Supporting Learners' Appropriation of a Web-Based Learning Curriculum

Supporting Learners' Appropriation of a Web-Based Learning Curriculum

Dorothée Rasseneur-Coffinet (LIUM - Université du Mans, France), Georgia Smyrniou (University of Puerto Rico, USA) and Pierre Tchounikine (LIUM - Université du Mans, France)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-342-5.ch021
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Abstract

This article presents an approach and tools that can help learners appropriate a Web-based learning curriculum and become active participants in their learning. The approach is based on a detailed modeling of the curriculum and intends to equip the learners with different computer-based tools facilitating a multiple point of view perception of the curriculum, while promoting self evaluation and self regulation of the learners’ curriculum performance. The proposed architecture is generic and can be used in the context of an already existing Web-based learning system. We define what we call “appropriation,” describe our approach, present different tools that have been implemented, and present the findings from the first experiments.
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Introduction

Learners utilizing Web-based learning curricula, distance learners in particular, often face problems related to the curriculum (i.e., the components of the curriculum and how these components are related one to the other) and how the curriculum corresponds with their personal wills and objectives. This problem, that we will call the “appropriation problem,” is closely connected to autonomy and motivation issues.

It is well known, even from educational research that focuses on the early school years, that the student’s participation in his learning process in terms of motivation and independent learning (Wang & Han, 2001) is very important. Independent learning involves student’s meta-learning (meta-control) in a framework of goal driven learning (Ram & Leak, 1994). Meta-learning from an educational pragmatic point of view occurs with a student’s self-reflection and self-evaluation of his own performance in relation to his goals, to the other students’ performance, and to the tutor’s evaluation of his performance. Meta-learning also continues after reflection/evaluation and encompasses the regulation phase. In the regulation phase, self-regulatory mechanisms are set up to change behavior taking into consideration cognitive and affective factors as well as environmental factors, such as group dynamics, class structure and interaction with the tutor (Pajares, 2002).

The transition of the meta-control of the learning process from the tutor to the learner has been discussed for a long time. Some researchers have found that the transfer from traditional guided learning to an autonomous learning is not easy for teachers or students (Grow, 1991). A major difficulty for the learners to become autonomous is setting goals and making plans for their learning (Kelly, 2002). According to Sinista (2000), technologies are able to make it smoother by arranging intelligent support for learning-related activities. Examining the issue of technology integration into traditional education from the tutor’s and students’ perspectives, researchers Anand & Zaimi (2000) mention that being accustomed to extensive tutor guidance can make learners feel abused when they are thrown into a self-directed activity all of a sudden, and the tutors then become unable to fulfill their goal to create independent learners. The researchers tried to involve their learners into an evaluation of Web-based learning materials by asking them their opinions and suggestions. This involvement affected the attitude of the students, made them collaborative and opened the door of independent learning for many of them. In addition, Forcheri et al. (2000) identified three steps in the transition using technology: a need, identification of an objective, and a strategy for attaining the goal. Sinista (2000) mentions that during the learning process, apart from the typical learning activities that are necessary for the learner to acquire knowledge, he (the learner) also performs control, evaluation and monitoring functions. She calls these activities meta-learning activities and proceeds to elaborate on them in detail. For Fischer (Fischer et al., 1993; Sumner et al., 1997) such types of reflection are difficult and a human coach/teacher or a design critic can help the learner to identify the breakdown situation (these breakdowns can happen due to missing knowledge, misunderstandings about the consequences of actions, wrong self-efficacies or any reason that hinders the learner from attaining his goal) and prompt the learner to reflect. Fischer in his work chooses the computational critic to provide some of this support when humans are not present.

