Towards Cognitive Machines: Multiscale Measures and Analysis

Towards Cognitive Machines: Multiscale Measures and Analysis

Witold Kinsner (University of Manitoba, Canada)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-050-9.ch185
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Numerous attempts are being made to develop machines that could act not only autonomously, but also in an increasingly intelligent and cognitive manner. Such cognitive machines ought to be aware of their environments, which include not only other machines, but also human beings. Such machines ought to understand the meaning of information in more human-like ways by grounding knowledge in the physical world and in the machines’ own goals. The motivation for developing such machines range from self-evidenced practical reasons such as the expense of computer maintenance, to wearable computing in health care, and gaining a better understanding of the cognitive capabilities of the human brain. To achieve such an ambitious goal requires solutions to many problems, ranging from human perception, attention, concept creation, cognition, consciousness, executive processes guided by emotions and value, and symbiotic conversational human-machine interactions. An important component of this cognitive machine research includes multiscale measures and analysis. This article presents definitions of cognitive machines, representations of processes, as well as their measurements, measures, and analysis. It provides examples from current research, including cognitive radio, cognitive radar, and cognitive monitors.

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Editorial Advisory Board
Contents by Volume
Chapter 1
Elske Ammenwerth
This chapter summarizes the problems and challenges that occur when health information systems are evaluated. The main problem areas presented are... Sample PDF
Evaluation of Health Information Systems; Challenges and Approaches
Chapter 2
Assessing E-Health  (pages 17-36)
Nilmini Wickramasinghe, Elie Geisler, Jonathan Schaffer
While healthcare is the biggest service industry on the globe, it has yet to realize the full potential of the e-business revolution in the form of... Sample PDF
Assessing E-Health
Chapter 3
Nilmini Wickramasinghe, Santosh Misra, Arnold Jenkins, Douglas R. Vogel
Superior access, quality, and value of healthcare services has become a national priority for healthcare to combat the exponentially increasing... Sample PDF
The Competitive Forces Facing E-Health
Chapter 4
The Telehealth Divide  (pages 51-56)
Mary Schmeida, Ramona McNeal
In the United States, the public is accessing the Internet to provide information and deliver services, and to interact with citizens, business, and... Sample PDF
The Telehealth Divide
Chapter 5
Daniel Carbone
A lack of health services has long been the thorn in the side of many communities, especially rural and regional communities. The high costs of... Sample PDF
Health Portals: An Exploratory Review
Chapter 6
Sherrie D. Cannoy
This chapter will discuss Semantic Web standards and ontologies in two areas: (1) the medical sciences field and (2) the healthcare industry.... Sample PDF
Semantic Web Standards and Ontologies in the Medical Sciences and Healthcare
Chapter 7
Jane Moon
This article provides an overview of the trend in Internet usage; in particular, the trend that relates particularly to health-information-seeking... Sample PDF
Discussing Health Issues on the Internet
Chapter 8
Dag von Lubitz, Nilmini Wickramasinghe
The concept of e-health gains rapid and widespread international acceptance as the most practical means of reducing burgeoning healthcare costs... Sample PDF
Networkcentric Healthcare and the Entry Point into the Network
Chapter 9
Norm Archer
Health care is an industry with a diverse set of stakeholders: governments, private health care providers, medical practitioners (physicians... Sample PDF
Mobile E-Health: Making the Case
Chapter 10
Pantelis Angelidis
Technology advances create new possibilities for healthcare monitoring, management, and support, focusing on prevention rather than disease... Sample PDF
Mobile Telemonitoring Insights
Chapter 11
Brian N. Hilton
Geographic information systems (GIS) have numerous applications in human health. This chapter opens with a brief discussion of the three dimensions... Sample PDF
Geographic Information Systems in Health Care Services
Chapter 12
Marilyn M. Helms, Rita Moore, Mohammad Ahmadi
The healthcare industry is under pressure to improve patient safety, operate more efficiently, reduce medical errors, and provide secure access to... Sample PDF
Information Technology (IT) and the Healthcare Industry: A SWOT Analysis
Chapter 13
Antti Syväjärvi
Public healthcare is facing huge future challenges in order to deal with rising costs, growing demands of customers, information flow, demographic... Sample PDF
The Core Governmental Perspectives of E-Health
Chapter 14
Marion Sobol, Edmund Prater
Research on the use of information technology in healthcare has focused on hospitals and Health Management Organizations (HMOs). However, little has... Sample PDF
Differences in Computer Usage for U.S. Group Medical Practices: 1994 vs. 2003
Chapter 15
Stefane M. Kabene
As with many disciplines, the fields of healthcare in general and medicine, in particular, have made vast strides in improving patient outcomes and... Sample PDF
Medical Education in the 21st Century
Chapter 16
Sushil K. Sharma, Nilmini Wickramasinghe, Jatinder N.D. Gupta
Healthcare organizations are facing many challenges in the 21s t Century due to changes taking place in global healthcare systems. Spiraling costs... Sample PDF
Knowledge Management in Healthcare
Chapter 17
Kostas Metaxiotis
The healthcare environment is changing rapidly, and effective management of the knowledge base in this area is an integral part of delivering... Sample PDF
Healthcare Knowledge Management
Chapter 18
Kevin C. Desouza
The medical field in recent years has been facing increasing pressures for lower cost and increased quality of healthcare. These two pressures are... Sample PDF
Knowledge Management in Hospitals
Chapter 19
Dean F. Sittig
By bringing people the right information in the right format at the right time and place, state of the art clinical information systems with... Sample PDF
An Overview of Efforts to Bring Clinical Knowledge to the Point of Care
Chapter 20
Rajeev K. Bali, Ashish Dwivedi, Raouf Naguib
The objective of this chapter is to examine some of the key issues surrounding the incorporation of the Knowledge Management (KM) paradigm in... Sample PDF
Issues in Clinical Knowledge Management: Revisiting Healthcare Management
Chapter 21
Jörg Ontrup
