjunction with gigabit-per-second order throughput wired infrastructures. Even in the case of wired NGNs, digital content is expected to be delivered to the end user via mobile handheld devices (mobile phones, palmtops, VoIP wireless phones etc.).

Key Terms in this Chapter

Small Scale Fading: Severe signal strength fluctuations within distances in the order of wavelength.

Simulation: Artificial Reality, i.e. the research field whose intention is to mimic one or more attributes of reality.

Smart Antennas: Antenna arrays that are capable of automatically controling each element’s gain and phase, thus delivering optimal or sub-optimal radiation patterns with respect to a desired evaluation criterion.

Geometric Channel Models: Channel models based on abstract geometric characteristics of the propagation environment.

Empirical Channel Models: Channel models based on in-situ channel measurements.

Frequency Selective Fading: A type of small scale fading where different frequency signal components therefore experience decorelated fading; corresponds to the case where the signal bandwidth is larger than the channel coherence bandwidth.

Mobile Channel: A wireless communications propagation description, referring to mobile receivers and/or transmitters.

Deterministic Channel Models: Channel models based on (usually digital) architectural plans or topographical maps of the propagation environment.

Frequency Flat Fading: A type of small scale fading where all frequency signal components experience the same magnitude of fading; corresponds to the case where the signal bandwidth is smaller than the channel coherence bandwidth.

Statistical Channel Models: Channel models based on given probability density functions of channel characteristics.

