Towards Autonomic Computing: Adaptive Neural Network for Trajectory Planning

Towards Autonomic Computing: Adaptive Neural Network for Trajectory Planning

Amar Ramdane-Cherif (Université de Versailles St-Quentin, France)
Copyright: © 2009 |Pages: 20
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-170-4.ch014
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Abstract

Cognitive approach through the neural network (NN) paradigm is a critical discipline that will help bring about autonomic computing (AC). NN-related research, some involving new ways to apply control theory and control laws, can provide insight into how to run complex systems that optimize to their environments. NN is one kind of AC systems that can embody human cognitive powers and can adapt, learn, and take over certain functions previously performed by humans. In recent years, artificial neural networks have received a great deal of attention for their ability to perform nonlinear mappings. In trajectory control of robotic devices, neural networks provide a fast method of autonomously learning the relation between a set of output states and a set of input states. In this chapter, we apply the cognitive approach to solve position controller problems using an inverse geometrical model. In order to control a robot manipulator in the accomplishment of a task, trajectory planning is required in advance or in real time. The desired trajectory is usually described in Cartesian coordinates and needs to be converted to joint space for the purpose of analyzing and controlling the system behavior. In this chapter, we use a memory neural network (MNN) to solve the optimization problem concerning the inverse of the direct geometrical model of the redundant manipulator when subject to constraints. Our approach offers substantially better accuracy, avoids the computation of the inverse or pseudoinverse Jacobian matrix, and does not produce problems such as singularity, redundancy, and considerably increased computational complexity.
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Introduction

Current research areas on theories and applications of Cognitive Informatics (Wang et al., 2005; Chiew, 2003; Wang, 2005) have demonstrated a consistent effort at applying cognitive informatics to real word problem domains such as autonomous computing. Almost all of the hard problems yet to be solved in this discipline are stemmed from the fundamental constraints of the brain and the understanding of its cognitive mechanisms and processes (Wang et al., 2002; Wang et al., 2003).

The autonomic computing (Wang, 2003) derives from the body’s autonomic nervous system, which controls key functions without conscious awareness or involvement. Autonomic controls use motor neurons to send indirect messages to organs at a sub-conscious level. These messages regulate temperature, breathing, and heart rate without conscious thought. The implications for computing are immediately evident; a NN, which computes joint positions for a robot and adapts itself under varying conditions without considerably increased computational complexity. In recent years, artificial neural networks have received a great deal of attention for their ability to perform nonlinear mappings. In trajectory control of robotic devices, neural networks provide a fast method of autonomously learning the relation between a set of output states and a set of input states (Guez et al., 1989; Kieffer et al., 1991; Hunt et al., 1992; Ramdane-Cherif et al., 1995).

In (Jung et al., 2000; Fang et al., 1993; Fang et al., 1998) several neural network inverse control techniques are applied for trajectory tracking of a PD controlled rigid robot and (Kawato et al., 1990) look ahead planning based on neural networks is successfully applied to real time control of a robot arm. the task is to touch a rolling ball with a robot arm

Traditional approaches to control redundant manipulators have centered on the Jacobian pseudoinverse (Klein et al., 1983) which is non intuitive, tiresome to compute and generates arbitrary joint position vectors in the neighborhood of singularities. These solutions are often inappropriate and result in unacceptable large joint velocities and accelerations.