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Associate Editors
Table of Contents
Preface
Mahbubur Rahman Syed
Acknowledgment
Mahbubur Rahman Syed
Chapter 1
Hiroshi Takeda, Hisashi Yaginuma, Hajime Kiyohara, Akira Tokuyasu, Masami Iwatsuki, Norio Takeuchi, Hisato Kobayashi, Kazuo Yana
This article describes a new automatic digital content generation system we have developed. Recently some universities, including Hosei University... Sample PDF
Automatic Digital Content Generation System for Real-Time Distance Lectures
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Chapter 2
Filomena Ferrucci, Giuseppe Scanniello, Genoveffa Tortora
In this chapter the authors present E-World, an e-learning platform able to manage and trace adaptive learning processes which are designed and... Sample PDF
E-World: A Platform for the Management of Adaptive E-Learning Processes
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Chapter 3
Judy C.R. Tseng, Wen-Ling Tsai, Gwo-Jen Hwang, Po-Han Wu
In developing traditional learning materials, quality is the key issue to be considered. However, for high technical e-training courses, not only... Sample PDF
An Efficient and Effective Approach to Developing Engineering E-Training Courses
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Chapter 4
Te-Hua Wang, Flora Chia-I Chang
The sharable content object reference model (SCORM) includes a representation of distance learning contents and a behavior definition of how users... Sample PDF
A SCORM Compliant Courseware Authoring Tool for Supporting Pervasive Learning
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Chapter 5
WenYing Guo
Selecting appropriate learning services for a learner from a large number of heterogeneous knowledge sources is a complex and challenging task. This... Sample PDF
An Ontology-Based e-Learning Scenario
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Chapter 6
Dan Phung, Giuseppe Valetto, Gail E. Kaiser, Tiecheng Liu, John R. Kender
The increasing popularity of online courses has highlighted the need for collaborative learning tools for student groups. In this article, we... Sample PDF
Adaptive Synchronization of Semantically Compressed Instructional Videos for Collaborative Distance Learning
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Chapter 7
Jing Chen, Qing Li, Ling Feng
The abundance of knowledge-rich information on the World Wide Web makes compiling an online etextbook both possible and necessary. In our previous... Sample PDF
Refining the Results of Automatic e-Textbook Construction by Clustering
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Chapter 8
Yueting Zhuang, Xiafen Zhang, Weiming Lu, Fei Wu
Chinese brush calligraphy is a valuable civilization legacy and a high art of scholarship. It is still popular in Chinese banners, newspaper... Sample PDF
Chinese Brush Calligraphy Character Retrieval and Learning
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Chapter 9
William K. Cheung, Anders I. Mørch, Kelvin C. Wong, Cynthia Lee, Jiming Liu, Mason H. Lam
In this article we investigate the use of latent semantic analysis (LSA), critiquing systems, and knowledge building to support computer-based... Sample PDF
Grounding Collaborative Learning in Semantics-Based Critiquing
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Chapter 10
Giuliana Dettori, Paola Forcheri, Maria Grazia Ierardi
Learning Objects (LOs) are increasingly considered potentially helpful to improve teachers’ work and to spread innovation in the school system.... Sample PDF
Improving the Usefulness of Learning Objects by Means of Pedagogy-Oriented Design
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Chapter 11
Frederick W.B. Li, Rynson W.H. Lau, Taku Komura, Meng Wang, Becky Siu
Human motion animation has been one of the major research topics in the field of computer graphics for decades. Techniques developed in this area... Sample PDF
Adaptive Animation of Human Motion for E-Learning Applications
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Chapter 12
Gennaro Costagliola, Vittorio Fuccella
On-Line Testing is that sector of e-learning aimed at assessing learner’s knowledge through e-learning means. In on-line testing, due to the... Sample PDF
eWorkbook: An On-Line Testing System with Test Visualization Functionalities
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Chapter 13
Brian Stewart, Derek Briton, Mike Gismondi, Bob Heller, Dietmar Kennepohl, Rory McGreal, Christine Nelson
Athabasca University—Canada’s Open University evaluated learning management systems (LMS) for use by the university. Evaluative criteria were... Sample PDF
Choosing MOODLE: An Evaluation of Learning Management Systems at Athabasca
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Chapter 14
Damien Clark, Penny Baillie-de Byl
Computer aided assessment is a common approach used by educational institutions. The benefits range into the design of teaching, learning, and... Sample PDF
Enhancing the IMS QTI to Better Support Computer Assisted Marking
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Chapter 15
Ali Dashti, Maytham Safar
Distance education created new challenges regarding the delivery of large size isochronous continuous streaming media (SM) objects. In this paper... Sample PDF
Streaming of Continuous Media for Distance Education Systems
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Chapter 16
Manjulika Srivastava, Venugopal Reddy
The question why some learners successfully study through distance mode and others do not is increasingly becoming important as open and distance... Sample PDF
How Did They Study at a Distance? Experiences of IGNOU Graduates
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Chapter 17
Gwo-Jen Hwang, Ting-Ting Wu, Yen-Jung Chen
The prosperous development of wireless communication and sensor technologies has attracted the attention of researchers from both computer and... Sample PDF
Ubiquitous Computing Technologies in Education
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Chapter 18
S. Grunwald, B. Hoover, G.L. Bruland
In this chapter the authors describe the implementation of an emerging virtual learning environment to teach GIS and spatial sciences to distance... Sample PDF
An eLearning Portal to Teach Geographic Information Sciences
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Chapter 19
Maria Manuela Cunha, Goran D. Putnik
Individualised open and distance learning at the university continuing education and post-graduate education levels is a central issue of today. The... Sample PDF
A Changed Economy with Unchanged Universities? A Contribution to the University of the Future
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Chapter 20
Richard Y.D. Xu, Jesse S. Jin
This article presents a schematic application of computer vision technologies to e-learning that is synchronous, peer-to-peer-based, and supports an... Sample PDF
Rationale, Design and Implementation of a Computer Vision-Based Interactive E-Learning System
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Chapter 21
Dorothée Rasseneur-Coffinet, Georgia Smyrniou, Pierre Tchounikine
This article presents an approach and tools that can help learners appropriate a Web-based learning curriculum and become active participants in... Sample PDF
Supporting Learners' Appropriation of a Web-Based Learning Curriculum
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Chapter 22
Gwo-Jen Hwang, Hsiang Cheng, Carol H.C. Chu, Judy C.R. Tseng, Gwo-Haur Hwang
In the past decades, English learning has received lots of attention all over the world, especially for those who are not native English speakers.... Sample PDF
Development of a Web-Based System for Diagnosing Student Learning Problems on English Tenses
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Chapter 23
Chi-Syan Lin, C. Candace Chou, Ming-Shiou Kuo
The paper outlines a new paradigm and its underlying rationales for implementing networked learning environments that is emerging from new... Sample PDF
Inhabited Virtual Learning Worlds and Impacts on Learning Behaviors in Young School Learners
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Chapter 24
Rory McGreal, Terry Anderson
Any view of e-learning in Canada must be informed by the uniquely Canadian feature of provincial jurisdiction over education. Therefore any... Sample PDF
Research and Practice of E-Learning in Canada 2008
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About the Contributors