This chapter investigates the premise that software is culture. It explores this proposition through the lens of peer production, of knowledge-based goods circulating in the electronic space of a digital commons, and the material space of free media labs. Computing history reveals that technological development has typically been infl uenced by external sociopolitical forces. However, with the advent of the Internet and the free software movement, such development is no longer solely shaped by an elite class. Dyne:bolic, Streamtime and the Container Project are three autonomously-managed projects that combine social technologies and cooperative labour with cultural activism. Innovative digital staging platforms enable creative expression by marginalised communities, and assist movements for social change. The author fl ags new social relations and shared social imaginaries generated in the nexus between open code and democratic media. In so doing the author aims to contribute tangible, inspiring examples to the emerging interdisciplinary fi eld of software studies.“Humanity’s capacity to generate new ideas and knowledge is its greatest asset. It is the source of art, science, innovation and economic development. Without it, individuals and societies stagnate. This creative imagination requires access to the ideas, learning and culture of others, past and present” (Boyle, Brindley, Cornish, Correa, Cuplinskas, Deere, et al., 2005)
Key Terms in this Chapter
Free/Libre Open Source software (FLOSS): A convenient acronym for “free libre open source software.” It neatly bundles the revolutionary associations of “free (libré) as in freedom” together with the more technical and neutral connotations of “open source.” The term implicitly acknowledges that differences between the two camps exist, but they are operational in the same field.
Free Software Movement: The philosophical and political context underpinning the creation of free software, and the subjective sense of community shared by developers and users.
Social Technologies: An umbrella term which could include free software, social software, recycled electronic equipment in free media labs, and so on. Technology put to use by the people, for the people.
Digital Commons: A conceptual framework for considering the common wealth of intellectual goods, knowledge products, creative works, free software tools, shared ideas, information, and so on which are freely and democratically shared, and possibly further developed, via the Internet
Open Source Software (OSS): A strategic business-friendly “rebranding” of free software emphasising the practical benefits of the model of participatory software development and open code, and downplaying the original ideological and philosophical positions.
Immaterial Labour: A theoretical framing of knowledge work, labour processes, and social relations in information society, initially articulated by Italian theorists including Maurizio Lazzarato and Christian Marazzi.
Peer Production: A horizontal, distributed method of cooperative, creative labour, generally facilitated by high levels of communication, information, and file sharing via the Internet.
Social Software: The term came out of the nexus between cultural and social activism, art and tactical media, and was originally used to designate software that came into being through an extended dialogue between programmers and communities of users, ensuring that the software was responsive to user needs. The phrase no longer carries the same import, as it is now applied to software-assisted social networking platforms such as MySpace.
Free Software (FS): Software in which the underlying code is available to be inspected, modified, shared, with the proviso that it remains open, even following modification. To ensure it remains open, free software is distributed under the General Public License (GPL) or similar legal agreements.
Complete Chapter List
Kirk St.Amant, Brian Still
Kirk St.Amant, Brian Still
Brian D. Ballentine
Francesca da Rimini
Andrea Bosin, Nicoletta Dessi, Maria Grazia Fugini
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M. Cameron Jones
Karin van den Berg
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Alessandro Nuvolari, Francesco Rullani
Marcus Vinicius Brandão Soares
Beatrice A. Boateng, Kwasi Boateng
Ralf Carbon, Marcus Ciolkowski
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Daniel Poulin, Andrew Mowbray
Kwei-Jay Lin, Yi-Hsuan Lin, Tung-Mei Ko
Stefano Comino, Fabio M. Manenti
Laurence Favier, Joël Mekhantar
R. Todd Stephens
Wouter Stam, Ruben van Wendel de Joode
Christoph Schlueter Langdon, Alexander Hars
Mikko Puhakka, Hannu Jungman, Marko Seppänen
Risto Rajala, Jussi Nissilä
Thomas Tribunella, James Baroody
Jacobus Andries du Preez
Leila Lage Humes
David J. Solomon
Dick B. Simmons, William Lively, Chris Nelson