Sketch Understanding: Issues and State of the Art

Sketch Understanding: Issues and State of the Art

Vincenzo Deufemia (Università di Salerno, Italy)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-59904-534-4.ch012
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Recognition of hand-drawn, diagrammatic sketches is a very active research field, since it finds a natural application in a wide range of domains, such as engineering, software design, and architecture. However, it is a particularly difficult task since the symbols of a sketched diagram can be drawn by using a different stroke-order, -number, and -direction. The difficulties in the recognition process are often made harder by the lack of precision and by the presence of ambiguities in messy hand-drawn sketches. In this article we present a brief survey on sketch understanding techniques and tools. We first present major problems that should be considered in the construction of on-line sketch recognizers. We analyze representative works for the recognition of freehand shape and describe several shape description languages for the automatic construction of sketch recognizers.

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Table of Contents
Chapter 1
Paolo Bottoni, Maria Francesca Costabile, Stefano Levialdi
This chapter introduces an approach to the theory of visual languages, based on the notion of visual sentence as defined by the integration of... Sample PDF
The Theory of Visual Sentences to Formalize Interactive Visual Languages
Chapter 2
Bernd Meyer, Paolo Bottoni
In this paper we investigate a new approach to formalizing interpretation of and reasoning with visual languages based on linear logic. We argue... Sample PDF
Visual And Diagrammatic Languages: The Logic Perspective
Chapter 3
Paolo Bottoni, Dino Frediani, Paolo Quattrocchi
The definition of visual languages, of their semantics, and of the interactions with them, can all be referred to a notion of transformation of... Sample PDF
A Transformation-Based Metamodel Approach to the Definition of Syntax and Semantics of Diagrammatic Languages
Chapter 4
Esther Guerra, Juan de Lara
In this chapter, we present our approach for the definition of Multi-View Visual Languages (MVVLs). These are languages made of a set of different... Sample PDF
Meta-Modelling and Graph Transformation for the Definition of Multi-View Visual Languages
Chapter 5
Gennaro Costagliola
Much recent research is focusing on formal methods for the definition and implementation of visual programming environments. Extended positional... Sample PDF
Extended Positional Grammars: A Formalism for Describing and Parsing Visual Languages
Chapter 6
Arianna D’Ulizia, Grifoni Patrizia
This chapter introduces a classification of ambiguities in Visual Languages and discusses the ambiguities that occur in Spatial Visual Query... Sample PDF
Visual Notation Interpretation and Ambiguities
Chapter 7
Maria Chiara Caschera
This chapter introduces and discusses the classification of methods to resolve ambiguities that arise during the communication process using Visual... Sample PDF
The Management Of Ambiguities
Chapter 8
Maria Chiara Caschera, Arianna D’Ulizia
An easy; efficient and effective way to retrieve stored data is obviously one of the key issues of any information system. In the last few years... Sample PDF
Visual query languages, representation techniques and data models
Chapter 9
Valéria M.B. Cavalcanti
Visual Query Systems (VQS) for Spatio-Temporal Databases; which enable formulation of queries involving both spatial and temporal dimensions; are an... Sample PDF
Towards a Visual Query System for Spatio-Temporal Databases
Chapter 10
Daniela Fogli, Andrea Marcante, Piero Mussio
In this chapter it is recognized that the knowledge relevant to the design of an interactive system is distributed among several stakeholders... Sample PDF
Multi-Facet Design of Interactive Systems through Visual Languages
Chapter 11
Kristine Deray
Interactions are core part of interactive computing. However, their mechanisms remain poorly understood. The tendency has been to understand... Sample PDF
Designing a Visual Language for Interaction Representation, Based on Aspects of Human Movement
Chapter 12
Vincenzo Deufemia
Recognition of hand-drawn, diagrammatic sketches is a very active research field, since it finds a natural application in a wide range of domains... Sample PDF
Sketch Understanding: Issues and State of the Art
Chapter 13
Tiziana Catarci, Stephen Kimani
Despite the existence of various data mining efforts that deal with user interface aspects, very few provide a formal specification of the syntax of... Sample PDF
User Interface Formalization in Visual Data Mining
Chapter 14
Efstratios Kontopoulos, Nick Bassiliades
This chapter is concerned with the visualization of defeasible logic rules in the Semantic Web domain. Logic plays an important role in the... Sample PDF
Visual Development of Defeasible Logic Rules for the Semantic Web
Chapter 15
Dimitris Vrakas, Ourania Hatzi
This chapter is concerned with the issue of knowledge representation for AI Planning problems, especially those related to Semantic Web Service... Sample PDF
A Visual Programming Tool for Designing Planning Problems for Semantic Web Service Composition
Chapter 16
Jesús M. Almendros-Jiménez
This chapter is devoted to show how to use and specialise UML diagrams for describing the user interfaces of a software system. In order to... Sample PDF
User Interaction and Interface Design with UML
Chapter 17
Alessandro Campi
This Chapter describes a visual framework; called XQBE; that covers the most important aspects of XML data management; spanning the visualization of... Sample PDF
XQBE: a Visual Language for XML Data Management
Chapter 18
Vlasios Voudouris, Stephanie Larissa Marsh
This chapter introduces the relationships among geovisualization, human computer interaction (HCI), geographic information systems (GIS) and... Sample PDF
GeoVisualization and GIS: A Human Centred Approach
Chapter 19
Sabri Skhiri dit Gabouje, Esteban Zimányi
Due to the huge amount of information available in biochemical databases, biologists need sophisticated tools to accurately extract the information... Sample PDF
A New Constraint-Based Compound Graph Layout Algorithm for Drawing Biochemical Networks
Chapter 20
Paul A. Fishwick
Aesthetic computing is defined as the application of art theory and practice toward the field of computing. This chapter introduces Aesthetic... Sample PDF
Customized Visual Computing: The Aesthetic Computing Method
Chapter 21
Eduardo Costa, Alexandre Grings, Marcus Vinicius dos Santos
Many people argue that Visual Programming languages are self-documenting. This article points out that there is no such thing as a self-documenting... Sample PDF
Documentation Methods for Visual Languages
Chapter 22
Questioning Usability  (pages 455-467)
Marco Padula, Amanda Reggiori
This chapter is intended to question what usability is, or should be, in the field of computer science. We focus the design of information systems... Sample PDF
Questioning Usability
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