The chapter shows how modern information retrieval methodologies can open up new possibilities to support knowledge management in healthcare. Recent... Sample PDF
Interactive Information Retrieval as a Step Towards Effective Knowledge Management in Healthcare
Chapter 22
Alexander Berler
It is paradoxical that, although several major technological discoveries such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Nuclear Medicine and Digital... Sample PDF
Key Performance Indicators and Information Flow: The Cornerstones of Effective Knowledge Management for Managed Care
Chapter 23
Srinivasa Raghavan
This chapter discusses about the concept of medical decision support system and the knowledge sharing standards among medical decision support... Sample PDF
Medical Decision Support Systems and Knowledge Sharing Standards
Chapter 24
Jean-Philippe Vert
Support vector machines and kernel methods are increasingly popular in genomics and computational biology due to their good performance in... Sample PDF
Kernel Methods in Genomics and Computational Biology
Chapter 25
Min Song
Information extraction (IE) technology has been defined and developed through the US DARPA Message Understanding Conferences (MUCs). IE refers to... Sample PDF
Information Extraction in Biomedical Literature
Chapter 26
Adam Fadlalla
This chapter provides insight into various areas within the medical field that strive to take advantage of different data mining techniques in order... Sample PDF
Realizing Knowledge Assets in the Medical Sciences with Data Mining: An Overview
Chapter 27
Colleen Cunningham
Given the exponential growth rate of medical data and the accompanying biomedical literature, more than 10,000 documents per week (Leroy et al.... Sample PDF
Data Mining Medical Digital Libraries
Chapter 28
E. Vance Wilson
E-health use is increasing worldwide, but no current e-health paradigm fulfills the complete range of user needs for online health services. This... Sample PDF
Building Better E-Health Through a Personal Health Informatics Pedagogy
Chapter 29
Adamantios Koumpis
In this chapter we present organizational aspects that appear when considering the case of interconnecting and integrating different compartments of... Sample PDF
Web Service Design Concepts and Structures for Support of Highly Interconnected E-Health Infrastructures: A Bottom-Up Approach
Chapter 30
John Ainsworth
The key aim of the PsyGrid project was the creation of an information system to ascertain and characterise a large, representative cohort of... Sample PDF
The PsyGrid Experience: Using Web Services in the Study of Schizophrenia
Chapter 31
Andrew Simpson
In this article we report upon our experiences of developing Web-services based infrastructures within two e-health projects. The first—a small... Sample PDF
On The Development of Secure Service-Oriented Architectures to Support Medical Research
Chapter 32
Iain Morrison
A review of difficulties experienced with proprietary guidelines languages and in clinical decision support has led us to the development of a... Sample PDF
Decision Support With BPEL and Web Services
Chapter 33
Carolyn McGregor
The clinical management of premature and ill term babies is challenged by the necessity of several inter and intra organizational patient journeys.... Sample PDF
A Framework for the Design of Web Service Based Clinical Management Systems to Support Inter and Intra Organizational Patient Journeys
Chapter 34
Matthew W. Guah
The significance of aligning IT with corporate strategy is widely recognised, but the lack of an appropriate framework often prevents practitioners... Sample PDF
Conceptual Framework for Mobile-Based Application in Healthcare
Chapter 35
José Ruiz Mas, Eduardo Antonio Viruete Navarro, Carolina Hernández Ramos, Álvaro Alesanco Iglesias, Julián Fernández Navajas, Antonio Valdovinos Bardají, Robert S.H. Istepanian
An enhanced mobile healthcare multi-collaborative system operating over Third Generation (3G) mobile networks is presented. This chapter describes... Sample PDF
Design of an Enhanced 3G-Based Mobile Healthcare System
Chapter 36
Phillip Olla, Joseph Tan
The reference model presented in this article encourages the breakdown of M-Health systems into the following five key dimensions: (1) Communication... Sample PDF
The M-Health Reference Model: An Organizing Framework for Conceptualizing Mobile Health Systems
Chapter 37
Mitchell Weisburgh
Because most medical school textbooks do not adequately address pain management, the American Academy of Pain Medicine wanted to create TOP MED, an... Sample PDF
Creating a Multimedia Instructional Product for Medical School Students
Chapter 38
Masoud Mohammadian, Ric Jentzsch
When dealing with human lives, the need to utilize and apply the latest technology to help in saving and maintaining patients’ lives is quite... Sample PDF
Intelligent Agents Framework for RFID Hospitals
Chapter 39
Abdul-Malik Shakir, David Cardenas, Gora Datta, Debashish Mittra, Arindam Basu, Rini Verma
Public Health (PH) applications in County of Los Angeles (LAC), Department of PH have been developed to meet individual PH program’s goals. This... Sample PDF
Design and Development of Standards (HL7 V3) Based Enterprise Architecture for Public Health Programs Integration at the County of Los Angeles
Chapter 40
Karolyn Kerr, Tony Norris
Data quality requirements are increasing as a wider range of data becomes available and the technology to mine data shows the value of data that is... Sample PDF
The Development of a Health Data Quality Programme
Chapter 41
Chunxiao Chigan, Vikram Oberoi
Enabled by the advances of the wireless sensor network technologies, wireless LANs will play a critical role in providing ubiquitous connectivity... Sample PDF
QoS Provisioning in Sensor Enabled Telemedicine Networks
Chapter 42
Wullianallur Raghupathi
Clinical decision support systems have historically focused on formal clinical reasoning. Most of the systems are rule-based and very few have... Sample PDF
Designing Clinical Decision Support Systems in Health Care: A Systemic View
Chapter 43
Steven Walczak, Bradley B. Brimhall, Jerry B. Lefkowitz
Patients face a multitude of diseases, trauma, and related medical problems that are difficult to diagnose and have large treatment and diagnostic... Sample PDF
Nonparametric Decision Support Systems in Medical Diagnosis: Modeling Pulmonary Embolism
Chapter 44
Pekka Turunen
The evaluation of information systems (ISs), especially in the healthcare field, is a complex task. Evidently, there is a need for better... Sample PDF
A Cross-Cultural Framework for Evaluation
Chapter 45
Zina Ben Miled
Life science Web databases are becoming increasingly essential in conducting everyday biological research. With more than 300 life science Web... Sample PDF
