Text Entry System for Semitic Languages on Mobile Devices

Text Entry System for Semitic Languages on Mobile Devices

Mahieddine Djoudi (University of Poitiers, France) and Saad Harous (University of Sharjah, UAE)
Copyright: © 2009 |Pages: 11
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-046-2.ch054
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Abstract

Support for the Semitic language on mobile devices, while not yet universal, is becoming more ubiquitous. Many items and data contents written in Arabic or Hebrew, for example, can be seen on a whole range of mobile devices. It is not uncommon, however, to encounter difficulties in entering and displaying Semitic text; as experienced mobile/computer users know, there is in fact a variety of different Semitic input methods and character encoding schemes. The challenge involved in constructing a text entry system for Semitic scripts is amplified by the fact that existing resources are inadequate. This chapter attempts to review the current state of affairs regarding text entry for Semitic scripts on mobile devices in order to provide a stepping ground for further investigation in this area.
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Introduction

The Semitic family language includes many languages spoken by a large number of native speakers. However, Semitic languages are still understudied. Support for the Semitic language on mobile devices, while not yet universal, is becoming more ubiquitous. Many items and data contents written in Semitic scripts can be seen on a whole range of devices, from the simplest mobile handset to smart phones to full feature PDAs. It is not uncommon, however, to encounter difficulties in entering and displaying Semitic text; as experienced mobile/computer users know, there is in fact a variety of different Semitic input methods and character encoding schemes. The challenge involved in constructing a text entry system for Semitic languages is amplified by the fact that the existing resources are inadequate.

Semitic Languages and Scripts History

The Semitic languages are a family of languages spoken by more than 370 million people across much of the Middle East where they probably originated, as well as in North and East Africa. They constitute the northeastern subfamily of the Afro-Asiatic languages and the only branch of this group spoken in Asia (see Figure 1).

Figure 1.

Semitic languages family tree

The most prominent members of this family are Arabic (206 million speakers) followed by Amharic (26 million speakers), Tigrinya (6.75 million speakers), and Hebrew (6 million speakers). Semitic languages were among the earliest to attain a written form, with Akkadian writing beginning in the middle of the 3rd century b.c. The term Semitic for these languages, after Shem, a son of Noah, is etymologically a misnomer in some ways, but is nonetheless standard (Wikipedia, 2006).

The Aramaic Language

The Aramaic language was the international trade language of the ancient Middle East between 1000 and 600 b.c., spoken from the Mediterranean coast to the borders of India. Aramaic was used by the conquering Assyrians as a language of administration communication, followed by the Babylonian and Persian empires that ruled from India to Ethiopia and employed Aramaic as the official language. For this period (about 700–320 b.c.), Aramaic held a position similar to that occupied by English today. The most important documents of this period are numerous papyri from Egypt and Palestine. Its script, derived from Phoenician and first attested during the 9th century b.c. also became extremely popular and was adopted by many people with or without any previous writing system (Lo, 2005).

The Arabic Language

The Arabic language, which is the mother tongue of more than 300 million people, presents significant challenges to many text entry applications. Arabic is a highly inflected and derived language. The Arabic alphabet consists of 28 letters that can be extended to 90 by additional shapes, marks, and vowels (Tayli & Al-Salamah, 1990). Eight of the doublets are differentiated by diacritics. Some letters are ambivalent between two or more sounds, and some letters do not indicate a sound; they have only a grammatical function. Unlike Latin-based alphabets, the orientation of writing in Arabic is from right to left. In written Arabic, short vowels are often omitted.

The Arabic script stems from the same source as the Latin, Greek, and Hebrew alphabets: Phoenician. The underlying proto-alphabet had some two dozen characters. The direct forebear of the Arabic alphabet is an Aramaic alphabet from which it inherits the tendency to merge letter groups into larger units marked by a final swash instead of a space (Djoudi, 1991).

Key Terms in this Chapter

Linguistic: The scientific study of language that can be theoretical or applied. Someone who engages in this study is called a linguist.

QWERTY Soft Keyboard: A virtual soft QWERTY keyboard that can be used with any other Windows application.

Text Entry: Input method to enter text into mobiles devices. The three text entry methods are the standard MultiTap system, the pen-based Graffiti, and the scaled-down QWERTY soft keyboard.

