Technologies for Monitoring Human Player Activity Within a Competition

Technologies for Monitoring Human Player Activity Within a Competition

Brendan Burkett (University of the Sunshine Coast, Australia)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-406-4.ch004
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Monitoring of player activity within a competition is currently a reality within some high performance sporting teams, and the demand and level of sophistication for this information will continue to grow as players and coaches seek this knowledge. This new found scientific wisdom can guide the training and preparation of the athlete, with the aim of improving performance and reducing the likelihood of injuries. To date this information has been collected manually, which is time consuming and expensive. The challenges are to validate the accuracy of these systems and once this criterion is satisfied to expedite the analysis process to enable as close to real time feedback as possible. Outside of the coach and player arena there is growing demand from the other associated parties, such as the host broadcast media, referees and the spectator, all of whom are seeking new knowledge on “what is happening” during the play.
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Most of the world’s professional and high performance sporting teams employ video and/or performance analysts to assist coaches with technical and tactical match analysis. The performance analysis packages currently in use range from simple statistical databases to high-end programs that incorporate video and extensive quantitative and qualitative analyses. Sport is now a professional pursuit and with this many changes have occurred. The amateur traditions where the local school teacher, also doubled as the star player have been replaced with competitive teams forced to continually explore all possible avenues to improve their game and obtain a competitive advantage over their rivals. No longer is it good enough to just employ the best players and coaching staff, teams are looking for that edge in other sectors. One interesting field of innovation is the use of technology from existing disciplines and modifying this to enable monitoring of player activity within a competition, this is known as player tracking. The information that can be obtained from player tracking systems are extensive, in particular key components of the sports performance can be objectively measured. These include the technical and tactical game data such as a spatiotemporal breakdown, distance covered by each player, velocity profile, work-to-rest ratios, and the proportion of time spent in other game related activities. With the continuous developments in technology and the evolution of sport specific user interfaces, sporting teams will be able to make immediate adjustments to their playing strategies to provide them with this competitive edge.

Presently the collection and subsequent analysis of sports performance data has required a high degree of human labour. For example, to code an 80 minute rugby match requires over 100 man hours and the input of between six and ten analysts. The time and human resources required is directly related to the amount of detail necessary for the coach and player - for example to code or track the number of times a player passed to their left versus their right, how many carries an individual had with the ball, number of times the ball was kicked from a certain place versus passed, number of missed tackles by each player, success rate of a particular move, etc… will all take extensive time to code and track. From this information more delayed descriptions of player activity can be quantified in areas such as the movement patterns, distances travelled, and velocity zones of each player in the game. Currently there is very little, if any, of this essential data available, however armed with this detailed information on actions performed by their team, as well as the opposition, the coaches would be able to react and make tactical changes. This could include adjustments to the team’s strategy on the field, instruction to specifically focus and improve in certain aspects of the game, as well as instruction to target identified weaknesses in the opposing team. The ability to make these changes in real time or delayed time is dependent on the hardware, software, and the level of detail required for the coach. There are several other sectors who have an interest in knowing “what is happening” during the game, these end-viewers such as the media and the spectator who enjoys watching the game, are driving the commercial aspect of player tracking technology and the need to develop a system as close to real time as possible.