BACIIS: Biological and Chemical Information Integration System
Chapter 46
Ben Tse
This chapter presents an architecture, or general framework, for an agent-based electronic health record system (ABEHRS) to provide health... Sample PDF
Macroscopic Modeling of Information Flow in an Agent-Based Electronic Health Record System
Chapter 47
Amar Gupta, Ray Woosley, Igor Crk, Surendra Sarnikar
Adverse drug events impose a large cost on the society in terms of lives and health care costs. In this article, we propose an information... Sample PDF
An Information Technology Architecture for Drug Effectiveness Reporting and Post-Marketing Surveillance
Chapter 48
Angelos Hliaoutakis, Giannis Varelas, Epimenidis Voutsakis, Euripides G.M. Petrakis, Evangelos Milios
Semantic Similarity relates to computing the similarity between conceptually similar but not necessarily lexically similar terms. Typically... Sample PDF
Information Retrieval by Semantic Similarity
Chapter 49
Marco Eichelberg
One important problem of information systems in health care is the localisation and access to electronic patient records across health care... Sample PDF
A Distributed Patient Identification Protocol Based on Control Numbers with Semantic Annotation
Chapter 50
Petra Perner
This chapter introduces image mining as a method to discover implicit, previously unknown and potentially useful information from digital image and... Sample PDF
Image Mining for the Construction of Semantic-Inference Rules and for the Development of Automatic Image Diagnosis Systems
Chapter 51
Richard Chbeir
In last two decades, image retrieval has seen a growth of interests in several domains. As a result, a lot of work has been done in order to... Sample PDF
Efficient Method for Image Indexing in Medical Application
Chapter 52
Ketan Vanjara
This chapter explores various advancements in mobile devices and corresponding software applications that enhance diagnostics and administration in... Sample PDF
Application of Mobile Technologies in Healthcare Diagnostics and Administration
Chapter 53
Dionisia Damigou
Today’s health standards demand a high quality and efficiency as a major characteristic of every health service provided to the public, even in... Sample PDF
Use of Telemedicine Systems and Devices for Patient Monitoring
Chapter 54
Carolyn McGregor
This chapter reviews current research directions in healthcare mobility and assesses its impact on the provision of remote intensive care unit (ICU)... Sample PDF
Mobility in Healthcare for Remote Intensive Care Unit Clinical Management
Chapter 55
Alexander Kollmann
Mobile information and communication technologies are advancing rapidly and provide great opportunities for home monitoring applications in... Sample PDF
Utilizing Mobile Phones as Patient Terminal in Managing Chronic Diseases
Chapter 56
Taxiarchis Botsis
Information management is essential for health professionals in order to maintain a level of productivity for health care services management. This... Sample PDF
Implementation of a Computerized System in an Oncology Unit
Chapter 57
Rezaul Begg
Now-a-days, researchers are increasingly looking into new and innovative techniques with the help of information technology to overcome the rapid... Sample PDF
Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Medicine and Healthcare
Chapter 58
Shirley Ann Becker
Telemedicine is broadly defined as the use of information and communications technology to provide medical information and services (Perednia &... Sample PDF
PDA Usability for Telemedicine Support
Chapter 59
Karen Chang
Nurses working in hospitals with paper-based systems often face the challenge of inefficiency in providing quality nursing care. Two areas of... Sample PDF
Nurses' Perceptions of Using a Pocket PC for Shift Reports and Patient Care
Chapter 60
Sandra Synthia Lazarus
This chapter reports on a study to research and evaluate the use of latest generation wireless devices— typically personal digital assistant devices... Sample PDF
The Evaluation of Wireless Devices Used by Staff at Westmead Hospital
Chapter 61
Abdul-Rahman Al-Ali
This paper presents the results of a study toward generating a wireless environment to provide real-time mobile accessibility to patient information... Sample PDF
A Preliminary Study Toward Wireless Integration of Patient Information System
Chapter 62
Bernard Mark Garrett
The School of Nursing at the University of British Columbia has more than 300 nursing students engaged in supervised clinical practice in hospital... Sample PDF
Mobile Clinical Learning Tools Using Networked Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs)
Chapter 63
Darren Woollatt, Paul Koop, Sara Jones, Jim Warren
Wireless, handheld devices are becoming increasingly popular in health care settings, but the full potential of their role in patient-specific... Sample PDF
Choosing Technologies for Handheld and Ubiquitous Decision Support
Chapter 64
Themis P. Exarchos, Costas Papaloukas, Markos G. Tsipouras, Yorgos Goletsis, Dimitrios I. Fotiadis, Lampros K. Michalis
ECG is one of the most common signals used in medical practice due to its noninvasive nature and the information it contains. Several systems and... Sample PDF
ECG Diagnosis Using Decision Support Systems
Chapter 65
Efstratios Poravas
The revolution of technology has lead to a change; from the analogic to the digital function of medical devices. Some of them were produced in the... Sample PDF
Three Dimensional Medical Images
Chapter 66
Carrison K.S. Tong, Eric T.T. Wong
Teleradiology is a routine practice for radiologists to make urgent diagnosis by remote viewing radiological images such as computed tomographic... Sample PDF
Mobile Medical Image Viewing Using 3G Wireless Network
Chapter 67
Dimitrios Pantazis
Magnetoencephalography is a relatively new medical imaging modality for the monitoring and imaging of human brain function. Extracranial magnetic... Sample PDF
Imaging the Human Brain with Magnetoencephalography
Chapter 68
Carrison K.S. Tong, Eric T.T. Wong
Radiology is the branch of medicine that deals with the diagnostic and therapeutic applications of radiation. It is often used in X-rays in the... Sample PDF
Picture Archiving and Communication System in Healthcare
Chapter 69
Nikolaos Giannakakis
New developments are making the technology faster, more powerful, less invasive, and less expensive. While the technology evolves, new devices are... Sample PDF
Imaging Technologies and Their Applications in Biomedicine and Bioengineering
Chapter 70
Angelo M. Sabatini
Sensing approaches for ambulatory monitoring of human motion are necessary in order to objectively determine a person’s level of functional ability... Sample PDF
Inertial Sensing in Biomechanics: Techniques Bridging Motion Analysis and Personal Navigation