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Table of Contents
Acknowledgment
Yingxu Wang
Chapter 1
Yingxu Wang
Cognitive Informatics (CI) is a transdisciplinary enquiry of the internal information processing mechanisms and processes of the brain and natural... Sample PDF
The Theoretical Framework of Cognitive Informatics
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Chapter 2
Withold Kinsner
This chapter provides a review of Shannon and other entropy measures in evaluating the quality of materials used in perception, cognition, and... Sample PDF
Is Entropy Suitable to Characterize Data and Signals for Cognitive Informatics?
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Chapter 3
Ismael Rodríguez, Manuel Núñez, Fernando Rubio
Finite State Machines (FSM) are formalisms that have been used for decades to describe the behavior of systems. They can also provide an intelligent... Sample PDF
Cognitive Processes by using Finite State Machines
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Chapter 4
Yingxu Wang
An interactive motivation-attitude theory is developed based on the Layered Reference Model of the Brain (LRMB) and the Object-Attribute-Relation... Sample PDF
On the Cognitive Processes of Human Perception with Emotions, Motivations, and Attitudes
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Chapter 5
Qingyong Li, Zhiping Shi, Zhongzhi Shi
Sparse coding theory demonstrates that the neurons in the primary visual cortex form a sparse representation of natural scenes in the viewpoint of... Sample PDF
A Selective Sparse Coding Model with Embedded Attention Mechanism
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Chapter 6
Yingxu Wang
Theoretical research is predominately an inductive process, while applied research is mainly a deductive process. Both inference processes are based... Sample PDF
The Cognitive Processes of Formal Inferences
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Chapter 7
Douglas Griffith, Frank L. Greitzer
The purpose of this article is to re-address the vision of human-computer symbiosis as originally expressed by J.C.R. Licklider nearly a... Sample PDF
Neo-Symbiosis: The Next Stage in the Evolution of Human Information Interaction
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Chapter 8
Ray E. Jennings
Although linguistics may treat languages as a syntactic and/or semantic entity that regulates both language production and comprehension, this... Sample PDF
Language, Logic, and the Brain
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Chapter 9
Yingxu Wang, Guenther Ruhe
Decision making is one of the basic cognitive processes of human behaviors by which a preferred option or a course of actions is chosen from among a... Sample PDF
The Cognitive Process of Decision Making
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Chapter 10
Tiansi Dong
This chapter proposes a commonsense understanding of distance and orientation knowledge between extended objects, and presents a formal... Sample PDF
A Commonsense Approach to Representing Spatial Knowledge Between Extended Objects
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Chapter 11
Natalia López, Manuel Núñez, Fernando L. Pelayo
In this chapter we present the formal language, stochastic process algebra (STOPA), to specify cognitive systems. In addition to the usual... Sample PDF
A Formal Specification of the Memorization Process
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Chapter 12
Yingxu Wang
Autonomic computing (AC) is an intelligent computing approach that autonomously carries out robotic and interactive applications based on goal- and... Sample PDF
Theoretical Foundations of Autonomic Computing
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Chapter 13
Witold Kinsner
Numerous attempts are being made to develop machines that could act not only autonomously, but also in an increasingly intelligent and cognitive... Sample PDF
Towards Cognitive Machines: Multiscale Measures and Analysis
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Chapter 14
Amar Ramdane-Cherif
Cognitive approach through the neural network (NN) paradigm is a critical discipline that will help bring about autonomic computing (AC). NN-related... Sample PDF
Towards Autonomic Computing: Adaptive Neural Network for Trajectory Planning
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Chapter 15
Lee Flax
We give an approach to cognitive modelling, which allows for richer expression than the one based simply on the firing of sets of neurons. The... Sample PDF
Cognitive Modelling Applied to Aspects of Schizophrenia and Autonomic Computing
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Chapter 16
Yan Zhao, Yiyu Yao
Classification is one of the main tasks in machine learning, data mining, and pattern recognition. Compared with the extensively studied automation... Sample PDF
Interactive Classification Using a Granule Network
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Chapter 17
Mehdi Najjar, André Mayers
Encouraging results of last years in the field of knowledge representation within virtual learning environments confirms that artificial... Sample PDF
A Cognitive Computational Knowledge Representation Theory
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Chapter 18
Du Zhang
A crucial component of an intelligent system is its knowledge base that contains knowledge about a problem domain. Knowledge base development... Sample PDF
A Fixpoint Semantics for Rule-Base Anomalies
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Chapter 19
Christine W. Chan
This chapter presents a method for ontology construction and its application in developing ontology in the domain of natural gas pipeline... Sample PDF
Development of an Ontology for an Industrial Domain
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Chapter 20
Václav Rajlich, Shaochun Xu
This article explores the non-monotonic nature of the programmer learning that takes place during incremental program development. It uses a... Sample PDF
Constructivist Learning During Software Development
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Chapter 21
Witold Kinsner
Many scientific chapters treat the diversity of fractal dimensions as mere variations on either the same theme or a single definition. There is a... Sample PDF
A Unified Approach to Fractal Dimensions
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Chapter 22
Du Zhang, Witold Kinsner, Jeffrey Tsai, Yingxu Wang, Philip Sheu, Taehyung Wang
The 2005 IEEE International Conference on Cognitive Informatics (ICCI’05) was held during August 8th to 10th 2005 on the campus of University of... Sample PDF
Cognitive Informatics: Four Years in Practice
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Chapter 23
Yiyu Yao, Zhongzhi Shi, Yingxu Wang, Witold Kinsner, Yixin Zhong, Guoyin Wang
Cognitive informatics (CI) is a cutting-edge and multidisciplinary research area that tackles the fundamental problems shared by modern informatics... Sample PDF
Toward Cognitive Informatics and Cognitive Computers: A Report on IEEE ICCI'06
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