W. Brett McKenzie (Roger Williams University, USA)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-59904-881-9.ch124

## Abstract

The spreadsheet and the personal computer are intrinsically bound. In the early 1980s, the spreadsheet was the first “killer app”—the software application that drove people to buy a personal computer. While specialized computers for word processing were replacing typewriters and database software captured the computing power of mainframes, the spreadsheet allowed managers to track, analyze, and model decisions, especially financial decisions, using a tool with low barriers to entry on an affordable computer.

## Key Terms in this Chapter

Text: Cell entries that include text and numeric identifiers such as a Social Security Number.

3D Reference: A cell reference that includes a cell located on another spreadsheet.

Value: A numeric entry that has a value and may be used in a mathematical expression.

Function: A complex formula built into a spreadsheet and referenced by a name, such as AVG for an average function to calculate the average of a range

Range: An area of cells specified by the upper left and lower right cells.

Relative Reference: A reference to a cell that is relative to the selected cell. This reference changes if the cell is copied.

Cell Reference: The means of addressing a cell, usually by its column, a letter designation, followed by a numeral, its row designation. For example, B2 is the cell at the second column and second row

Cell: The intersection of a row and column in a spreadsheet.

Formula: A cell entry that contains a mathematical expression which may contain cell references or constants.

Spreadsheet: A multi-dimensional, addressable, ordered array of cells whose contents may be text, values, formulas, or functions, which is able to display and store data and evaluate expressions

Absolute Reference: A reference to a cell that is a fixed location.

