Shopping Cart | Login | Register | Language: English

Spatial Knowledge Communication to Visually Challenged People

Copyright © 2011. 31 pages.
OnDemand Chapter PDF Download
Download link provided immediately after order completion
$30.00
List Price: $37.50
Current Promotions:
20% Online Bookstore Discount*
Available. Instant access upon order completion.
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60960-541-4.ch007|
Cite Chapter

MLA

Patel, Kanubhai K. and Sanjay Kumar Vij. "Spatial Knowledge Communication to Visually Challenged People." Assistive and Augmentive Communication for the Disabled: Intelligent Technologies for Communication, Learning and Teaching. IGI Global, 2011. 193-223. Web. 24 Nov. 2014. doi:10.4018/978-1-60960-541-4.ch007

APA

Patel, K. K., & Vij, S. K. (2011). Spatial Knowledge Communication to Visually Challenged People. In L. Theng (Ed.), Assistive and Augmentive Communication for the Disabled: Intelligent Technologies for Communication, Learning and Teaching (pp. 193-223). Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference. doi:10.4018/978-1-60960-541-4.ch007

Chicago

Patel, Kanubhai K. and Sanjay Kumar Vij. "Spatial Knowledge Communication to Visually Challenged People." In Assistive and Augmentive Communication for the Disabled: Intelligent Technologies for Communication, Learning and Teaching, ed. Lau Bee Theng, 193-223 (2011), accessed November 24, 2014. doi:10.4018/978-1-60960-541-4.ch007

Export Reference

Mendeley
Sample PDF Favorite
Spatial Knowledge Communication to Visually Challenged People
Access on Platform
Browse by Subject
Top

Abstract

A computational model of non-visual spatial learning through virtual learning environment (VLE) is presented in this chapter. The inspiration has come from Landmark-Route-Survey (LRS) theory, the most accepted theory of spatial learning. An attempt has been made to combine the findings and methods from several disciplines including cognitive psychology, behavioral science and computer science (specifically virtual reality (VR) technology). The study of influencing factors on spatial learning and the potential of using cognitive maps in the modeling of spatial learning are described. Motivation to use VLE and its characteristics are also described briefly. Different types of locomotion interface to VLE with their constraints and benefits are discussed briefly. The authors believe that by incorporating perspectives from cognitive and experimental psychology to computer science, this chapter will appeal to a wide range of audience - particularly computer engineers concerned with assistive technologies, professionals interested in virtual environments, including computer engineers, architect, city-planner, cartographer, high-tech artists, and mobility trainers, and psychologists involved in the study of spatial cognition, cognitive behaviour, and human-computer interfaces.
Chapter Preview

Introduction

About 314 million people are visually challenged worldwide; 45 million of them are blind. One out of every three blind people in the world lives in India - that comes to approximately 15 million. The inability to travel independently around and interact with the wider world is one of the most significant handicaps that can be caused by visual impairment or blindness, second only to the inability to communicate through reading and writing. The difficulties in the mobility of visually challenged people in new or unfamiliar locations are caused by the fact that spatial information is not fully available to them as against it being available to sighted people. Visually challenged people are thus handicapped to gather this crucial information, which leads to great difficulties in generating efficient cognitive maps of spaces and, therefore, in navigating efficiently within new or unfamiliar spaces. Consequently, many blind people become passive, depending on others for assistance. More than 30% of the blind do not ambulate independently outdoors (Clark-Carter, Heyes & Howarth, 1986; Lahav & Mioduser, 2003).

This constraint can be overcome by communicating spatial knowledge of the surroundings and thereby providing some means to generate cognitive mapping of spaces and of the possible paths for navigating through these spaces virtually, which are essential for the development of efficient orientation and mobility skills. It is obvious that reasonable number of repeated visits to the new space leads to formation of its cognitive map subconsciously. Thus, a good number of researchers focused on using technology to simulate visits to a new space for building cognitive maps. It need not be emphasized that the strength and efficiency of cognitive map building process is directly proportional to the closeness between the simulated and real-life environments. However, most of the simulated environments reported by earlier researchers don’t fully represent reality. The challenge, therefore, is to enhance and enrich simulated environment so as to create a near real-life experience.

