Taxonomies for Technology

Taxonomies for Technology

Richard Caladine (University of Wollongong, Australia)
Copyright: © 2008 |Pages: 6
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-59904-881-9.ch131
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Today there is a range of technologies available to those who design learning events, from the old and simple to the new and complex. Key attempts have been made to develop theoretical frameworks of learning technologies and have been reported in the literature of higher education, human resource development, and instructional design. These three fields are not discrete and some overlap occurs. For example, commentators in the field of instructional design state that their designs are provided for learning in many contexts including schools, higher education, organizations, and government (Gagné, Briggs, & Wager, 1992; Reigeluth, 1983). In many cases the theoretical frameworks are intended to guide the selection of learning technologies but often the conceptualizations have not kept pace with technological change.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Learning Management System (aka Virtual Learning Environment, Course Management System and Managed learning Environment): A Web-based system for the implementation, assessment, and tracking of learners through learning events.

Instructional Design: The process of is concerned with the planning, design, development, implementation, and evaluation of instructional activities or events and the purpose of the discipline is to build knowledge about the steps for the development of instruction.

Representational Technology: A one-way technology that supports interaction with the material.

Online Learning: Flexible or distance learning containing a component that is access via the World Wide Web.

Categorization: Grouping according to the role played.

Learning Event: A session of structured learning such as classes, subjects, courses, and training programs.

Learning: An umbrella term to include training, development, and education, where training is learning that pertains to the job, development is learning for the growth of the individual that is not related to a specific job, and education is learning to prepare the individual but not related to a specific job.

Learning Activities: The things learners and facilitators do, within learning events, that are intended to bring about the desired learning outcomes.

Human Resource Development: Intentional learning in organizations. Can include training and development.

Facilitator (aka facilitator of learning): The person who has prime responsibility for the facilitation of the learning, rather than terms such as “teacher,” “trainer,” or “developer.”

Asynchronous: Not necessarily occurring at the same time. In asynchronous electronic communications it is reasonable to expect that all communicating parties are not at or near their computer or communications technology. E-mail is an asynchronous technology.

Synchronous: Occurring at the same time. In synchronous electronic communications, it is reasonable to expect that all communicating parties are at or near their computer or communications technology. Telephone is a synchronous technology.

Education: A structured program of intentional learning from an institution.

Learning Technologies: Technologies that are used in the process of learning to provide material to learners, to allow learners to interact with it, and/or to host dialogues between learners and between learners and facilitators.

Higher Education: Intentional learning in universities and colleges.

Distance Learning (aka Distance Education): Education in which learners are geographically separated from facilitators.

Taxonomy: A hierarchical structure within which related items are organized, classified, or categorized, thus illustrating the relationships between them.

Clas sification: Grouping according to similar or like characteristics.

Flexible Learning: An approach to learning in which the time, place, and pace of learning may be determined by learners. In this chapter this term is used to include the approaches taken by distance learning and open learning.

Interaction: Reciprocal between humans and between a human and an object including a computer or other electronic device that allows a two-way flow of information between it and a user responding immediately to the latter’s input.