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Editorial Advisory Board
Table of Contents
Graham Cuskelly
Nigel Pope, Kerri-Ann L. Kuhn, John J.H. Forster
Chapter 1
John J.H. Forster
One of the major forces shaping modern sport is the application of digital technology. This is transforming the mass consumption, distribution... Sample PDF
Digital Technologies and the Intensification of Economic and Organisational Mechanisms in Commercial Sport
Chapter 2
Sean Reilly, Peter Barron, Vinny Cahill, Kieran Moran, Mads Haahr
The area of computer-augmented sports is large and complex and spans several disciplines. This chapter presents a general-purpose taxonomy of... Sample PDF
A General-Purpose Taxonomy of Computer-Augmented Sports Systems
Chapter 3
Veljko Potkonjak, Miomir Vukobratovic, Kalman Babkovic, Branislav Borovac
This chapter relates biomechanics to robotics. The mathematical models are derived to cover the kinematics and dynamics of virtually any motion of a... Sample PDF
Dynamics and Simulation of General Human and Humanoid Motion in Sports
Chapter 4
Brendan Burkett
Monitoring of player activity within a competition is currently a reality within some high performance sporting teams, and the demand and level of... Sample PDF
Technologies for Monitoring Human Player Activity Within a Competition
Chapter 5
Chee Kwang Quah, Michael Koh, Alex Ong, Hock Soon Seah, Andre Gagalowicz
Through the advancement of electronics technologies, human motion analysis applications span many domains. Existing commercially available magnetic... Sample PDF
Video-Based Motion Capture for Measuring Human Movement
Chapter 6
Amin Ahmadi, David D. Rowlands, Daniel A. James
Tennis is a popular game played and viewed by millions of people around the world. There is a large impetus for players to improve their game and... Sample PDF
Technology to Monitor and Enhance the Performance of a Tennis Player
Chapter 7
Daniel A. James, Andrew Busch, Yuji Ohgi
The testing and monitoring of elite athletes in their natural training and performance environment is a relatively new area of development that has... Sample PDF
Quantitative Assessment of Physical Activity Using Inertial Sensors
Chapter 8
Volker Wulf, Florian ‘Floyd’ Mueller, Eckehard F. Moritz, Gunnar Stevens, Martin R. Gibbs
Augmenting existing sports experiences with computing technology is increasingly gaining attention due to its potential for performance enhancement.... Sample PDF
Computer Supported Collaborative Sports: An Emerging Paradigm
Chapter 9
Florian ‘Floyd’ Mueller
Recent advances in computing technology have contributed to a new trend that merges digital gaming with physical sports activities and combines the... Sample PDF
Digital Sport: Merging Gaming with Sports to Enhance Physical Activities Such as Jogging
Chapter 10
Lauren Silberman
Just at the moment when gaming has achieved broad cultural acceptance, a new way of using commercial sport video games is emerging, which adds a new... Sample PDF
Double Play: How Video Games Mediate Physical Performance for Elite Athletes
Chapter 11
Donald P. Roy, Benjamin D. Goss
The explosion of fantasy sports and the dearth of research about it create a need for investigation in this relatively new form of sport... Sample PDF
A League of Our Own: Empowerment of Sport Consumers Through Fantasy Sports Participation
Chapter 12
Jean-Pierre Dussault, Michael Greenspan, Jean-François Landry, Will Leckie, Marc Godard, Joseph Lam
We introduce pool and its variants, and describe the challenges of computationally simulating the game to create a robot capable of selecting and... Sample PDF
Computational and Robotic Pool
Chapter 13
Scott Bingley, Stephen Burgess
Sport plays a major part in the Australian psyche with millions of people participating every year. However organised sport at the local or social... Sample PDF
A Framework for the Adoption of the Internet in Local Sporting Bodies: A Local Sporting Association Example
Chapter 14
Anthony K. Kerr
Globalisation and advances in communications technology have greatly expanded the potential marketplace for professional teams, especially for those... Sample PDF
Online Questionnaires and Interviews as a Successful Tool to Explore Foreign Sports Fandom
Chapter 15
Gaoqi He, Zhigeng Pan, Weimin Pan, Jianfeng Liu
Virtual reality and the Olympic Games Museum are used to create a virtual digital Olympic museum (VDOM). This is available solely through the medium... Sample PDF
Virtual Digital Olympic Museum
Chapter 16
Kerri-Ann L. Kuhn
A multi-billion dollar industry, electronic games have been experiencing strong and rapid growth in recent times. The world of games is not only... Sample PDF
The Market Structure and Characteristics of Electronic Games
Chapter 17
Beth A. Cianfrone, James J. Zhang
This chapter introduces the new and unique sport promotional format of sport video game sponsorships and in-game advertising. Information on the... Sample PDF
Sport Video Game Sponsorships and In-Game Advertising
Chapter 18
Mark Lee, Rajendra Mulye, Constantino Stavros
This chapter reports a recent research study involving a sports video game which sought to provide an overview on the use of in-game advertising... Sample PDF
In-Game Advertising: Effectiveness and Consumer Attitudes
Chapter 19
Monica D. Hernandez, Sindy Chapa
The authors’ study examined factors affecting Mexican adolescent’s memory of brand placements contained in advergames. Specifically, two concerns... Sample PDF
The Effect of Arousal on Adolescent's Short-Term Memory of Brand Placements in Sports Advergames
Chapter 20
Ellen L. Bloxsome, Nigel K. Ll. Pope
This chapter presents marketers, sporting management and sports organizations with a technique for analyzing consumer schemas associated with... Sample PDF
Schemas of Disrepute: Digital Damage to the Code
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