Tensor Space

Tensor Space

David Zhang (Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong), Fengxi Song (New Star Research Institute Of Applied Technology, China), Yong Xu (Harbin Institute of Technology, China) and Zhizhen Liang (Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-200-8.ch007
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Abstract

In this chapter, we first give the background materials for developing tensor discrimination technologies in Section 7.1. Section 7.2 introduces some basic notations in tensor space. Section 7.3 discusses several tensor decomposition methods. Section 7.4 introduces the tensor rank.
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Background

Matrix decompositions, such as the singular value decomposition (SVD), are ubiquitous in numerical analysis. One usual way to think of the SVD is that it decomposes a matrix into a sum of rank-1 matrices. In other words, an matrix A can be expressed as a minimal sum of rank-1 matrices:A = , (7.1) where and for all . The operator denotes the outer product. Thus the ijth entry of the rank-1 matrix is the product of the ith entry of a and the jth entry of b, denoted by.Such decompositions provide possibilities to develop fundamental concepts such as the matrix rank and the approximation theory and gain a range of applications including WWW searching and mining, image processing, signal processing, medical imaging, and principal component analysis. The decompositions are well-understood mathematically, numerically, and computationally.

A tensor is a higher order generalization of a vector or a matrix. In fact, a vector is a first-order tensor and a matrix is a tensor of order two. Furthermore speaking, tensors are multilinear mapping over a set of vector spaces. If we have data in three or more dimensions, then we mean to deal with a higher-order tensor. In tensor analysis, higher-order tensor (also known as multidimensional, multiway, or n-way array) decompositions (Martin, 2004; Comon, 2002) are used in many fields and also have received considerable theoretical interest.

Different from some classical matrix decompositions, extending matrix decompositions such as the SVD to higher-order tensors has proven to be quite difficult. Familiar matrix concepts such as rank become ambiguous and more complicated. One goal of the tensor decomposition is the same as for a matrix decomposition: to rewrite the tensor as a sum of rank-1 tensors. Consider, for example, an tensor A. We would like to express A as the sum of rank-1 third-order tensors, that is,A = , (7.2) where, ,, and for all .Note that if a, b, c are vectors, then .

Basic Notations

In this section, we introduce some elementary notations and definitions needed in the later chapter.

If is an tensor, then the order of A is N. The nth mode, way, or dimension of A is of size .

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Table of Contents
Acknowledgment
Chapter 1
Overview  (pages 1-23)
David Zhang, Fengxi Song, Yong Xu, Zhizhen Liang
A biometric system can be regarded as a pattern recognition system. In this chapter, we discuss two advanced pattern recognition technologies for... Sample PDF
Overview
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Chapter 2
David Zhang, Fengxi Song, Yong Xu, Zhizhen Liang
This chapter is a brief introduction to biometric discriminant analysis technologies — Section I of the book. Section 2.1 describes two kinds of... Sample PDF
Discriminant Analysis for Biometric Recognition
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Chapter 3
David Zhang, Fengxi Song, Yong Xu, Zhizhen Liang
As mentioned in Chapter II, there are two kinds of LDA approaches: classification- oriented LDA and feature extraction-oriented LDA. In most... Sample PDF
Discriminant Criteria for Pattern Classification
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Chapter 4
David Zhang, Fengxi Song, Yong Xu, Zhizhen Liang
In this chapter, we first give a brief introduction to Fisher linear discriminant, Foley- Sammon discriminant, orthogonal component discriminant... Sample PDF
Orthogonal Discriminant Analysis Methods
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Chapter 5
David Zhang, Fengxi Song, Yong Xu, Zhizhen Liang
In this chapter, we mainly present three kinds of weighted LDA methods. In Sections 5.1, 5.2 and 5.3, we respectively present parameterized direct... Sample PDF
Parameterized Discriminant Analysis Methods
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Chapter 6
David Zhang, Fengxi Song, Yong Xu, Zhizhen Liang
In this chapter, we introduce two novel facial feature extraction methods. The first is multiple maximum scatter difference (MMSD) which is an... Sample PDF
Two Novel Facial Feature Extraction Methods
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Chapter 7
Tensor Space  (pages 135-149)
David Zhang, Fengxi Song, Yong Xu, Zhizhen Liang
In this chapter, we first give the background materials for developing tensor discrimination technologies in Section 7.1. Section 7.2 introduces... Sample PDF
Tensor Space
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Chapter 8
David Zhang, Fengxi Song, Yong Xu, Zhizhen Liang
Tensor principal component analysis (PCA) is an effective method for data reconstruction and recognition. In this chapter, some variants of... Sample PDF
Tensor Principal Component Analysis
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Chapter 9
David Zhang, Fengxi Song, Yong Xu, Zhizhen Liang
Linear discriminant analysis is a very effective and important method for feature extraction. In general, image matrices are often transformed into... Sample PDF
Tensor Linear Discriminant Analysis
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Chapter 10
David Zhang, Fengxi Song, Yong Xu, Zhizhen Liang
In this chapter, we describe two tensor-based subspace analysis approaches (tensor ICA and tensor NMF) that can be used in many fields like face... Sample PDF
Tensor Independent Component Analysis and Tensor Non-Negative Factorization
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Chapter 11
David Zhang, Fengxi Song, Yong Xu, Zhizhen Liang
In this chapter, we describe tensor-based classifiers, tensor canonical correlation analysis and tensor partial least squares, which can be used in... Sample PDF
Other Tensor Analysis and Further Direction
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Chapter 12
David Zhang, Fengxi Song, Yong Xu, Zhizhen Liang
In the past decades while biometrics attracts increasing attention of researchers, people also have found that the biometric system using a single... Sample PDF
From Single Biometrics to Multi-Biometrics
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Chapter 13
Feature Level Fusion  (pages 273-304)
David Zhang, Fengxi Song, Yong Xu, Zhizhen Liang
This chapter introduces the basis of feature level fusion and presents two feature level fusion examples. As the beginning, Section 13.1 provides an... Sample PDF
Feature Level Fusion
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Chapter 14
David Zhang, Fengxi Song, Yong Xu, Zhizhen Liang
With this chapter we aims at describing several basic aspects of matching score level fusion. Section 14.1 provides a description of basic... Sample PDF
Matching Score Level Fusion
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Chapter 15
Decision Level Fusion  (pages 328-348)
David Zhang, Fengxi Song, Yong Xu, Zhizhen Liang
With this chapter, we first present a variety of decision level fusion rules and classifier selection approaches, and then show a case study of face... Sample PDF
Decision Level Fusion
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Chapter 16
Book Summary  (pages 349-358)
David Zhang, Fengxi Song, Yong Xu, Zhizhen Liang
With the title “Advanced Pattern Recognition Technologies with Applications to Biometrics” this book mainly focuses on two kinds of advanced... Sample PDF
Book Summary
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About the Authors