Complete Chapter List

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Contents by Topic
Chapter 1
Moti Frank
This chapter discusses active learning and its implementation for teaching. Although active learning is a general term in education, the focus of... Sample PDF
Active Learning and Its Implementation for Teaching
Chapter 2
Victor C. X. Wang
Learning does not take place in a vacuum. Learning takes place in any type of environment, including online. The purpose of this article is neither... Sample PDF
Active Learning Online
Chapter 3
Lorna Uden, Griff Richards, Dragan Gaševic
As can be seen, successful integration of technology into the classrooms depends on many factors. How do we study the effectiveness of technology... Sample PDF
Activity Theory for Studying Technology Integration in Education
Chapter 4
Robert Fitzgerald
In the 21st century, learning and Internet-based technologies are becoming increasingly interwoven. For a growing proportion of children in the... Sample PDF
Advancing Professional Learning With Collaborative Technologies
Chapter 5
Michelle Zuckerman-Parker
More than 30 years ago, Malcolm Knowles defined andragogy as the art and science of helping adults learn. The essence of this principle is based on... Sample PDF
Andragogy and Technology
Chapter 6
Mark van ‘t Hooft, Graham Brown-Martin, Karen Swan
In a world that is increasingly mobile and connected, the nature of information resources is changing. The new information is networked, unlimited... Sample PDF
Anywhere, Anytime Learning Using Highly Mobile Devices
Chapter 7
Mark van ‘t Hooft, Yimei Lin, Candace Chou, Chi-Syan Lin
Web-based learning environments have become an integral part of both traditional face-to-face and online education (Bonk & Graham, 2006; Moore... Sample PDF
APEC Cyber Academy: An International Networked Learning Environment
Chapter 8
Karen R. Juneau
Like a phoenix rising from the ashes, every decade brings a renewed call for the importance of teaching critical thinking. Across the disciplines... Sample PDF
Applying Critical Thinking Skills on the World Wide Web
Chapter 9
Yukiko Inoue
Census 2000 figures indicate that more than 19% of the U.S. population aged five and older are people with disabilities (Goddard, 2004). Technology... Sample PDF
Assistive Technology for Individuals with Disabilities
Chapter 10
Kosmas Vlachos, Sofia Papaefthimiou-Lytra
Computer assisted language learning (CALL) has been at the forefront of foreign language education since the early 1980s. More recently researchers’... Sample PDF
Asynchronous Online Networking: Cross Cultural Collaboration and the Learning of Foreign Languages
Chapter 11
Henry H. Emurian
Acquiring skill in computer programming is acknowledged to be valuable for information science students (Forgionne, 1991). Educators in the... Sample PDF
Behavior Analysis and ICT Education: Teaching Java with Programmed Instruction and Interteaching
Chapter 12
Mary Sue Cicciarelli
Behaviorism comes from one of three schools of psychology in which theories are categorized. The other two schools are the schools of cognitivism... Sample PDF
Behavioral Theories that Guide Online Course Design
Chapter 13
Blogs  (pages 81-92)
Mary Hricko
A blog (shortened version of Weblog) is an online journal usually displayed on a Web site that contains entries listed in reverse chronological... Sample PDF
Chapter 14
Blended Learning  (pages 85-87)
Kathleen P. King
Blended learning goes by several names, the other major one being hybrids. What is meant by these various terms is that more than one delivery... Sample PDF
Blended Learning
Chapter 15
Gary B. Peters
There is a new pedagogy in which college professors use computer information technology as a means to enhance effective collaboration. The World... Sample PDF
Chat As New Pedagogy: The Emerging Communities of Learners in Higher Education
Chapter 16
Victor C. X. Wang
Today the global education community has become the buzz term in the realm of education and training. Learners in every location around the globe... Sample PDF
Classroom Without Borders
Chapter 17
Cognitive Informatics  (pages 104-111)
Yingxu Wang
Cognitive informatics (CI) is an emerging discipline that studies the natural intelligence and internal information processing mechanisms of the... Sample PDF
Cognitive Informatics
Chapter 18
Mary Sue Cicciarelli
Cognitivism comes from one of three schools of psychology in which theories are categorized. The other two schools are the schools of behaviorism... Sample PDF
Cognitive Theories that Guide Online Course Design
Chapter 19
Combating Computer Fraud  (pages 118-123)
Steve Brown
Money is to be made with computer fraud. While this statement seems to be shocking, it is nonetheless a very real indication of the seriousness of... Sample PDF
Combating Computer Fraud
Chapter 20
Communities of Practice  (pages 124-130)
Susan Gebhard
Basic social-learning theory presupposes that students and instructors function within community; they share common context, goals, and expectations... Sample PDF
Communities of Practice
Chapter 21
Computer-Based Assessment  (pages 131-137)
S. Manjit Sidhu
Computer-based assessment (CBA) is gaining popularity in higher learning institutions to replace traditional written tests with computerized... Sample PDF
Computer-Based Assessment
Chapter 22
Bernhard Ertl