Chapter 71
Xiaoqiang Liu, Henk Koppelaar, Ronald Hamers, Nico Bruining
Buried within the human body, the heart prohibits direct inspection, so most knowledge about heart failure is obtained by autopsy (in hindsight).... Sample PDF
Immersive Image Mining in Cardiology
Chapter 72
Ah Chung Tsoi, Phuong Kim To, Markus Hagenbuchner
This chapter describes the application of a number of text mining techniques to discover patterns in the health insurance schedule with an aim to... Sample PDF
Application of Text Mining Methodologies to Health Insurance Schedules
Chapter 73
Ricardo Villegas
DICOMDIR directory files are useful in medical software applications because they allow organized access to images and information sets that come... Sample PDF
A Software Tool for Reading DICOM Directory Files
Chapter 74
Michelle LaBrunda
How physicians are trained has been heavily influenced by the advent of the technology era. Technology has progressed faster than society has been... Sample PDF
Technology in Physician Education
Chapter 75
Sarah R. Edmonson
There is an increasing need for cost control and improved outcomes in both primary and secondary medical education. This chapter reviews the... Sample PDF
Technology in Primary and Secondary Medical Education
Chapter 76
Andreas Holzinger, Harald Burgsteiner, Helfrid Maresch
In this chapter the authors report about their experiences in education of both students of healthcare engineering at Graz University of Applied... Sample PDF
Care2x in Medical Informatics Education
Chapter 77
Jorge G. Ruiz, Maria H. van Zuilen, Alan Katz, Marcos Milanez, Richard G. Tiberius
Residency education is the period of clinical education that follows graduation from medical school, and prepares physicians for the independent... Sample PDF
ePortfolios in Graduate Medical Education
Chapter 78
V.K. Murthy, E.V. Krishnamurthy
This chapter describes the system design for a multimedia telediagnostic computing environment (MMTE) for telemedical applications. Such an... Sample PDF
Multimedia Computing Environment for Telemedical Applications
Chapter 79
Lisa M. Nanovic
One in nine adults in the United States has chronic kidney disease (CKD). Randomized studies show electronic health (e-health) systems improve... Sample PDF
Identifying Optimal Chronic Kidney Disease Patient Education Web Sites: Assessing E-Health Technology by Content Area Experts
Chapter 80
David Parry
Evidence-based medicine (EBM) requires appropriate information to be available to clinicians at the point of care. Electronic sources of information... Sample PDF
Evaluation of a Fuzzy Ontology-Based Medical Information System
Chapter 81
Amanda Schafer Johnson, Tanya Kaushik, Khaled Imam, Frank M. Webbe, Peter A. Lichtenberg, David M. Erlanger, Michael E. Maddens
Cognitive screening measures for age-related cognitive impairment have been found to have only fair validity, and the risks of harm even may... Sample PDF
Enhancing Cognitive Screening in Geriatric Care: Use of an Internet-Based System
Chapter 82
Maria Yin Ling Fung
The increased use of the Internet and latest information technologies such as wireless computing is revolutionizing the healthcare industry by... Sample PDF
The Impact of Information Technology in Healthcare Privacy
Chapter 83
Kristiina Häyrinen
A Standish Group (1994) study showed that only 16% of all information technology projects come in on time and within budget. The situation is not... Sample PDF
Successful Health Information System Implementation
Chapter 84
Diane C. Davis
The need to adopt an electronic health record (EHR) system in United States (U.S.) hospitals seems to be more and more obvious when evaluating the... Sample PDF
Perceived Level of Benefits and Risks of Core Functionalities of an EHR System
Chapter 85
Bill Ag. Drougas
Virtual reality is today an excellent tool for a full simulated experience in a modern environment where any researcher or any individual scientist... Sample PDF
Virtual Reality Simulation in Human Applied Kinetics and Ergo Physiology
Chapter 86
Shobha Rekh, Subha Rani, Hepzibah Christinal, Easter Selvan
Teleradiology, sending of x-rays, is the most common application of telemedicine in use today. Mobile telemedicine is the latest area of research... Sample PDF
Implementation of an Error-Coding Scheme for Teleradiology System
Chapter 87
Hong Shen
In this chapter, we will give an intuitive introduction to the general problem of 3D medical image segmentation. We will give an overview of the... Sample PDF
Methods and Applications for Segmenting 3D Medical Image Data
Chapter 88
Kaoru Sugita, Giuseppe De Marco, Leonard Barolli, Noriki Uchida, Akihiro Miyakawa
Information technology (IT) has changed our lives and many applications are based on IT. IT can be helpful for remote mental health care education.... Sample PDF
Implementation and Performance Evaluation of WWW Conference System for Supporting Remote Mental Health Care Education
Chapter 89
Marilyn Lewis
Information and communication technology (ICT) allows users to access information without taking geographic position into account. These users are... Sample PDF
ICT in Medical Education in Trinidad and Tobago
Chapter 90
Maryann Yeo
The current status of policies, guidelines and standards related to the organizational context of clinical telehealth practice were investigated.... Sample PDF
Telehealth Organizational Implementation Guideline Issues: A Canadian Perspective
Chapter 91
Nabeel A.Y. Al-Qirim
This chapter reviews the strategic planning of health information systems in New Zealand. This step is deemed necessary to identify the main... Sample PDF
Tele-Medicine: Building Knowledge-Based Tele-Health Capability in New Zealand
Chapter 92
Penny A. Jennett, Eldon R. Smith, Mamoru Watanabe, Sharlene Stayberg
Canada spans 9,976,140 square kilometers and has an approximate population of 32 million people (Statistics Canada, 2001). More than 90% of Canada’s... Sample PDF
Adopting and Implementing Telehealth in Canada
Chapter 93
Stuart J. Barnes
Since the mid-1980s, the UK public sector has been the subject of wide-ranging reforms involving the introduction of IS and IT. Change has been... Sample PDF
IS Implementation in the UK Health Sector
Chapter 94
Dana Schwieger, Arlyn Melcher, C. Ranganathan, H. Joseph Wen
Adaptive Structuration Theory (AST) is rapidly becoming an important theoretical paradigm for comprehending the impact of advanced information... Sample PDF
Applying Adaptive Structuration Theory to Health Information Systems Adoption: A Case Study
Chapter 95
Shengnan Han, Pekka Mustonen, Matti Seppänen, Markku Kallio
This study investigates physicians’ willingness to adopt a professional medical SMS news service in the Finnish healthcare sector. A concise survey... Sample PDF