## Complete Chapter List

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Acknowledgment
Chapter 1
Moti Frank
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Victor C. X. Wang
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Lorna Uden, Griff Richards, Dragan Gaševic
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Robert Fitzgerald
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Michelle Zuckerman-Parker
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Mark van ‘t Hooft, Graham Brown-Martin, Karen Swan
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Mark van ‘t Hooft, Yimei Lin, Candace Chou, Chi-Syan Lin
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Karen R. Juneau
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Yukiko Inoue
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Kosmas Vlachos, Sofia Papaefthimiou-Lytra
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Henry H. Emurian
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Mary Sue Cicciarelli
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Blogs  (pages 81-92)
Mary Hricko
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Blended Learning  (pages 85-87)
Kathleen P. King
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Chapter 15
Gary B. Peters
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Chapter 16
Victor C. X. Wang
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Chapter 17
Cognitive Informatics  (pages 104-111)
Yingxu Wang
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Chapter 18
Mary Sue Cicciarelli
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Chapter 19
Combating Computer Fraud  (pages 118-123)
Steve Brown
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Chapter 20
Communities of Practice  (pages 124-130)
Susan Gebhard
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Computer-Based Assessment  (pages 131-137)
S. Manjit Sidhu
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Chapter 22
Bernhard Ertl
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Chapter 23
Yefim Kats
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Mabel C.P.O. Okojie, Tinukwa C. Okojie-Boulder, James Boulder
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Marsha Grace, Susan Elwood, Mary Beth Tierce
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Chapter 26
Cyber Charter Schools  (pages 162-166)
Shellie Hipsky
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Chapter 27
Richard Peterson
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Chapter 28
Data Mining Software  (pages 173-178)
John Wang, Qiyang Chen, James Yao
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Chapter 29
Data Warehouse Software  (pages 179-184)
Huanyu Ouyang, John Wang
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Chapter 30
W. Brett McKenzie
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Chapter 31
Decision Support Software  (pages 191-196)
John Wang, Huanyu Ouyang, Chandana Chakraborty
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Chapter 32
Decision Support Systems  (pages 197-202)
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Chapter 33
Decision Trees  (pages 203-208)
John Wang, Dajin Wang
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Chapter 34
Shuyan Wang
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Chapter 35
Shellie Hipsky
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Chapter 36
Eleanor J. Flanigan
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Chapter 37
Digital Literacy Research  (pages 228-234)
David M. Kennedy
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Chapter 38
Vivian H. Wright
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Chapter 39
Discussion Groups  (pages 238-242)
Victor C. X. Wang
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Chapter 40
Victor C. X. Wang
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Chapter 41
Victor C. X. Wang
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Chapter 42
Victor C. X. Wang
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Chapter 43
Richard Peterson
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Chapter 44
Taralynn Hartsell
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Educational Geotrekking  (pages 269-274)
Tim Pelton, Leslee Francis Pelton
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Chapter 46
Amy B. Crawshaw
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Chapter 47
Susan A. Elwood
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Chapter 48
Ergonomics  (pages 286-291)
Kathleen P. King
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Chapter 49
Elaine Studnicki
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Mabel C.P.O. Okojie, Tinukwa C. Okojie-Boulder, James Boulder
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John Wang, Ruben Xing, James Yao
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Experience-Based Learning  (pages 308-315)
Brian H. Cameron
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Expert Systems  (pages 316-322)
Chuleeporn Changchit
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Chapter 54
Hong Lin
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Chapter 55
David C. Ensminger
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Chapter 56
Lawrence A. Tomei
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Victor C. X. Wang
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Chapter 58
Mary Hricko
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Chapter 59
Maria H.Z. Kish
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Chapter 60
Gary B. Peters
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Chapter 61
John Wang, James Yao
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Chapter 62
Mary Sue Cicciarelli
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Chapter 63
Kathy Blashki, Sophie Nichol
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Chapter 64
Impact of Technology  (pages 389-394)
Daniel W. Surry
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Chapter 65
Sherry Y. Chen
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Chapter 66
Heshium Lawrence
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Chapter 67
Carmel McNaught
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Chapter 68
Daniel W. Surry
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Chapter 69
George Pate, Jianxia Du
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Chapter 70
Bettina Staudinger, Herwig Ostermann, Roland Staudinger
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Jaideep Motwani, Asli Yagmur Akbulut
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Chapter 72
Jaideep Motwani, Asli Yagmur Akbulut
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Chapter 73
Michelle L. Fry, David C. Ensminger
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Chapter 74
Intellectual Property  (pages 449-454)
Kathleen P. King
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Chapter 75
Interactive Multimedia  (pages 455-462)
S. Manjit Sidhu
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Chapter 76
Melissa B. Holler
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Chapter 77
Edward W. McKaveney
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Chapter 78
Henry H. Emurian, Malissa Marie Carroll
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Harrison Yang
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Chapter 80
Steve Brown
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Chapter 81
K-A-RPE Model  (pages 493-497)
Lawrence A. Tomei
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Colleen English
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Learning Activities Model  (pages 503-510)
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Shuyan Wang, Hongbo Song
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Chapter 85
Alex Stone
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Chapter 86
Sharon Cox
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Chapter 87
Karen R. Juneau
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Chapter 88
Learning With Laptops  (pages 541-549)
Ian Kennedy, Lorna Uden
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Chapter 89
Local Area Networks  (pages 550-558)
Raymond A. Hansen, Phillip T. Rawles
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Chapter 90
Maslow in the Digital Age  (pages 559-566)
Karen R. Juneau, Mary Jane Barmettler
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Chapter 91
Mechanics Dynamics  (pages 567-573)
S. Manjit Sidhu
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Chapter 92
Mental Models  (pages 574-579)
Daniel Churchill
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Chapter 93
Mobile Learning  (pages 580-586)
Steve Chi-Yin Yuen, Patrivan K. Yuen
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Chapter 94
Oskar Staudinger, Bettina Staudinger, Herwig Ostermann, Martin Grabenwöger, Bernhard Tilg
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Tinukwa Okojie-Boulder, James M. Boulder, Mabel C.P.O. Okojie
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Multiple Intelligences  (pages 609-615)
Junko Yamamoto
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Net Generation  (pages 616-619)
Mary Hricko
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Chapter 98
Netiquette  (pages 620-626)
Taralynn Hartsell
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Neural Informatics  (pages 627-633)
Yingxu Wang
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Chapter 100
No Child Left Behind  (pages 634-640)
Junko Yamamoto
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Chapter 101
Pamela M. Golubski
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Chapter 102
Online Course Settings  (pages 648-654)
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Chapter 103
Lucas Walsh
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Chapter 104
Online Discussion Groups  (pages 664-669)
Steven D’Agustino
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Chapter 105
Hongbo Song, Shuyan Wang
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Chapter 106
Riu Hu, Shuyan Wang
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Chapter 107
Taralynn Hartsell
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Chapter 108
John Wang, Xiaohua Hu, Dan Zhu
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Chapter 109
Kevin Carmody, Zane Berge
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Chapter 110
S. Manjit Sidhu
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Chapter 111
Shellie Hipsky
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Chapter 112
Vivian H. Wright
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Chapter 113
Podcasts  (pages 721-727)
Kathleen P. King, Steven D’Agustino
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Chapter 114
Eugenia M.W. NG
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Chapter 115
Karen R. Juneau
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Chapter 116
Bernhard Ertl, Heinz Mandl
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Chapter 117
Juha Kettunen, Mauri Kantola
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Chapter 118
Carmen de Pablos
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Chapter 119
Alke Martens
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Chapter 120
Situated Learning  (pages 771-774)
Susan Gebhard
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Chapter 121
Pankaj Kamthan
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Chapter 122
Alke Martens, Andreas Harrer
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Chapter 123
Software Evaluation  (pages 789-792)
Elaine Studnicki
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Chapter 124
W. Brett McKenzie
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Chapter 125
Spyware  (pages 799-802)
Jon Beedle
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Chapter 126
Lisa Byrnes, Stephanie J. Etter
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Chapter 127
Shellie Hipsky
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Chapter 129
Hassan Qudrat-Ullah
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Chapter 130
Diego Liberati
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Chapter 131
Taxonomies for Technology  (pages 833-838)
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Chapter 132
Janet E. Salmons
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Chapter 133
Steve Chi-Yin Yuen, Patrivan K. Yuen
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Chapter 134
Lawrence A. Tomei
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Chapter 136
Mary McCord, Larry Michaelsen
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Chapter 137
S. Manjit Sidhu
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Chapter 138
Technology in the Cities  (pages 881-887)
Susan A. Elwood, Marsha Grace, Claudia Lichtenberger
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Chapter 139
David A. Banks
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Chapter 140
Deborah A. Scigliano
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Chapter 141
Thinkquest  (pages 902-903)
Kathleen P. King
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Chapter 142
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Chapter 143
Transformative Learning  (pages 913-917)
Victor C.X. Wang
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Chapter 144
Steve Brown
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Chapter 145
Terry T. Kidd
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Chapter 146
Karen R. Juneau
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Chapter 147
Melissa B. Holler
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Chapter 148
Susan Gebhard
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Chapter 149
Web Logs  (pages 951-956)
David W. Walker
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Chapter 150
Harrison Yang
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Chapter 151
Taralynn Hartsell, Karen R. Juneau
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Chapter 152
Wide Area Networks  (pages 971-978)
Raymond A. Hansen, Phillip T. Rawles
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Chapter 153
Wireless  (pages 979-982)
Jon Beedle
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Chapter 154
Wireless Computer Labs  (pages 983-989)
Lawrence A. Tomei
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