There are many ways in which information technology (IT) can be integrated into the curriculum. IT can, for example, enable access to learning... Sample PDF
Computer Supported Collaborative Learning Scenarios: And External Representations for Promoting Them
Chapter 23
Yefim Kats
The recent truly revolutionary changes in information technology triggered the rapid proliferation of educational software supporting introductory... Sample PDF
Computer Technologies in Logic Education
Chapter 24
Mabel C.P.O. Okojie, Tinukwa C. Okojie-Boulder, James Boulder
Constructivists believe that knowledge can emerge as learners construct meaning from information they receive and from their participation in the... Sample PDF
Constructivist Learning Framework and Technological Application
Chapter 25
Marsha Grace, Susan Elwood, Mary Beth Tierce
Imagine that you do not have access to your Blackberry, your cell phone, digital camera, laptop, or the World Wide Web. Imagine that this level of... Sample PDF
Critical Literacy and Technology: An Essential Intersection for Our Nation's Schools
Chapter 26
Cyber Charter Schools  (pages 162-166)
Shellie Hipsky
Cyber charter schools often have as their motto a version of the slogan “any pace, any place, any time.” This is because cyber charter schools offer... Sample PDF
Cyber Charter Schools
Chapter 27
Richard Peterson
Data mining is the process of extracting previously unknown information from large databases or data warehouses and using it to make crucial... Sample PDF
Data Mining: Payoffs and Pitfalls
Chapter 28
Data Mining Software  (pages 173-178)
John Wang, Qiyang Chen, James Yao
Many organizations now view information as one of their most valuable assets, and data mining software allows a company to make full use of these... Sample PDF
Data Mining Software
Chapter 29
Data Warehouse Software  (pages 179-184)
Huanyu Ouyang, John Wang
A data warehouse (DW) is a complete intelligent data storage and information delivery or distribution solution enabling users to customize the flow... Sample PDF
Data Warehouse Software
Chapter 30
W. Brett McKenzie
“Big ideas” drive the disciplines. In biology, the insights of Darwin generated evolutionary theory. In chemistry, Mendeleev’s vision of the... Sample PDF
Database in Computing Systems
Chapter 31
Decision Support Software  (pages 191-196)
John Wang, Huanyu Ouyang, Chandana Chakraborty
Throughout the years many have argued about different definitions for DSS; however they have all agreed that in order to succeed in the... Sample PDF
Decision Support Software
Chapter 32
Decision Support Systems  (pages 197-202)
John Wang, David J. Radosevich
Over the four decades of its history, decision support systems (DSSs) have moved from a radical movement that changed the way information systems... Sample PDF
Decision Support Systems
Chapter 33
Decision Trees  (pages 203-208)
John Wang, Dajin Wang
Decision trees are part of the decision theory and are excellent tools in the decision-making process. Majority of decision tree learning methods... Sample PDF
Decision Trees
Chapter 34
Shuyan Wang
As an effective visual communication tool, desktop publishing is used in every area such as general publications and graphics, multichapter... Sample PDF
Desktop Publishing in Education
Chapter 35
Shellie Hipsky
The variety of students’ needs and backgrounds in classrooms include students with special needs, gifted, and typical students who have grown up in... Sample PDF
Differentiated Instruction and Technology
Chapter 36
Eleanor J. Flanigan
Many people are oblivious of the structured paths that lead them from one level of knowledge or one career path to another. Unless they are... Sample PDF
Digital Business Portfolios: Categories, Content, and Production
Chapter 37
Digital Literacy Research  (pages 228-234)
David M. Kennedy
The 21st century has created an environment where the very meaning of the expression “to be literate” has come to mean much more than it did in the... Sample PDF
Digital Literacy Research
Chapter 38
Vivian H. Wright
In teacher education programs, there is a consistent need to locate and to recommend to teacher educators, teacher candidates, and in-service... Sample PDF
Digital Storytelling in Teacher Education
Chapter 39
Discussion Groups  (pages 238-242)
Victor C. X. Wang
Quality in distance education has been researchers’and critics’ major concern. The increase in access to digital and online technologies represents... Sample PDF
Discussion Groups
Chapter 40
Victor C. X. Wang
The father of adult education, Malcolm Knowles (1913-1997), predicted in the 1970s that teaching, especiallythe teaching of adults in the 21st... Sample PDF
Distance Education And Learning Style
Chapter 41
Victor C. X. Wang
Time and space no longer separate learners from their instructors. The emergence of distance-learning technologies, especially the Internet and... Sample PDF
Distance Learning Essentials
Chapter 42
Victor C. X. Wang
As Rhoda (2005) notes, “advances in technology have transformed the way in which the academy offers its curricula” (p. 149). Further, the... Sample PDF
Distance Learning Specialists
Chapter 43
Richard Peterson
Electronic commerce (e-commerce) refers generally to all forms of buying, selling, transforing, exchanging products, services, or information over... Sample PDF
E-Commerce Models and Consumer Concerns