Complete Chapter List

Search this Book:
Reset
Editorial Advisory Board
Table of Contents
Foreword
Robert A. Walker, Drew Parker
Preface
Stavros Kotsopoulos, Konstantinos Ioannou
Acknowledgment
Chapter 1
Dzmitry Kliazovich, Michael Devetsikiotis, Fabrizio Granelli
The layering principle has been long identified as a way to increase the interoperability and to improve the design of telecommunication protocols... Sample PDF
Formal Methods in Cross Layer Modeling and Optimization of Wireless Networks: State of the Art and Future Directions
$37.50
Chapter 2
Dimitris Toumpakaris, Jungwon Lee
This chapter presents an introduction to cross-layer scheduling and resource allocation for wireless systems and an overview of some of the... Sample PDF
Cross-Layer Resource Allocation and Scheduling for Wireless Systems
$37.50
Chapter 3
Prashant Pillai
IP multicast mechanisms provide efficient bandwidth consumption and distribution of high volume contents such as audio/video streaming... Sample PDF
An AAA Framework for IP Multicast Communication in Next Generation Networks
$37.50
Chapter 4
N. Merlemis, D. Zevgolis
This chapter is an introduction of the Wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) technologies (such as Dense WDM and coarse WDM) and their recent... Sample PDF
Wavelength Division Multiplexing Technologies and their Applications
$37.50
Chapter 5
Sotiris Karabetsos, Spiros Mikroulis, Athanase Nassiopoulos
The high capacity offered by the optical fiber, combined with the mobility and the flexibility of wireless access, either fixed or not, provides an... Sample PDF
Radio over Fiber for Broadband Communications: A Promising Technology for Next Generation Networks
$37.50
Chapter 6
Konstantinos Birkos
High Altitude Stratospheric Platforms (HASPs) have gained much of attention from the scientific society and the communication industry in the recent... Sample PDF
High Altitude Stratospheric Platforms (HASPs)
$37.50
Chapter 7
Dimitrios K. Lymberopoulos
The Next Generation Network (NGN) is a very complex environment, where various parties (network operators, services and application providers... Sample PDF
Test Template for Data Mining Publications
$37.50
Chapter 8
Konstantinos S. Kotsopoulos
Next Generation Networks (NGNs) will accommodate heterogeneous architectures that need to be managed in order to provide services with high QoS to... Sample PDF
The Adoption of Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) in Managing Next Generation Networks (NGNs)
$37.50
Chapter 9
Ioannis Papapanagiotou, Georgios S. Paschos
The present chapter contains a thorough investigation of Quality of Service, Energy Conservation and mobility in 802.11 and 802.16 standards.... Sample PDF
A Case Study on the QoS, Energy Consumption and Mobility of WLANs and WMANs
$37.50
Chapter 10
Panagiotis Kasimatis, Dimitra Varla
This chapter deals with the description of the various applied Mobile System Architectures, showing the evolution path towards the IP Convergence... Sample PDF
Mobile Telecom System Architectures—IMS an Evolution Path Towards IP Convergence
$37.50
Chapter 11
Peter Brida, Peter Cepel, Jan Duha
This chapter deals with mobile positioning in wireless heterogeneous next generation networks. Positioning process is analyzed and the chapter gives... Sample PDF
Mobile Positioning in Next Generation Networks
$37.50
Chapter 12
Anthony Ioannidis, Jiorgis Kritsotakis
Convergence in the communication industry is a reality – networks are being integrated, digital devices are being unified, and organizations seeking... Sample PDF
Converged Networks and Seamless Mobility: Lessons from Experience
$37.50
Chapter 13
Costas Chaikalis, Felip Riera-Palou
Modern and future wireless communication systems such as UMTS and beyond 3G systems (B3G) are expected to support very high data rates to/from... Sample PDF
Efficient Receiver Implementation for Mobile Applications
$37.50
Chapter 14
Apostolos Georgiadis, Carles Fernández Prades
Multi-antenna systems incorporating smart antenna techniques present numerous advantages compared to their single antenna counterparts including... Sample PDF
Novel Multi-Antenna and Smart Antenna Techniques for Next Generation Wireless Communication Networks
$37.50
Chapter 15
Stelios A. Mitilineos, Christos N. Capsalis, Stelios C.A. Thomopoulos
Small-scale fading strongly affects the performance of a radio link; therefore radio channel simulation tools and models are broadly being used in... Sample PDF
Simulation of Small-Scale Fading in Mobile Channel Models for Next-Generation Wireless Communications
$37.50
Chapter 16
Petros Karadimas
This chapter studies a composite stochastic model, in which the diffuse component arises from three dimensional (3-D) multipath scattering. That... Sample PDF
Stochastic Modeling of Narrowband Fading Channels with Three Dimensional Diffuse Scattering
$37.50
Chapter 17
Anastasios Papazafeiropoulos
As a consequence of the growing interest in wireless communications systems, much effort is being devoted to the channel characterization and... Sample PDF
Channel Characterization and Modelling for Mobile Communications
$37.50
Chapter 18
Fotis C. Kitsios, Spyros P. Angelopoulos, John Zannetopoulos
There is no doubt that e-government is a phenomenon of our era. E-business is becoming vital on the private sector as well as in the governmental... Sample PDF
Innovation and E-Government: An in Depth Overview on E-Services
$37.50
Chapter 19
Spyros P. Angelopoulos, Fotis C. Kitsios, Eduard Babulak
Telecommunications and Internet Technologies have evolved dramatically during the last decade, laying a solid foundation for the future generation... Sample PDF
From E to U: Towards an Innovative Digital Era
$37.50
Chapter 20
Fotis C. Kitsios
Nowadays that the world depends more and more in services, there is no issue more fundamental for service organizations than understanding the... Sample PDF
Service Innovation Management: New Service Development Strategies in the Telecommunication Industry Test Template for Data Mining Publications
$37.50
Chapter 21
D. M. Emiris
Auctioning over Wireless Networks, constitutes an attractive emerging class for m-commerce applications and formulates a procurement negotiation... Sample PDF
The Expansion of E-Marketplace to M-Marketplace by Integrating Mobility and Auctions in a Location-Sensitive Environment: Application in Procurement of Logistics Services
$37.50
Chapter 22
Achilles D. Kameas
This chapter describes a human centric approach for designing and deploying ubiquitous computing applications. These are considered as activity... Sample PDF
Deploying Ubiquitous Computing Applications on Heterogeneous Next Generation Networks
$37.50
Chapter 23
Eduard Babulak, Konstantinos G. Ioannou, Athanasios Ioannou
Transportation and Internet Technologies have evolved dramatically during the last decade, laying solid foundation for the future generation of the... Sample PDF
Channel Management Schemes to Support Services in Ubiquitous Communications Infrastructures for Future Transportation Technologies
$37.50
About the Contributors