Solving Semantic Interoperability Conflicts in Cross-Border E-Government Services

Solving Semantic Interoperability Conflicts in Cross-Border E-Government Services

Adrian Mocan (SAP Research CEC, Germany1), Federico M. Facca (University of Innsbruck, Austria), Nikolaos Loutas (University of Macedonia, Greece), Vassilios Peristeras (National University of Ireland, Ireland), Sotirios K. Goudos (Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece) and Konstantinos Tarabanis (University of Macedonia, Greece)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60960-593-3.ch001
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Interoperability is one of the most challenging problems in modern cross-organizational information systems, which rely on heterogeneous information and process models. Interoperability becomes very important for e-Government information systems that support cross-organizational communication especially in a cross-border setting. The main goal in this context is to seamlessly provide integrated services to the user (citizen). In this paper we focus on Pan European e-Services and issues related with their integration. Our analysis uses basic concepts of the generic public service model of the Governance Enterprise Architecture (GEA) and of the Web Service Modeling Ontology (WSMO), to express the semantic description of the e-services. Based on the above, we present a mediation infrastructure capable of resolving semantic interoperability conflicts at a pan-European level. We provide several examples to illustrate both the need to solve such semantic conflicts and the actual solutions we propose.
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The Web has been continuously growing in the past decade and its growth conveyed to wide use of information systems based on modern Web technologies (e.g. Web services). The distributed nature of the Web challenged the ability of communication amongst independent information systems based on different technologies and heterogeneous data models. To achieve this communication, integration efforts are required, which usually trigger various types of problems. These problems are often referred to as interoperability conflicts and significant effort has been spent on finding the silver bullet to solve them. One of the most promising solutions, that opens new opportunities and at the same time new challenges, is the use of semantic technologies (Fensel, D., Lausen, H., Polleres, A., de Bruijn, J., Stollberg, M., Roman, D., & Domingue, J., 2006; Yanosy, J., 2005).

Nowadays, Public Administrations (PA), especially in the European Union context, have to integrate their technological infrastructure and the underlying data models in order to provide high quality national and cross-border services to the European citizens (Tambouris, E., & Tarabanis, K., 2004; Tambouris, E., Manouselis, N., & Costopoulou, C., 2007). The European Union is currently advancing in this direction by supporting the research on solutions for solving interoperability issues among cross-border e-services, through a number of public financed projects. Such projects (e.g. SemanticGov, SEEMP, eGovBus, R4eGov2) have been targeting the so called, Pan-European eGovernment Services (PEGS).

This article presents a mediation infrastructure developed in the context of the SemanticGov3 project. This infrastructure is able to solve PEGS interoperability conflicts based on the conceptual model of the Web Service Modeling Ontology (WSMO) (Fensel, D., et al., 2006) and semantic technologies. The identification of the interoperability conflicts to be addressed is based on a well-known work by Park and Ram (2004). We adopt their framework and instantiate it in the PA domain by using a generic PA service model as proposed by the Governance Enterprise Architecture (GEA).

In particular, we analyze a comprehensive set of semantic interoperability conflicts and we present here the SemanticGov technical solutions to solve them. The technical solutions are based on alignments between heterogeneous data models and ontologies. Additionally, we give an overview of the infrastructure needed to semi-automatically derive these alignments, such as the human user can interactively create and validate mappings and mapping rules by using a graphical interface. Once such alignments are created, they are ready to be used whenever at run-time heterogeneous data has to be exchanged and mediation is required. The novelty of our work lies on the fact that we propose a comprehensive framework for semantic conflicts analysis and resolution applicable in a Pan-European context, which builds on emerging technologies for semantic-driven data mediation.