Chapter 44
Taralynn Hartsell
In education, providing access to instructional materials and resources is important for any type of learning to occur. If students do not have... Sample PDF
Educational Accessibility to Technology
Chapter 45
Educational Geotrekking  (pages 269-274)
Tim Pelton, Leslee Francis Pelton
Geocaching is a civilized treasure-hunting activity enjoyed by hundreds of thousands of people all over the world. Geotrekking takes geocaching to... Sample PDF
Educational Geotrekking
Chapter 46
Amy B. Crawshaw
One of the most underutilized technologies available to the school systems of this nation is the e-book. Although the technology has been available... Sample PDF
Electronic Textbook Technology in the Classroom
Chapter 47
Susan A. Elwood
Since the onset of technology as a tool in our personal and professional lives, we’ve progressed through at least two waves or stages of computing.... Sample PDF
Embedding Ubiquitous Technologies
Chapter 48
Ergonomics  (pages 286-291)
Kathleen P. King
With the many and vast advances of technology across generations and societies, the need to determine the best ways to align and use the human body... Sample PDF
Chapter 49
Elaine Studnicki
In a matter of seconds, a person using the Web will make a decision. Do I stay on this Web site or click to another? There are many reasons for this... Sample PDF
Evaluating Online Resources
Chapter 50
Mabel C.P.O. Okojie, Tinukwa C. Okojie-Boulder, James Boulder
Decades ago, instructional evaluation has in most cases focused on the objectives of the lesson, methods of delivering instruction, and outcome... Sample PDF
Evaluating Technology-Based Instruction (TBI)
Chapter 51
John Wang, Ruben Xing, James Yao
An executive information system (EIS) is a computerbased system that serves the information needs of top executives. Also known as executive support... Sample PDF
Executive Information Systems
Chapter 52
Experience-Based Learning  (pages 308-315)
Brian H. Cameron
The College of Information Sciences and Technology practices an applied approach to learning. This approach entails hands-on activities supported by... Sample PDF
Experience-Based Learning
Chapter 53
Expert Systems  (pages 316-322)
Chuleeporn Changchit
While technology and human abilities have evolved over the years, individuals still have limitations in their abilities to accomplish certain tasks.... Sample PDF
Expert Systems
Chapter 54
Hong Lin
Agent-oriented design has become one of the most active areas in the field of software engineering. The agent concept provides a focal point for... Sample PDF
Exploiting Agent Technology
Chapter 55
David C. Ensminger
The use of instructional technology is not new. During WWII, films were used as instructional media to train new recruits. The use of film as an... Sample PDF
Facilitating Technology Integration
Chapter 56
Lawrence A. Tomei
Copyright is a form of protection provided by the laws of the United States (title 17, U.S. Code) to the authors of “original works of authorship”... Sample PDF
Fair Use and the Digital Age
Chapter 57
Victor C. X. Wang
Humans have different interpretations of learning theories and different beliefs about how people learn. All these beliefs may come from personal... Sample PDF
Fundamentals of Learning Theories
Chapter 58
Mary Hricko
Robert Mills Gagne (1916-2002) was an American educator, experimental psychologist, and theorist, whose research led to the development of learning... Sample PDF
Gagne's Nine Events of Instruction
Chapter 59
Maria H.Z. Kish
Adults learning about digital imagery or digital imaging software to create and manipulate images for personal and professional purposes is... Sample PDF
Generative Learning Model to Teach Adult Learners Digital Imagery
Chapter 60
Gary B. Peters
When we collaborate, there is an interaction between two or more individuals who are working together to achieve a particular goal. “Teachers who... Sample PDF
Group Collaboration in Education
Chapter 61
John Wang, James Yao
Group decision support systems (GDSSs) which aim at increasing some of the benefits of collaboration and reducing the inherent losses are... Sample PDF
Group Decision Support Systems
Chapter 62
Mary Sue Cicciarelli
Humanism comes from one of three schools of psychology in which theories are categorized. The other two schools are the schools of behaviorism and... Sample PDF
Humanistic Theories that Guide Online Course Design
Chapter 63
Kathy Blashki, Sophie Nichol
This article explores an application of immersive learning theory in an Australian secondary school. The emphasis in this study is on the... Sample PDF
Immersive Learning Theory: As a Design Tool in Creating Purpose-Built Learning Environments
Chapter 64
Impact of Technology  (pages 389-394)
Daniel W. Surry
Technology plays a critical role in modern society. Everyone is touched by the power of technology in some way, large or small, good or bad, every... Sample PDF
Impact of Technology
Chapter 65
Sherry Y. Chen
As the Web becomes as an important means to disseminate information, a growing number of education settings are developing Web-based learning (WBL).... Sample PDF
Individual Differences in Web-Based Learning
Chapter 66
Heshium Lawrence
Interpersonal relationships and communication are always developed in a specific cultural context that has its own values, norms, and even... Sample PDF