Semitic Languages: Languages that have their roots in Semitic (from the Biblical “Shem”) and include the ancient and modern forms of Amharic, Arabic, Aramaic, Akkadian, Ge’ez, Hebrew, Phoenician, Maltese, Tigre, and Tigrinya, among others.

Script: A set of defined base elements or symbols, individually termed characters, or graphemes.

ROOT: The primary lexical unit of a word that carries the most significant aspects of semantic content and cannot be reduced into smaller constituents.

Mobile Devices: A pocket-sized computing device, typically comprising a small visual display screen for user output and a miniature keyboard or touch screen for user input.

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Table of Contents
Foreword
Gabriele Kotsis
Acknowledgment
Ismail Khalil
Chapter 1
Elhadi Shakshuki, Xinyu Xing, Haroon Malik
Wireless multimedia sensor networks (WMSNs) are a new and emerging type of sensor networks that contain sensor nodes equipped with cameras... Sample PDF
An Introduction to Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks
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Chapter 2
Jing Wang
Wireless sensor networks have seen a wealth of research efforts and practical implementations in recent years. With the advance of CMOS cameras and... Sample PDF
Enabling Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks
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Chapter 3
Julio Aráuz
On the stage of today’s communications world, broadband mobile technologies are a continuously flourishing trend. In this context, WiMAX, a... Sample PDF
Research Challenges in Multimedia WiMAX
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Chapter 4
Reinhard Kronsteiner
This chapter is about mobile multimedia and its usage in group decisions. With respect to the complexity of mobile decision scenarios, this paper... Sample PDF
Engineering Mobile Group Decision Support
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Chapter 5
The Ubiquitous Grid  (pages 66-75)
Patricia Sedlar
The strength of grid computing, namely being able to aggregate distributed computing and data storage capacities for solving larger, more complex... Sample PDF
The Ubiquitous Grid
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Chapter 6
Paul Fergus
The number of consumer devices that are being equipped with networking capabilities is increasing rapidly. This is seen as a fundamental strategy... Sample PDF
Next Generation Mobile Multimedia
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Chapter 7
Reinhard Kronsteiner, Bettina Thurnher
This chapter considers the mobility of persons while they are changing between different working environments and the influence of increasing... Sample PDF
Opportunities and Risks for Mobile Decision Support
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Chapter 8
Volker Derballa
Mobile technology enables enterprises to invent new business models by applying new forms of organization or offering new products and services. In... Sample PDF
Business Model Typology for Mobile Commerce
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Chapter 9
Edgar R. Weippl
While security in general is increasingly well addressed, both mobile security and multimedia security are still areas of research undergoing major... Sample PDF
Security, Trust, and Privacy on Mobile Devices and Multimedia Applications
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Chapter 10
Goran Gvozden, Mislav Grgic, Sonja Grgic, Miran Gosta
This chapter gives description and comparison of video coding standards currently used in bandwidth limited mobile communications emphasizing at the... Sample PDF
Comparison of Video Coding Standards Used in Mobile Applications
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Chapter 11
Saad Harous
In this chapter, we will introduce mobile ad hoc networks and issues related to routing data in such networks. Mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) are... Sample PDF
Routing Algorithms for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
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Chapter 12
Mamun I. Abu-Tair
Recently there have been considerable interests focusing on the performance evaluation of IEEE 802.11e Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols, which... Sample PDF
Performance Analysis and Evaluation of IEEE 802.11E MAC in WLANs with Hidden Stations and Multimedia Applications
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Chapter 13
High Speed Packet Access  (pages 175-190)
Mario Cvitkovic
Data services and multimedia are expected to have significant growth over the next few years and will likely become the dominant source of 3G... Sample PDF
High Speed Packet Access
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Chapter 14
Sami Habib
The evolutionary search approach has demonstrated its effectiveness in many real world applications, such as the coverage problem in wireless sensor... Sample PDF
Exploring Coverage within Wireless Sensor Networks through Evolutionary Computations
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Chapter 15
René Rosenbaum
Imagery must be adequately processed and adapted to be used in mobile environments. This contribution shows that this can be reached by a rigorous... Sample PDF
Mobile Image Communication: New Concepts Using JPEG2000