Adoption of Mobile E-Health Service: A Professional Medical SMS News Service in Finland
Chapter 96
Ranjini C.R., Sundeep Sahay
Large investments are being made to reform the health sector in developing countries as the potential of ICTs in achieving health goals is being... Sample PDF
Computer-Based Health Information Systems: Projects for Computerization or Health Management? Empirical Experiences from India
Chapter 97
Karen A. Wager
Evaluating clinician satisfaction with an electronic medical record (EMR) system is an important dimension to overall acceptance and use, yet... Sample PDF
Assessing Physician and Nurse Satisfaction with an Ambulatory Care EMR: One Facility's Approach
Chapter 98
James G. Anderson, E. Andrew Balas
The objective of this study was to assess the current level of information technology use by primary care physicians in the U.S. Primary care... Sample PDF
Computerization of Primary Care in the United States
Chapter 99
Fikreyohannes Lemma, Mieso K. Denko, Joseph K. Tan, Samuel Kinde Kassegne
Poor infrastructures in developing countries such as Ethiopia and much of Sub-Saharan Africa have caused these nations to suffer from lack of... Sample PDF
Envisioning a National e-Medicine Network Architecture in a Developing Country: A Case Study
Chapter 100
Robyn Kamira
Indigenous contributions to governance in health informatics can be drawn from cultural concepts such as Kaitiakitanga, which implies guardianship... Sample PDF
Kaitiakitanga and Health Informatics: Introducing Useful Indigenous Concepts of Governance in the Health Sector
Chapter 101
Wen-Jang ("Kenny") Jih, Cheng-Hsui Chen, Ying-Hsiou Chen
From the knowledge management point of view, the fundamental mission of hospital management is the delivery of quality medical services, utilizing... Sample PDF
Effects of Knowledge Management Implementations in Hospitals: An Exploratory Study in Taiwan
Chapter 102
Michelle Brear
There is a general recognition that numerous organizational factors will influence the success of an informatics intervention. This is supported by... Sample PDF
Organizational Factors in Health Informatics
Chapter 103
Jimmie L. Joseph, David P. Cook
This chapter explores the ethical implications of a reduction in information asymmetry between health care providers and their patients. In many... Sample PDF
Information Imbalance in Medical Decision Making: Upsetting the Balance
Chapter 104
A.H. Rubenstein, E. Geisler
One of the key factors that distinguishes enterprises of the 21s t Century is the emphasis on knowledge and information. Knowledge management is an... Sample PDF
How to Start or Improve a KM System in a Hospital or Healthcare Organization
Chapter 105
Nilmini Wickramasinghe
Healthcare expenditure is increasing exponentially, and reducing this expenditure (i.e., offering effective and efficient quality healthcare... Sample PDF
Patient Centric Healthcare Information Systems in the U.S.
Chapter 106
Maria Kalogeropoulou
E-learning has the potential to transform learning for healthcare and social care, supporting the aims of the NHS Plan and raising standards of care... Sample PDF
E-Learning in Healthcare and Social Care
Chapter 107
Richard G. Fuller, Gary Kuhne
This research study examined the best interactive practices of effective health care education faculty from six major universities that offer online... Sample PDF
Fostering Meaningful Interaction in Health Education Online Courses: Matching Pedagogy to Course Types
Chapter 108
Athina A. Lazakidou, Christina Ilioudi, Andriani Daskalaki
Computer-based learning has been developed for the beginning medical student and the experienced practitioner, for the lay person and the medical... Sample PDF
Potential Benefits and Challenges of Computer-Based Learning in Health
Chapter 109
Rachael Knight, Kate Whittington, W. Chris L. Ford, Julian M. Jenkins
The potential for computers to assist learning has been recognised for many years (Jenkins, 1997), with reproductive medicine benefiting greatly... Sample PDF
Teaching Medical Statistics Over the Internet
Chapter 110
Geraldine Clarebout, Jan Elen, Joost Lowyck, Jef Van den Ende, Erwin Van den Enden
Educational goals have generally shifted from knowing everything in a specific domain to knowing how to deal with complex problems. Reasoning and... Sample PDF
Tropical Medicine Open Learning Environment
Chapter 111
Shiu-chung Au, Amar Gupta
Medical information has been traditionally maintained in books, journals, and specialty periodicals. A growing subset of patients and caregivers are... Sample PDF
Gastrointestinal Motility Online Educational Endeavor
Chapter 112
Matthew W. Guah
The implementation of a national programme for information technology into the complex environment of the UK’s National Health Service (NHS) system... Sample PDF
Web Services in National Healthcare: The Impact of Public and Private Collaboration
Chapter 113
Sherrie D. Cannoy
A large number of patients currently utilize the Internet to access healthcare-related information (Tobin, 2002). Many physician and health-related... Sample PDF
Using Hospital Web Sites to Enhance Communication
Chapter 114
Christopher G. Reddick
This article examines the use of the Internet for gathering health information by boomers and seniors. This study attempts to determine whether... Sample PDF
The Internet, Health Information, and Managing Health: An Examination of Boomers and Seniors
Chapter 115
Qingxiong Ma, Liping Liu
The technology acceptance model (TAM) stipulates that both perceived ease of use (PEOU) and perceived usefulness (PU) directly influence the end... Sample PDF
The Role of Internet Self-Efficacy in the Acceptance of Web-Based Electronic Medical Records
Chapter 116
Jane Moon
The aim of this chapter is to review the way portal technology can assist users seeking medical information. There has been an increase in health... Sample PDF
Intelligent Portals for Supporting Medical Information Needs
Chapter 117
Lynette Kvasny
In this article, we make a case for research which examines the cultural inclusiveness and salience of health portals. We make our case from the... Sample PDF
Health Portals and Menu-Driven Identities
Chapter 118
Jane Moon
There has been an explosion in the number of different types of portals in the last decade, and at the same time there has been a lot of confusion... Sample PDF
Assisting Users Seeking Medical Information through Government Portals
Chapter 119
Mats Edenius
We know that interest in employing Web portals for communication between the health care sector and the public is constantly increasing (Kapsalis... Sample PDF
Empowerment and Health Portals
Chapter 120
Michele Masucci