Industrial Technology Pedagogy: Need for Human Relations Skills
Chapter 67
Carmel McNaught
Information literacy is a key capability for the 21st century. The distinction between information and knowledge is central to understanding the... Sample PDF
Information Literacy in the 21st Century
Chapter 68
Daniel W. Surry
New products and ideas are continually being developed and introduced into the workplace. A cursory observation of any field, for example, medicine... Sample PDF
Innovations in Learning Technology
Chapter 69
George Pate, Jianxia Du
Because of the growing number of older adults per total population, discussion has grown regarding the cognitive learning needs of older adults. In... Sample PDF
Instructional Design: Considering the Cognitive Learning Needs of Older Adults
Chapter 70
Bettina Staudinger, Herwig Ostermann, Roland Staudinger
The field of nursing is presently subject to keen changes and these processes of change are determined by different variables. On the one hand... Sample PDF
Integrated Curricula in Nursing Education
Chapter 71
Jaideep Motwani, Asli Yagmur Akbulut
Citizens around the globe are demanding better services and more responsiveness from their local, state, and national governments. Governments are... Sample PDF
Integrating E-Government into the Business Curriculum
Chapter 72
Jaideep Motwani, Asli Yagmur Akbulut
In today’s dynamic business environment; customer needs, competition, globalization, and technology have combined to produce a powerful effect on... Sample PDF
Integrating ERP into the Curriculum
Chapter 73
Michelle L. Fry, David C. Ensminger
At the end of the twentieth century, the Library of Congress (LOC) began archival digitization of its holdings in order to share its rich... Sample PDF
Integration of Digital Primary Sources
Chapter 74
Intellectual Property  (pages 449-454)
Kathleen P. King
The study and generation of knowledge is a fundamental focus of education. With changing technologies, digital publication, and information access... Sample PDF
Intellectual Property
Chapter 75
Interactive Multimedia  (pages 455-462)
S. Manjit Sidhu
Media is a Latin word used to describe ways to convey information. Media can be related to newspapers, magazines, radio, television, audio-video... Sample PDF
Interactive Multimedia
Chapter 76
Melissa B. Holler
The foundation for much of the technology being used in today’s classroom is the Microsoft Office suite. It is fast becoming the integrated software... Sample PDF
Interactive Power Point Lesson
Chapter 77
Edward W. McKaveney
The convergence of once disparate voice, video, and data telecommunication technologies and the increasing adoption and cost effective availability... Sample PDF
Interactive Videoconferencing
Chapter 78
Henry H. Emurian, Malissa Marie Carroll
This article presents the design of an undergraduate course that focused on how the Internet1 may be used as a medium for discovering information... Sample PDF
Internet Citizenship: Course Design and Delivery Using ICT
Chapter 79
Harrison Yang
A field trip is typically a group excursion to a place away from their normal environment for performing firsthand research on a topic. Field trips... Sample PDF
Internet Field Trip: Conception and Development
Chapter 80
Steve Brown
Forensics is the application of sciences that help to seek out, examine, and answer questions about certain characteristics. For example, forensic... Sample PDF
Investigating Computer Forensics
Chapter 81
K-A-RPE Model  (pages 493-497)
Lawrence A. Tomei
The phenomenon of distance-based learning has dramatically changed the direction and delivery of education in the past decade. Course Web sites... Sample PDF
K-A-RPE Model
Chapter 82
Colleen English
Over the past two decades typewriting has transformed into keyboarding. Twenty years ago students were taking typewriting classes in high school. No... Sample PDF
Keyboarding and When to Teach It!
Chapter 83
Learning Activities Model  (pages 503-510)
Richard Caladine
The design of learning is probably more accurately described as the design of learning activities as it is the activities that are designable... Sample PDF
Learning Activities Model
Chapter 84
Shuyan Wang, Hongbo Song
A community is socially organized around relationships as a result of seeking a common ground that builds upon “community by kinship, of mind, of... Sample PDF
Learning Community and Networked Learning Community
Chapter 85
Alex Stone
Imagine a vast repository of digital materials that includes an unlimited supply of instructional videos, interactive multimedia exercises, links to... Sample PDF
Learning Object Based Instruction
Chapter 86
Sharon Cox
Research into the learning styles and preferences of students is well established but is currently the subject of renewed interest driven by a... Sample PDF
Learning Styles in Online Environments
Chapter 87
Karen R. Juneau
Educating through purpose is the foundation of several methods that use projects to organize instruction. Although these methods are quite similar... Sample PDF
Learning Through Projects: Comonalities Among the Project Method, Project Based Instruction and the Project Approach
Chapter 88
Learning With Laptops  (pages 541-549)
Ian Kennedy, Lorna Uden
Rogoff (1994) believes that technology can act as a catalyst influencing change from a traditional classroom to an environment of community of... Sample PDF
