The term “Geographical Information Systems”, commonly abbreviated to GIS, is an umbrella term covering a class of computer based information systems that are typified by their focus on geographical or spatial data and information. The basic notion underlying a GIS is that every object present on the earth can be “geo-referenced”, which refers to defining the spatial location of objects by referencing systems (e.g. latitude/longitude or postal zones). The key to specific GIS functionality is that GIS allow connection of geo-referenced data to attribute or non-spatial data of geographical objects. In varying ways and to varying degrees GIS facilitate the steps necessary for acquiring both classes of data and turning them into geographical information, including input (e.g. via GPS or scanning of maps), data processing and analysis (e.g. overlay analysis or shortest path calculation) and display (e.g., on maps).