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Chapter 16
Ulf Wehling
In this chapter we propose a platform-independent concept for the transparent replication of digital assets in hybrid wireless networks. The concept... Sample PDF
Topic-Based Transparent Replication of Digital Assets
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Chapter 17
Abdulhussain E. Mahdi
Speech quality is the most visible and important aspect of quality of service (QoS) for telecommunication networks. Hence, the ability to monitor... Sample PDF
Perception-Based Speech Quality Measurement in Modern Telecommunications
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Chapter 18
Árpád Huszák
In this chapter we present a novel selective retransmission scheme, based on congestion control algorithm. Our method is efficient in narrowband... Sample PDF
Adaptive Retransmission Scheme for Video Streaming Applications
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Chapter 19
Gregor Rozinaj
In this chapter we describe a proposal of a metropolitan information system (MIS) for providing various information for inhabitants of the city, as... Sample PDF
Terminals for the Smart Information Retrieval
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Chapter 20
Oredope Adetola
The concept of multimedia streaming gives the end-users the ability to playback various multimedia contents while they are still being downloaded... Sample PDF
Streaming Multimedia via Peer-to-Peer Systems
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Chapter 21
Hamidah Ibrahim
An important problem for a database system is to guarantee database consistency. Difficulty arises in devising an efficient algorithm for checking... Sample PDF
Event-Condition-Action (ECA) Rules for Maintaining the Integrity Constraints of Mobile Databases
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Chapter 22
Janne Lahti
Video management research has been neglecting the increased attractiveness of using camera-equipped mobile phones for the production of short... Sample PDF
Context-Aware Capture and Sharing of Mobile Videos
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Chapter 23
Panayotis Fouliras
Data dissemination has already been identified as one of the most important aspects for mobile environments and particularly so for large volumes of... Sample PDF
Video and Data Dissemination in Mobile Broadcasting Environments
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Chapter 24
Wanji Mai, Chris Tweed, Peter Hung, Seán McLoone, Ronan Farrell
In this chapter, the idea of identification of outdoor buildings using mobile devices is presented. The prototype system involves integration of... Sample PDF
A Practical Perspective on Building Identification from Low-Resolution Mobile Images
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Chapter 25
Chris Stary
Although mobile interactivity is becoming quite common, for content-rich applications, such as educational hypermedia systems, user-centered design... Sample PDF
Ubiquitous Access to Adaptive Hypermedia
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Chapter 26
Danilo Avola
The actual mobile technology and the increasing need to obtain rich multimedia content about each and every aspect of the human life are changing... Sample PDF
Context Modelling Approaches for Mobile Systems
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Chapter 27
Eduardo Antonio Viruete Navarro
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Mobility Support in 4G Heterogeneous Networks for Interoperable M-Health Devices
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Chapter 28
László Bokor
The support of broadcasting and multicasting as an efficient L3-based service poses rigorous requirements to the next generation mobile... Sample PDF
Novel Results on MBMS Service Provisioning in UMTS/WLAN Heterogeneous Architectures
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Chapter 29
Paolo Barsocchi, Alan A. Bertossi, M. Cristina Pinotti, Francesco Potortì
Broadcasting is an efficient and scalable way of transmitting data over wireless channels to an unlimited number of clients. In this chapter the... Sample PDF
Quality of Service of Data Broadcasting Algorithms on Erroneous Wireless Channels
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Chapter 30
Shiguo Lian
Digital fingerprinting is reported and used in copy tracing. It embeds different information, for example, Customer ID, into multimedia content... Sample PDF
Traitor Tracing in Mobile Multimedia Communication
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Chapter 31
Do van Thanh, Ivar Jørstad
Although promised for some time now, advanced multimedia services for mobile devices were not yet a reality. With IMS (IP Multimedia Subsystem), the... Sample PDF
Advanced Mobile Multimedia Services with IMS
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Chapter 32
Tania Das
Movement prediction oriented adaptive location management provides a major role in personal communication service (PCS) system. Generally the GSM... Sample PDF
Movement Prediction Oriented Adaptive Location Management
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Chapter 33
Yoshio Nakajima, Alireza Goudarzi Nemati, Tomoya Enokido, Makoto Takizawa
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Subjective and Objective Trustworthiness of Acquaintance Peers