Learning With Laptops
Chapter 89
Local Area Networks  (pages 550-558)
Raymond A. Hansen, Phillip T. Rawles
Local area networks (LAN) are extremely popular in both the consumer and enterprise markets. The LAN has become ubiquitous throughout both of these... Sample PDF
Local Area Networks
Chapter 90
Maslow in the Digital Age  (pages 559-566)
Karen R. Juneau, Mary Jane Barmettler
The works of few individuals have impacted such a large variety of fields as the work of Abraham Maslow. His work describing human motivation in... Sample PDF
Maslow in the Digital Age
Chapter 91
Mechanics Dynamics  (pages 567-573)
S. Manjit Sidhu
The use of PCs in the educational sector has changed the learning environment of higher learning institutions and learning styles (the way... Sample PDF
Mechanics Dynamics
Chapter 92
Mental Models  (pages 574-579)
Daniel Churchill
It is widely assumed that mental models are internal representations. Humans are capable of constructing these models when required by demands of an... Sample PDF
Mental Models
Chapter 93
Mobile Learning  (pages 580-586)
Steve Chi-Yin Yuen, Patrivan K. Yuen
The mobile revolution is finally here. The evidence of mobile penetration and adoption is irrefutable: smartphones, personal digital assistants... Sample PDF
Mobile Learning
Chapter 94
Oskar Staudinger, Bettina Staudinger, Herwig Ostermann, Martin Grabenwöger, Bernhard Tilg
The development of models for risk stratification in cardiac surgery goes back a number of years. In 1989, the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS)... Sample PDF
Model Based Decision Making in Cardiac Surgery
Chapter 95
Tinukwa Okojie-Boulder, James M. Boulder, Mabel C.P.O. Okojie
The article includes a description of the foundation of multicultural education and a delineation of the concept and its processes. It will also... Sample PDF
Multicultural Education and Technology Integration
Chapter 96
Multiple Intelligences  (pages 609-615)
Junko Yamamoto
The multidimensional approach to education has existed for quite a long time. For instance, educators in the early and mid-19th Century, such as... Sample PDF
Multiple Intelligences
Chapter 97
Net Generation  (pages 616-619)
Mary Hricko
The Net Generation refers to the description given to young Americans born from 1976 to 2001. Although the individuals of the Net Generation (or Net... Sample PDF
Net Generation
Chapter 98
Netiquette  (pages 620-626)
Taralynn Hartsell
Forming relationships on the Internet through various means of communication is a growing trend in cyberspace. The Internet is a medium that allows... Sample PDF
Chapter 99
Neural Informatics  (pages 627-633)
Yingxu Wang
The development of classical and contemporary informatics, the cross fertilization between computer science, systems science, cybernetics... Sample PDF
Neural Informatics
Chapter 100
No Child Left Behind  (pages 634-640)
Junko Yamamoto
The Federal Government passed the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) in 1965 to enable the federal government to finance public schools... Sample PDF
No Child Left Behind
Chapter 101
Online Academic Advising  (pages 641-647)
Pamela M. Golubski
With the vast majority of higher education institutions now being populated with millennial students and distance learners, it is necessary to... Sample PDF
Online Academic Advising
Chapter 102
Online Course Settings  (pages 648-654)
Jianxia Du, James Adams
Over the past decade, distance education has changed the dynamics of the traditional learning environment. According to the U.S. Department of... Sample PDF
Online Course Settings
Chapter 103
Lucas Walsh
The development of online curriculum provides an opportunity to rethink traditional workflows and approaches to curriculum mapping. An XML-based... Sample PDF
Online Curriculum Development
Chapter 104
Online Discussion Groups  (pages 664-669)
Steven D’Agustino
An online discussion forum is an environment on the World Wide Web for holding discussions, or the Web application software used to enable these... Sample PDF
Online Discussion Groups
Chapter 105
Hongbo Song, Shuyan Wang
Human beings are social creatures who habitually communicate with each other and share among themselves. Human interaction is the interchange of... Sample PDF
Online Interaction and Threaded Discussion
Chapter 106
Riu Hu, Shuyan Wang
Online learning, which was defined as a learning environment using computer communication systems for learning delivery and interaction (Harasim... Sample PDF
Online Learning Environments
Chapter 107
Taralynn Hartsell
Mentorship between new and experienced education professionals is a laborious task. Senior educators assume the responsibility of teaching rules... Sample PDF
Online Mentoring in Education
Chapter 108
John Wang, Xiaohua Hu, Dan Zhu
A data warehouse (or smaller-scale data mart) is a specially prepared repository of data created to support decision making. Data are extracted from... Sample PDF
Organizational Data Warehousing
Chapter 109
Kevin Carmody, Zane Berge
Lack of personalization and individualized attention are common issues facing distance education designers and instructors. This is a particularly... Sample PDF
Pedagogical Agents in Online Learning
Chapter 110
S. Manjit Sidhu
Student in today’s undergraduate level classrooms often display widely varying characteristics that extremely affect learning outcome. Although... Sample PDF