The fundamental goal of developing virtual learning environment for visually challenged people is to complement or replace sight by another modality. The visual information therefore needs to be simplified and transformed so as to allow its rendition through alternate sensory channels, usually auditory, haptic, or auditory-haptic. One of the methods to enhance and enrich simulated environment is to use virtual reality along with advanced technologies such as computer haptics, brain-computer interface (BCI), speech processing and sonification. Such technologies can be used to provide learning environment to visually challenged people to create cognitive maps of unfamiliar areas. We aim to present various research studies including ours for communicating spatial knowledge to visually challenged people and evaluating it through virtual learning environment (VLE), and thereby enhancing spatial behaviour in real environment. This chapter proposes taxonomy of spatial learning and addresses the potential of virtual learning environment as a tool for studying spatial behaviour of visually challenged people and thereby enhancing their capabilities to interact in a spatial environment in real life. It would be useful to understand as to how they learn and acquire basic spatial knowledge in terms of landmarks and configuration of spatial layout and also how navigation tasks are improvised. Understanding the use of such knowledge to externalize and measure virtually perceived cognitive maps is also important.

Following questions are addressed in this chapter:

  • Does virtual learning environment (VLE) contribute to communicate the spatial knowledge and thereby the formation of a cognitive map of a novel space?

  • Which are the major factors that influence the spatial knowledge communication to visually challenged people through VLE?

  • Which are the factors that mediate for enhancement of the navigation performance of visually challenged people?

  • Is learning via VLE more effective, accurate, interesting, and enjoyable than learning via conventional methods?

  • How is the effectiveness of cognitive maps measured?

  • Can we consider trajectory of subjects as cognitive map?

  • Does the type of locomotion interface impinge on accuracy of spatial learning?

  • Is navigating through treadmill-style locomotion interface less disruptive than navigating via conventional devices?

Top

Complete Chapter List

Search this Book: Reset
Table of Contents
Preface
Lau Bee Theng
Chapter 1
Vivi Mandasari, Marlene Valerie Lu, Lau Bee Theng
Asperger Syndrome is a developmental disorder under the umbrella term of Autism Spectrum Disorders, and it is a milder variant of autism. It is... Sample PDF
2D Animated Social Story for Assisting Social Skills Learning of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
$30.00
List Price: $37.50
Chapter 2
Georgios A. Dafoulas, Noha Saleeb
The significance of newly emergent 3D virtual worlds to different genres of users is currently a controversial subject in deliberation. Users range... Sample PDF
3D Assistive Technologies and Advantageous Themes for Collaboration and Blended Learning of Users with Disabilities
$30.00
List Price: $37.50
Chapter 3
Ong Chin Ann, Marlene Valerie Lu, Lau Bee Theng
The main purpose of this research is to enhance the communication of the disabled community. The authors of this chapter propose an enhanced... Sample PDF
A Face Based Real Time Communication for Physically and Speech Disabled People
$30.00
List Price: $37.50
Chapter 4
Tee Zhi Heng, Ang Li Minn, Seng Kah Phooi
This chapter presents a novel application for wireless technology to assist visually impaired people. As an alternative to the medical model of... Sample PDF
A Novel Application of Information Communication Technology to Assist Visually Impaired People
$30.00
List Price: $37.50
Chapter 5
Nia Valeria, Marlene Valerie Lu, Lau Bee Theng
Communication through speech is a vital skill, an innate ability in most human beings intended to convey thoughts, needs, and it is the very... Sample PDF
Collaborative Virtual Learning for Assisting Children with Cerebral Palsy
$30.00
List Price: $37.50
Chapter 6
Lau Sian Lun, Klaus David
Technology can be used to assist people with disabilities in their daily activities. Especially when the users have communication deficiencies... Sample PDF
Enabling Context Aware Services in the Area of AAC
$30.00
List Price: $37.50
Chapter 7
Kanubhai K. Patel, Sanjay Kumar Vij
A computational model of non-visual spatial learning through virtual learning environment (VLE) is presented in this chapter. The inspiration has... Sample PDF
Spatial Knowledge Communication to Visually Challenged People
$30.00
List Price: $37.50
Chapter 8
Jacey-Lynn Minoi, Duncan Gillies
The aim of this chapter is to identify those face areas containing high facial expression information, which may be useful for facial expression... Sample PDF
Statistical Analysis of Facial Expression on 3D Face Shapes
$30.00
List Price: $37.50
Chapter 9
Jonathan Bishop
E-learning systems generally rely on good visual and cognitive abilities, making them suitable for individuals with good levels of intelligence in... Sample PDF
The Role of Augmented E-Learning Systems for Enhancing Pro-Social Behaviour in Socially Impaired Individuals
$30.00
List Price: $37.50
Chapter 10
Xiaoxin Xu, Mingguang Wu, Bin Sun, Jianwei Zhang, Cheng Ding
Advances in embedded computing systems have resulted in the emergence of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), which provide unique opportunities for... Sample PDF
The Outdoor Wireless Healthcare Monitoring System for Hospital Patients Based on ZigBee
$30.00
List Price: $37.50
Complete Book
$170.00 - $255.00
InfoSci-OnDemand Powered Search
Full-text search over 75,600 research articles and chapters.
More Education
Titles
Related TitlesView all Education
search results