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Chapter 34
Hui Zhu
Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is a newly appeared technique for evolutionary computation. It was originated as a simulation for a simplified... Sample PDF
An Improved Particle Swarm Optimization for Indoor Positioning
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Chapter 35
Ben Abdallah Abderazek, Arquimedes Canedo, Kenichi Kuroda
Mobile processors are used in numerous embedded systems, including laptops, personal digital organizers, wearable computers, cellular phones, mobile... Sample PDF
Processor for Mobile Applications
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Chapter 36
Kashinath Basu
A significant proportion of the traffic on the 4th generation of mobile networks (4G) will be interactive multimedia traffic. This chapter presents... Sample PDF
A Model for Providing Mobile Multimedia Services Over 4G Networks
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Chapter 37
Wieland Schwinger, Christoph Grün, Birgit Pröll, Werner Retschitzegger
Today’s tourists expect to get personalized access to tourism information at anytime, from anywhere with any media. Mobile tourist guides provide... Sample PDF
Context-Awareness in Mobile Tourist Guides
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Chapter 38
Daniel C. Doolan, Sabin Tabirca, Laurence T. Yang
Today in the beginning of the 21st century, mobile devices are now ubiquitous. No matter where we go or what we do, we are touched by this new... Sample PDF
Unlocking the Hidden Power of the Mobile
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Chapter 39
Daniel C. Doolan, Sabin Tabirca, Laurence T. Yang
The Message Passing Interface (MPI) was published as a standard in 1992. Since then, many implementations have been developed. The MPICH library is... Sample PDF
Parallel Computing on a Mobile Device
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Chapter 40
Daniel C. Doolan, Kevin Duggan, Sabin Tabirca, Laurence T. Yang
The growth of mobile phone sales is phenomenal, with estimated sales for 2007/2008 expected to be approximately $1 billion. The majority of these... Sample PDF
From Single to Multiplayer Mobile Bluetooth Gaming
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Chapter 41
Christos K. Georgiadis
Discovering and redirecting multimedia services in a personalized manner is achieving increasing importance for mobile users. It is a powerful... Sample PDF
Mobile Agents and Personalized Multimedia Services
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Chapter 42
Hongbo Ni, Xingshe Zhou, Zhiwen Yu, Daqing Zhang
The vision of pervasive computing is floating into the domain of the household and aims to assist inhabitants (users) to live more conveniently and... Sample PDF
Enhancing User Experience with Context-Dependent Tasks in Smart Home
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Chapter 43
Pavol Podhradský, Eugen Mikóczy, Matejka Juraj, Ondrej Lábaj, Róbert Tomek
This chapter presents results of practical experience with NGN and mainly its application layer. The presented university laboratory based mainly on... Sample PDF
Practical Experience with New Services and Applications Supported by NGN
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Chapter 44
Jong-Woon Yoo
This chapter presents an intelligent interface system, including a new gesture-based wearable input device called iThrow as a main user interface... Sample PDF
A Gesture-Based Intuitive Interaction System and its Target Selection Algorithm
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Chapter 45
Diego Liberati
This chapter is about the effects on perception of joint sensory stimulation. It shows that by combining various simultaneous stimuli, it is... Sample PDF
Attention Facilitation via Multimedia Stimulation
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Chapter 46
Mercedes Paulini
Mobile computing provides a new dimension in communication and access to data resources that is transforming the way people use information and... Sample PDF
Context-Aware Urban Exploration: A Paradigm for Non-Directed Exploration in Mobile Computing
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Chapter 47
Robert Schmohl, Uwe Baumgarten, Lars Köthner
Recent advances in mobile computing have spawned a very heterogeneous environment of mobile devices, which is reflected by the presence of the... Sample PDF
Content Adaptation for Heterogeneous Mobile Devices
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Chapter 48
Roman Y. Shtykh, Qun Jin, Shunichi Nakadate, Norihiro Kandou, Takeshi Hayata, Jianhua Ma
Mobile social networking services (MoSNS) are a yet unexplored environment for human networked socialization. By introducing the concept of... Sample PDF
Mobile SNS from the Perspective of Human Self-Extension
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Chapter 49
Stephan Reiff-Marganiec, Yi Hong, Hong Qing Yu, Schahram Dustdar, Christoph Dorn, Daniel Schall
Collaborative Work Environments are software systems that allow teams, which are nowadays often distributed in location and organization to which... Sample PDF
Context Aware Collaborative Working Environments
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Chapter 50
Baud Haryo Prananto