Pedagogical Characteristics Affecting Student Learning
Chapter 111
Shellie Hipsky
Jean Piaget (1896-1980) was a Swiss psychologist whose cognitive-developmental theory left a lasting impression on how child development is viewed.... Sample PDF
Piaget's Developmental Stages
Chapter 112
Vivian H. Wright
Recent news reports ranging from national network broadcasts to traditional academic research journals have reported on the growth and ease of... Sample PDF
Plagiarism and the Classroom: The Faculty Role in Awareness and Education
Chapter 113
Podcasts  (pages 721-727)
Kathleen P. King, Steven D’Agustino
“The Voice of the People,” “Democratization of the Media,” and “Radio on Demand,” are some of the titles podcasting has earned since emerging on the... Sample PDF
Chapter 114
Eugenia M.W. NG
Cooperative learning means students working together to accomplish shared learning goals and to maximize their own and their group members’... Sample PDF
Promoting Cooperative Learning for Preservice Teachers Through Information Technology
Chapter 115
Karen R. Juneau
The concept of the “digital divide” refers to perceived differences in opportunity and achievement caused by economic and social disparities that... Sample PDF
Reexamining the Digital Divide: Aesthetic Choice and Tech-Nos
Chapter 116
Bernhard Ertl, Heinz Mandl
Many distance learning scenarios, for example, virtual seminars, use collaborative arrangements for learning. By applying them, they offer learners... Sample PDF
Scripts for Facilitating Computer Supported Collaborative Learning
Chapter 117
Juha Kettunen, Mauri Kantola
The purpose of this article is to present the framework of the SOA to analyse the service structure in the networked and virtual working... Sample PDF
Service-Oriented Architecture in Higher Education
Chapter 118
Carmen de Pablos
Diverse institutions of education have paid special attention to the way they can profit from the use of Webbased shared networks in the last years.... Sample PDF
Shared Networks in Technology Education
Chapter 119
Alke Martens
Simulation has always been about learning. For being able to simulate something, a model of a system must be developed. Thus, the perspective of... Sample PDF
Simulation in Teaching and Training
Chapter 120
Situated Learning  (pages 771-774)
Susan Gebhard
In his work, The Advancement of Learning (1605), Sir Francis Bacon observed, “Man seeketh in society comfort, use, and protection.” Humans have... Sample PDF
Situated Learning
Chapter 121
Pankaj Kamthan
In this article, we explore the prospects and concerns of integrating information technologies (IT) in software engineering education (SEE), both... Sample PDF
Software Engineering Education
Chapter 122
Alke Martens, Andreas Harrer
Regarding the role of software engineering in the development of different types of e-learning systems, a traditional situation is contrasted with a... Sample PDF
Software Engineering in e-Learning Systems
Chapter 123
Software Evaluation  (pages 789-792)
Elaine Studnicki
Evaluating software is an important component in the process of choosing technology for learning and instruction. The saying goes that you can not... Sample PDF
Software Evaluation
Chapter 124
Spreadsheets  (pages 793-798)
W. Brett McKenzie
The spreadsheet and the personal computer are intrinsically bound. In the early 1980s, the spreadsheet was the first “killer app”—the software... Sample PDF
Chapter 125
Spyware  (pages 799-802)
Jon Beedle
Spyware is a software program that runs silently in the background draining valuable computer system resources while monitoring the user’s... Sample PDF
Chapter 126
Lisa Byrnes, Stephanie J. Etter
The importance of a student’s involvement in learning is well documented and well known. It is easy to sum up research related to active learning by... Sample PDF
Student Response Systems for Active Learning
Chapter 127
Shellie Hipsky
America’s schools are required to meet all federal laws and regulations for special education including the Individuals with Disabilities Education... Sample PDF
Students with Disabilities and Technology
Chapter 128
Moti Frank
This paper discusses the organizational and pedagogical aspects, benefits, and disadvantages of synchronous and asynchronous technologies as... Sample PDF
Synchronous and Asynchronous Learning Environments
Chapter 129
Hassan Qudrat-Ullah
Managing a public sector organization is a highly complex task involving multiple stakeholders coupled with informational and resource material... Sample PDF
System Dynamics Based Learning Environments
Chapter 130
Diego Liberati
System Theory is a powerful paradigm to deal with abstract models of real processes in such a way to be accurate enough to capture the salient... Sample PDF
System Theory: From Classical State Space to Variable Selection and Model Identification
Chapter 131
Taxonomies for Technology  (pages 833-838)
Richard Caladine
Today there is a range of technologies available to those who design learning events, from the old and simple to the new and complex. Key attempts... Sample PDF
Taxonomies for Technology
Chapter 132
Janet E. Salmons
The Taxonomy of Collaborative E-learning offers a new conceptual framework for understanding levels of collaboration. This framework can be used to... Sample PDF
