Integrating information communication technologies (ICTs) and marketing in strategic management of city government is critical to achieving stakeholder satisfaction and economic development. As a result of the rapid growth in computer networks and access to online services, the use of ICTs, for example, Internet and Intranet, as a communication and marketing platform can provide a city with a global advantage. City marketing focuses on promoting the attributes of a location to prospective stakeholders so that these individuals, businesses, and investors are attracted to visit, locate, or invest in the city. A causal model is presented where ICT is used to not only to deliver services to internal stakeholders, but also to market a city to external stakeholders. To be successful, managers need to be skilled in current technologies and marketing practices. Case study applications are discussed as well as the questions to address in future research to most effectively integrate ICTs and marketing in city management.
Performance Management And A City Strategic Group Map
Over the last decade, developments in performance measurement have signaled the need for organizations to monitor performance dimensions that go beyond traditional financial measures to include measuring and improving those factors that ultimately impact financial performance such as stakeholder satisfaction. In 1992, Kaplan and Norton introduced the balanced scorecard as an overall framework for establishing a performance measurement system that predicts financial results. They provided a framework for capturing metrics at the executive level based on four categories: (1) customer satisfaction, (2) financial performance, (3) internal processes and (4) employee innovation and growth. In brief, nonfinancial measures provided the balance needed to supplement financial measures and align employees with strategy. Although many of the balanced scorecard applications are in industry, the City of Charlotte, North Carolina applied the concepts to city management and developed a city scorecard (Syfert & Elliot, 1998 ; Eagle, 2004).