Lifelog media system stores and manages users’ everyday experiences in the form of multimedia data. To build such a system, we require an integrated... Sample PDF
Design and Implementation of a Mobile and Portable Lifelog Media System
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Chapter 51
Diego Moreira Alves
The main objective of this chapter is to present a solution to the development of speech synthesis and speech recognition systems through mobile... Sample PDF
Speech Synthesis and Recognition Based on Mobile Computing Application
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Chapter 52
Dietmar G. Wiedemann
This chapter introduces the concept of mobile viral marketing as an innovative marketing tool. The outcome of the chapter is a description model... Sample PDF
Creating Successful Mobile Viral Marketing Strategies
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Chapter 53
Henrik Stormer
In the last years, mobile devices have become more and more popular. To further enhance the success of mobile devices, companies in the mobile... Sample PDF
Customizable Viewlets: A Generic Approach for the Mobile Web
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Chapter 54
Mahieddine Djoudi, Saad Harous
Support for the Semitic language on mobile devices, while not yet universal, is becoming more ubiquitous. Many items and data contents written in... Sample PDF
Text Entry System for Semitic Languages on Mobile Devices
$37.50
Chapter 55
Patrícia Dockhorn Costa, Luís Ferreira Pires, Marten van Sinderen
Context-awareness has been investigated for almost a decade and is considered as a convenient and desirable feature in distributed mobile systems... Sample PDF
Concepts and Architectures for Mobile Context-Aware Applications
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Chapter 56
Frédéric Lassabe, Philippe Canalda, Damien Charlet, Pascal Chatonnay, François Spies
Advances in technology have enabled a proliferation of mobile devices and a broad spectrum of novel and outbreaking solutions for new applications... Sample PDF
Mobility within Rich Multimedia Services
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Chapter 57
Anastasis A. Sofokleous, Marios C. Angelides, Christos N. Schizas
Mobile communications and computing has changed forever the way people communicate and interact and it has made “any information, any device, any... Sample PDF
Mobile Computing: Technology Challenges, Constraints, and Standards
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Chapter 58
Say Ying Lim
In this chapter, we present an extensive study of database operations on mobile devices which provides an understanding and direction for processing... Sample PDF
A Taxonomy of Database Operations on Mobile Devices
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Chapter 59
Spatial Data on the Move  (pages 850-864)
Wee Hyong Tok, Stéphane Bressan, Panagiotis Kalnis, Baihua Zheng
The pervasiveness of mobile computing devices and wide-availability of wireless networking infrastructure have empowered users with applications... Sample PDF
Spatial Data on the Move
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Chapter 60
Ioannis Priggouris, Evangelos Zervas, Stathes Hadjiefthymiades
The vision that wireless technology in the near future will provide mobile users with at least similar multimedia services as those available to the... Sample PDF
Location-Based Network Resource Management
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Chapter 61
Ghita Kouadri Mostéfaoui
The abstract should be changed to this new abstract: Research on mobile multimedia mainly focuses on improving wireless protocols in order to... Sample PDF
Software Engineering for Mobile Multimedia: A Roadmap
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Chapter 62
Yuping Yang
One current vision of future communication systems lies in a universal system that can deliver information and communications at any time and place... Sample PDF
Personalized Redirection of Communication and Data
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Chapter 63
Florian Ledermann
In this chapter, a domain independent taxonomy of sign functions rooted in an analysis of physical signs found in public space is presented. This... Sample PDF
Towards a Taxonomy of Display Styles for Ubiquitous Multimedia
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Chapter 64
Do Van Thanh, Ivar Jørstad, Schahram Dustdar
Mobile communication and Web technologies have paved the way for mobile multimedia collaborative services that allows people, team and organisation... Sample PDF
Mobile Multimedia Collaborative Services
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Chapter 65
Mohamed Ali Feki
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Context Awareness for Pervasive Assistive Environment
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Chapter 66
Damien Charlet, Frédéric Lassabe, Philippe Canalda, Pascal Chatonnay, François Spies
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Mobility Prediction for Multimedia Services
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Chapter 67
Roland Wagner, Franz Gruber, Werner Hartmann
After the enormous success of the internet and mobile networks, the next upcoming boost for information technology will be the combination of both.... Sample PDF
Distribution Patterns for Mobile Internet Applications
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