E-health has rapidly gained attention as a framework for understanding the relationship between using information and communication technologies... Sample PDF
Digital Divide and E-Health Implications for E-Collaboration Research
Chapter 121
R. C. MacGregor
Information and communications technologies (ICTs) are being used more and more by general practitioners (GPs) in their day-to-day activities. While... Sample PDF
Benefits Derived from ICT Adoption in Regional Medical Practices: Perceptual Differences Between Male and Female General Practitioners
Chapter 122
Janice A. Osbourne
This paper discusses the use of three published models, the Technology acceptance model (TAM), Rogers diffusion of Innovation theory (IDT), and the... Sample PDF
Factors Motivating the Acceptance of New Information and Communication Technologies in UK Healthcare: A Test of Three Models
Chapter 123
Kai Zheng, Rema Padman, Michael P. Johnson, Herbert S. Diamond
Information technology (IT) adoption and diffusion is a central concern of information systems research and practice. The most widely-accepted... Sample PDF
Gender Differences in Adoption and Use of a Healthcare IT Application
Chapter 124
Jing Chong
HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) and AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) represent a growing and significant health threat to women... Sample PDF
Social Construction of Gender and Sexuality in Online HIV/AIDS Information
Chapter 125
Rosanna Tarsiero
The chapter provides the reader with an overview of the problems persons with mental illness experience in their everyday life, and guides readers... Sample PDF
Community-Based Information Technology Interventions for Persons with Mental Illness
Chapter 126
Neset Hikmet, Anol Bhattacherjee
This study examines the effects of professional certifications such as JCAHO on healthcare information technology (HIT) usage in healthcare... Sample PDF
The Impact of Professional Certifications on Healthcare Information Technology Use
Chapter 127
Reima Suomi
The pressures for the health care industry are well known and very similar in all developed countries: altering populations, shortage of resources... Sample PDF
Governing Health Care with IT
Chapter 128
Carla Wiggins
Governance is traditionally viewed as a formal authority structure. Information Technology (IT) governance parallels this in that it refers to the... Sample PDF
Entrepreneurial IT Governance: Electronic Medical Records in Rural Healthcare
Chapter 129
Reima Suomi
The pressures for the health care industry are well known and very similar in all developed countries (i.e., altering population, shortage of... Sample PDF
Governance Structures for IT in the Health Care Industry
Chapter 130
Matthew W. Guah
This article reviews the development of institutional theory in direct relations to historical changes within the UK’s National Health Service (NHS)... Sample PDF
Changing Healthcare Institutions with Large Information Technology Projects
Chapter 131
Sherrie D. Cannoy
There is growing concern that the healthcare industry has not adopted IT systems as widely and effectively as other industries. Healthcare... Sample PDF
Information Assurance in E-Healthcare
Chapter 132
Carrison K.S. Tong, Eric T.T. Wong
Like other information systems in banking and commercial companies, information security is also an important issue in the healthcare industry. It... Sample PDF
Information Security Management in Picture Archiving and Communication Systems for the Healthcare Industry
Chapter 133
Pravin Shetty, Seng Loke
The Internet has proven to be the most convenient and demanding facility for various types of businesses and transactions for the past few years. In... Sample PDF
Modelling Context-Aware Security for Electronic Health Records
Chapter 134
Amar Gupta, Raj K. Goyal, Keith A. Joiner, Sanjay Saini
The healthcare industry is being impacted by advances in information technology in four major ways: first, a broad spectrum of tasks that were... Sample PDF
Outsourcing in the Healthcare Industry: Information Technology, Intellectual Property, and Allied Aspects
Chapter 135
Kirill M. Yurov
Healthcare technology markets have been recently identified as potential investment targets. Having survived a major environmental shock, the dot.... Sample PDF
Strategic Maneuvering in Healthcare Technology Markets: The Case of Emdeon Corporation
Chapter 136
Nilmini Wickramasinghe, Steve Goldberg
Medical science has made revolutionary changes in the past decades. Contemporaneously, however, healthcare has made incremental changes at best. The... Sample PDF
M-Health: A New Paradigm for Mobilizing Healthcare Delivery
Chapter 137
Dieter Hertweck, Asarnusch Rashid
There is an ongoing debate about the value of mobile applications for the optimization of business processes in European hospitals. Thus finding... Sample PDF
Mobile Business Process Reengineering: How to Measure the Input of Mobile Applications to Business Processes in European Hospitals
Chapter 138
Abrams A. O’Buyonge
The increasing use of the Internet by consumers gave rise to an information boom to health-care consumers. Not only could the Internet be used as a... Sample PDF
E-Health Dot-Coms' Critical Success Factors
Chapter 139
Dag Von Lubitz, Nilmini Wickramasinghe
Healthcare has yet to realize the true potential afforded by e-health. To date, technology-based healthcare operations are conducted chaotically, at... Sample PDF
Healthcare Network Centric Operations: The Confluence of E-Health and E-Government
Chapter 140
Arjun Kalyanpur, Firoz Latif, Sanjay Saini, Surendra Sarnikar
Advances in healthcare information technology have enabled new models for electronic delivery of healthcare services. In this article, we present... Sample PDF
Inter-Organizational E-Commerce in Healthcare Services: The Case of Global Teleradiology
Chapter 141
George Eisler, Joseph Tan, Samuel Sheps
Among key drivers of healthcare reform in Canadian society are the challenges faced by the rapid rate of technological change and its impact on... Sample PDF
A Metric for Healthcare Technology Management (HCTM): E-Surveying Key Executives and Administrators of Canadian Teaching Hospitals1
Chapter 142
Barbara Adams, Eta S. Berner, Joni Rousse Wyatt
User resistance is a common occurrence when new information systems are implemented within health care organizations. Individuals responsible for... Sample PDF
Applying Strategies to Overcome User Resistance in a Group of Clinical Managers to a Business Software Application: A Case Study
Chapter 143
Nat Natarajan, Amanda H. Hoffmeister
The healthcare sector is a very important one in many countries and faces numerous quality and performance problems of great significance to all... Sample PDF
"Do No Harm": Can Healthcare Live Up to It?