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Table of Contents
Amit Sheth
Chapter 1
Adrian Mocan, Federico M. Facca, Nikolaos Loutas, Vassilios Peristeras, Sotirios K. Goudos, Konstantinos Tarabanis
Interoperability is one of the most challenging problems in modern cross-organizational information systems, which rely on heterogeneous information... Sample PDF
Solving Semantic Interoperability Conflicts in Cross-Border E-Government Services
Chapter 2
Myunggwon Hwang, Pankoo Kim
This paper deals with research that automatically constructs a lexical dictionary of unknown words as an automatic lexical dictionary expansion. The... Sample PDF
A New Similarity Measure for Automatic Construction of the Unknown Word Lexical Dictionary
Chapter 3
Yan Chen, Yan-Qing Zhang
For most Web searching applications, queries are commonly ambiguous because words usually contain several meanings. Traditional Word Sense... Sample PDF
Extracting Concepts’ Relations and Users’ Preferences for Personalizing Query Disambiguation
Chapter 4
Christian Bizer, Andreas Schultz
The SPARQL Query Language for RDF and the SPARQL Protocol for RDF are implemented by a growing number of storage systems and are used within... Sample PDF
The Berlin SPARQL Benchmark
Chapter 5
Sebastian Hellmann, Jens Lehmann, Sören Auer
The vision of the Semantic Web aims to make use of semantic representations on the largest possible scale - the Web. Large knowledge bases such as... Sample PDF
Learning of OWL Class Expressions on Very Large Knowledge Bases and its Applications
Chapter 6
Aidan Hogan, Andreas Harth, Axel Polleres
In this chapter, the authors discuss the challenges of performing reasoning on large scale RDF datasets from the Web. Using ter-Horst’s pD* fragment... Sample PDF
Scalable Authoritative OWL Reasoning for the Web*
Chapter 7
Luke Albert Steller, Shonali Krishnaswamy, Mohamed Methat Gaber
With the emergence of high-end smart phones/PDAs there is a growing opportunity to enrich mobile/pervasive services with semantic reasoning. This... Sample PDF
Enabling Scalable Semantic Reasoning for Mobile Services
Chapter 8
Christian Bizer, Tom Heath, Tim Berners-Lee
The term “Linked Data” refers to a set of best practices for publishing and connecting structured data on the Web. These best practices have been... Sample PDF
Linked Data: The Story so Far
Chapter 9
Aman Shakya, Hideaki Takeda, Vilas Wuwongse
User-generated content can help the growth of linked data. However, there are a lack of interfaces enabling ordinary people to author linked data.... Sample PDF
Community-driven Consolidated Linked Data
Chapter 10
Gong Cheng, Yuzhong Qu
The rapid development of the data Web is accompanied by increasing information needs from ordinary Web users for searching objects and their... Sample PDF
Searching Linked Objects with Falcons: Approach, Implementation and Evaluation
Chapter 11
Alexandre Passant, Philippe Laublet, John G. Breslin, Stefan Decker
Although tagging is a widely accepted practice on the Social Web, it raises various issues like tags ambiguity and heterogeneity, as well as the... Sample PDF
A URI is Worth a Thousand Tags: From Tagging to Linked Data with MOAT
Chapter 12
Christoph Riedl, Norman May, Jan Finzen, Stephan Stathel, Viktor Kaufman, Helmut Krcmar
Exchanging and analyzing ideas across different software tools and repositories is needed to implement the concepts of open innovation and holistic... Sample PDF
An Idea Ontology for Innovation Management
Chapter 13
Nicola Fanizzi, Claudia d’Amato, Floriana Esposito
The tasks of resource classification and retrieval from knowledge bases in the Semantic Web are the basis for a lot of important applications. In... Sample PDF
Inductive Classification of Semantically Annotated Resources through Reduced Coulomb Energy Networks
Chapter 14
Tuukka Ruotsalo, Eetu Mäkelä
In this paper, the authors compare the performance of corpus-based and structural approaches to determine semantic relatedness in ontologies. A... Sample PDF
A Comparison of Corpus-Based and Structural Methods on Approximation of Semantic Relatedness in Ontologies
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