Taxonomy of Collaborative E-Learning
Chapter 133
Steve Chi-Yin Yuen, Patrivan K. Yuen
Personal digital assistants (PDAs) are small handheld devices initially designed for use as personal organizers. They can store documents... Sample PDF
Teaching and Learning with Personal Digital Assistants
Chapter 134
Lawrence A. Tomei
Since the introduction of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001, education in the United States has, in the words of President Bush, been seen... Sample PDF
Technology and Student Achievement
Chapter 135
Tara Rubeo
In the current standards-driven academic environment, success is most often measured by student achievement on state and national assessments with... Sample PDF
Technology and the Standards-Based Mathematics Classroom
Chapter 136
Mary McCord, Larry Michaelsen
Educators face an increasingly difficult task in preparing students for today’s information technology and/or information systems (IT/IS) jobs. The... Sample PDF
Technology Assignments Using Team-Based Learning
Chapter 137
S. Manjit Sidhu
Teaching conceptual and qualitative material effectively while leveraging the contents efficiently has been an elusive goal for many computer-aided... Sample PDF
Technology Assisted Problem Solving
Chapter 138
Technology in the Cities  (pages 881-887)
Susan A. Elwood, Marsha Grace, Claudia Lichtenberger
We are making progressive advances towards Weiser’s vision. Technologies are already being embedded into our environment. Smart floors can sense... Sample PDF
Technology in the Cities
Chapter 139
David A. Banks
Collaborative learning is an activity that takes place between a teacher and a learner, between learner and learner, and sometimes, one would hope... Sample PDF
Technology Support for Collaborative Learning
Chapter 140
Deborah A. Scigliano
The practice of online mentoring, known as telementoring, provides a powerful tool to facilitate meaningful learning. It is based upon the... Sample PDF
Telementoring: Mentoring Beyond the Constraints of Time and Space
Chapter 141
Thinkquest  (pages 902-903)
Kathleen P. King
Thinkquest is a worldwide competition funded by the Oracle Foundation that focuses student efforts on project-based learning. Each year students... Sample PDF
Chapter 142
Sharon Cox, Andy Hollyhead
As technology becomes increasingly pervasive, its role in shaping the context of learning continues to evolve. This requires lecturers to reconsider... Sample PDF
Towards a Dimensional Model of the Stages of Online Learning
Chapter 143
Transformative Learning  (pages 913-917)
Victor C.X. Wang
Mention of transformative learning immediately reminds scholars and learners of its chief proponent, Jack Mezirow, who is Emeritus Professor of... Sample PDF
Transformative Learning
Chapter 144
Steve Brown
During the last several years a great deal has been written in academic and trade journals that has focused on security. There are several different... Sample PDF
Understanding Computer Security
Chapter 145
Terry T. Kidd
The introduction of microcomputers into classrooms during the 1980s was heralded by many as the dawn of a new era in American education. Proponents... Sample PDF
The Use of Technology in Urban Populations
Chapter 146
Karen R. Juneau
The need for effective assessments has been recognized since the earliest days of public education. Student testing provides rationales and support... Sample PDF
Varieties of Authentic Assessment
Chapter 147
Melissa B. Holler
Perhaps for the first time since the computer made its debut, the teacher is in the position to command the technology-based instructional resources... Sample PDF
Virtual Tour: A Web-Based Model of Instruction
Chapter 148
Susan Gebhard
Thinkers throughout history have surmised that humans exist most fully in communion with others. Learners mimic or model, read or reflect, and... Sample PDF
Vygotsky and the Zone of Proximal Development
Chapter 149
Web Logs  (pages 951-956)
David W. Walker
A Web log, more commonly known as a blog, is a publication on the Internet. Blogs have been credited with allowing people to develop online... Sample PDF
Web Logs
Chapter 150
Harrison Yang
Traditionally, a bibliography is regarded as a list of printed resources (books, articles, reports, etc.) on a given subject or topic for further... Sample PDF
Webliography: Conception and Development
Chapter 151
Taralynn Hartsell, Karen R. Juneau
The Internet has a vast array of information resources that educators and students can access when studying a particular topic. There are millions... Sample PDF
Webquest: Learning Through Discovery
Chapter 152
Wide Area Networks  (pages 971-978)
Raymond A. Hansen, Phillip T. Rawles
When network services must be distributed over large geographic areas, it is essential to have an understanding of the telecommunication systems on... Sample PDF
Wide Area Networks
Chapter 153
Wireless  (pages 979-982)
Jon Beedle
Many people in higher education have been computing for years, including faculty, staff, and students. Everyone has expectations of what they want... Sample PDF
Chapter 154
Wireless Computer Labs  (pages 983-989)
Lawrence A. Tomei
In February 2000, three seemingly unrelated events came together to present a unique challenge at one mid-Atlantic university—a challenge that is... Sample PDF
Wireless Computer Labs
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