Chapter 144
Pooja Deshmukh, David Croasdell
This chapter explores privacy and security issues in health care. It describes the difference between privacy and security in the context of health... Sample PDF
HIPAA: Privacy and Security in Health Care Networks
Chapter 145
Jimmie L. Joseph, David P. Cook
New technologies can lead to social upheaval and ethical dilemmas which are unrecognized at the time of their introduction. Medical care technology... Sample PDF
Medical Ethical and Policy Issues Arising from RIA
Chapter 146
Yifeng Shen
Thanks to the rapid development in the field of information technology, healthcare providers rely more and more on information systems to deliver... Sample PDF
Access Control for Healthcare
Chapter 147
Willy Susilo
Access to mobile data and messages is essential in healthcare environment as patients and healthcare providers are mobile. This is inline with the... Sample PDF
Securing Mobile Data Computing in Healthcare
Chapter 148
Yingge Wang
The widespread and fast-developing information technologies, especially wireless communications and the Internet, have allowed for the realization... Sample PDF
E-Health Security and Privacy
Chapter 149
Snezana Sucurovic
This chapter presents security solutions in integrated patient-centric Web-based health-care information systems, also known as electronic... Sample PDF
Security in E-Health Applications
Chapter 150
Prajesh Chhanabhai
The Internet is one of the most utilized resources for obtaining information, learning, communication, and as a source of advice. The most sought... Sample PDF
E-Health and Ensuring Quality
Chapter 151
Elizabeth Sillence, Pamela Briggs, Peter Harris, Lesley Fishwick
The number of people turning to the Internet to meet their various health needs is rising. As the prevalence of this form of e-health increases, so... Sample PDF
Developing Trust Practices for E-Health
Chapter 152
Dick Whiddett
The special relationship of trust that needs to exist between a patient and his or her physician has been recognized since the origins of the... Sample PDF
Privacy and Access to Electronic Health Records
Chapter 153
Surya Nepal
The problem of assuring secure and confidential access and transfer of medical records in healthcare facilities can be partitioned into (a) secure... Sample PDF
A Trusted System for Sharing Patient Electronic Medical Records in Autonomous Distributed Health Care Systems
Chapter 154
Elmer V. Bernstam, Funda Meric-Bernstam
This chapter discusses the problem of how to evaluate online health information. The quality and accuracy of online health information is an area of... Sample PDF
Reliability and Evaluation of Health Information Online
Chapter 155
Diane Lending
The objective of this study is to gain an understanding of nurses’ perceptions of the confidentiality of computerized charts and determine if these... Sample PDF
The Effects of Confidentiality on Nursing Self-Efficacy with Information Systems
Chapter 156
Josipa Kern
Standard is a thing or quality or specification by which something may be tested or measured. The development of standards is organized on a global... Sample PDF
Standardization in Health and Medical Informatics
Chapter 157
Feng Chu
Accurate diagnosis of cancers is of great importance for doctors to choose a proper treatment. Furthermore, it also plays a key role in the... Sample PDF
Biomedical Data Mining Using RBF Neural Networks
Chapter 158
Francisco M. Couto
This chapter introduces the use of Text Mining in scientific literature for biological research, with a special focus on automatic gene and protein... Sample PDF
Mining BioLiterature: Toward Automatic Annotation of Genes and Proteins
Chapter 159
John P. Pestian, Lukasz Itert, Charlotte Andersen
Approximately 57 different types of clinical annotations construct a patient’s medical record. These annotations include radiology reports... Sample PDF
Preparing Clinical Text for Use in Biomedical Research
Chapter 160
Amandeep S. Sidhu, Paul J. Kennedy, Simeon Simoff, Tharam S. Dillon, Elizabeth Chang
In some real-world areas, it is important to enrich the data with external background knowledge so as to provide context and to facilitate pattern... Sample PDF
Knowledge Discovery in Biomedical Data Facilitated by Domain Ontologies
Chapter 161
Takashi Kido
This chapter introduces computational methods for detecting complex disease loci with haplotype analysis. It argues that the haplotype analysis... Sample PDF
A Haplotype Analysis System for Genes Discovery of Common Diseases
Chapter 162
Yos S. Morsi
This chapter describes the utilization of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with neural network (NN) for analysis of medical devices. First, the... Sample PDF
Computational Fluid Dynamics and Neural Network for Modeling and Simulations of Medical Devices
Chapter 163
Jason H. Moore
Human genetics is an evolving discipline that is being driven by rapid advances in technologies that make it possible to measure enormous quantities... Sample PDF
Genome-Wide Analysis of Epistasis Using Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction: Feature Selection and Construction in the Domain of Human Genetics
Chapter 164
Cândida Ferreira
In this chapter an artificial problem solver inspired in natural genotype/phenotype systems — gene expression programming — is presented. As an... Sample PDF
Gene Expression Programming and the Evolution of Computer Programs
Chapter 165
Chetan Sharma
In India, the practice of sex-selective abortion or female foeticide (in which an unborn baby is aborted or killed before birth simply because it is... Sample PDF
Checking Female Foeticide in the Information Age
Chapter 166
Stefan Jablonski, Rainer Lay, Christian Meiler, Matthias Faerber, Bernhard Volz, Sebastian Dornstauder
Healthcare applications are demanding with respect to their IT needs. Due to their complexity they need strong IT support which must provide enough... Sample PDF
Integrated Process and Data Management for Healthcare Applications
Chapter 167
Qing Zhang
In this article we investigate how approximate query processing (AQP) can be used in medical multidatabase systems. We identify two areas where this... Sample PDF
Approximate Processing for Medical Record Linking and Multidatabase Analysis
Chapter 168
Thomas Chesney, Kay Penny, Peter Oakley, Simon Davies, David Chesney, Nicola Maffulli
Trauma audit is intended to develop effective care for injured patients through process and outcome analysis, and dissemination of results. The... Sample PDF
Data Mining Medical Information: Should Artificial Neural Networks be Used to Analyse Trauma Audit Data?
