This chapter summarizes the collective work of a team of students who participated in the 2004 International Space University Summer Session Program in Adelaide, Australia. The project is called STREAM, which stands for Space Technologies for the Research of Effective wAter Management. The work represented in this chapter was accomplished as part of the intensive space studies curriculum offered during the summer session. The team project focused on the importance of fresh water resource management and its impact on the surrounding communities. The team explored various space technologies and their current and future potential to enhance water resource management. A real world case study of Australia’s Murray-Darling Basin (MDB) was performed to provide the central focus of the project. Based on the results of the case study, the team then extrapolated their results to other regions of the globe that are experiencing challenges to their fresh water supply. A significant space technology recommendation developed by the STREAM project team was to improve the soil moisture measurement capabilities in the MDB. The primary goal of the STREAM project team is that the recommendations outlined in the extensive final report (STREAM Team, 2004) will receive full attention from policy makers concerned with the water issues surrounding the MDB.