Chapter 169
Xiaodan Zhang, Liping Jing, Xiaohua Hu, Michael Ng, Jiali Xia, Xiaohua Zhou
Recent research shows that ontology as background knowledge can improve document clustering quality with its concept hierarchy knowledge. Previous... Sample PDF
Medical Document Clustering Using Ontology-Based Term Similarity Measures
Chapter 170
Jane Moon
There has been a paradigm shift in medical practice. More and more consumers are using the Internet as a source for medical information even before... Sample PDF
Ontology-Based Spelling Correction for Searching Medical Information
Chapter 171
Peng-Yeng Yin, Shyong-Jian Shyu, Guan-Shieng Huang, Shuang-Te Liao
With the advent of new sequencing technology for biological data, the number of sequenced proteins stored in public databases has become an... Sample PDF
A Bayesian Framework for Improving Clustering Accuracy of Protein Sequences Based on Association Rules
Chapter 172
Luis M. De Campos
Bayesian networks (Jensen, 2001) are powerful tools for dealing with uncertainty. They have been successfully applied in a wide range of domains... Sample PDF
Retrieving Medical Records Using Bayesian Networks
Chapter 173
Seiya Imoto
In cells, genes interact with each other and this system can be viewed as directed graphs. A gene network is a graphical representation of... Sample PDF
Bayesian Network Approach to Estimate Gene Networks
Chapter 174
Fuzzy Logic in Medicine  (pages 2306-2312)
Michelle LaBrunda, Andrew LaBrunda
This article explores the use of fuzzy logic in the medical field. While giving a comparison of classic and fuzzy logic we present the various uses... Sample PDF
Fuzzy Logic in Medicine
Chapter 175
Pirkko Nykänen
E-health refers to use of information and communication technologies to improve or enable health and healthcare. E-health broadens the scope of... Sample PDF
E-Health Systems: Their Use and Visions for the Future
Chapter 176
Stefano Baraldi
For some years now, the opportunity of innovating business models has basically been linked to continual progress in ICT. Healthcare is no... Sample PDF
Healthcare Organizations and the Internet's Virtual Space: Changes in Action
Chapter 177
Mónica Miguélez Rico
Medical data and digital imaging for medical diagnosis currently represent a very important research area in computer science. The generation of... Sample PDF
Web Portal for Genomic and Epidemiologic Medical Data
Chapter 178
Wullianallur Raghupathi
The Web services paradigm offers numerous potential benefits to the health care area. These include interoperability, portability, scalability, and... Sample PDF
Exploring a UML Profile Approach to Modeling Web Services in Healthcare
Chapter 179
Nilmini Wickramasinghe, Sushil K. Sharma, Harsha P. Reddy
The ongoing tension between certainty over uncertainty is the main force that is driving the evidence-based medicine movement. The central... Sample PDF
Evidence-Based Medicine: A New Approach in the Practice of Medicine
Chapter 180
Avnish Rastogi, Tugrul Daim, Joseph Tan
As health organizations strive to improve operational efficiencies and increase worker productivity, new forms of health information technologies... Sample PDF
Charting Health Information Technology Futures for Healthcare Services Organizations
Chapter 181
Teemu Paavola, Pekka Turunen, Jari Vuori
The aim of this chapter is to share recent findings and understanding on how information systems can be better adopted to support new ways of work... Sample PDF
Towards Knowledge Intensive Inter-Organizational Systems in Healthcare
Chapter 182
Frédérique Laforest
Medical records have been used for a long time with different forms, aims, and usages. This heterogeneity is the result of different professions... Sample PDF
Documents and Topic Maps: An Original Way to Manage Medical Records
Chapter 183
Nada Hashmi, Mark Gaynor, Marissa Pepe, Matt Welsh, William W. Tollefsen, Steven Moulton
Emergency Medical Services (EMS) are not only responsible for providing prompt and efficient medical care to many different types emergencies, but... Sample PDF
A Prehospital Database System For Emergency Medical Services
Chapter 184
Shawna Sando
With rising and often unreasonable costs in the U.S. healthcare system, Americans are becoming more inclined to seek cheaper alternatives. In some... Sample PDF
Outsourcing of Medical Surgery and the Evolution of Medical Telesurgery
Chapter 185
Witold Kinsner
Numerous attempts are being made to develop machines that could act not only autonomously, but also in an increasingly intelligent and cognitive... Sample PDF
Towards Cognitive Machines: Multiscale Measures and Analysis
Chapter 186
Yoosuf Cader
The 2005 global revenues of publicly traded biotechnology companies have grown by 18.1% to $63.1 billion (Donn, 2006). Many countries are now... Sample PDF
Biotechnology Portals in Medicine
Chapter 187
Yu Tang
This chapter introduces the decision fusion as a means of exploring information from distributed medical data. It proposes a new method of applying... Sample PDF
Soft Statistical Decision Fusion for Distributed Medical Data on Grids
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