Training and User Acceptance in a University ERP Implementation: Applying the Technology Acceptance Model

Training and User Acceptance in a University ERP Implementation: Applying the Technology Acceptance Model

Joseph Bradley (University of Idaho, USA) and C. Christopher Lee (Pacific Lutheran University, USA)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-146-9.ch013
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Abstract

Training is still a neglected part of most ERP implementation projects. This case study investigates the relation between training satisfaction and the perceptions of ease of use, the perception of usefulness, effectiveness and efficiency in implementing an ERP system at a mid-sized organization. We view training satisfaction as a necessary condition for technology acceptance. Our surrogates for training satisfaction are (1) training level prior to implementation, (2) training level when measured after implementation, (3) understanding of features and functions, and (4) perceived need for more training because these factors contribute to perceived ease of use and usefulness. A survey of 143 employees involved in the implementation of ERP in a mid-sized university was conducted. ANOVA and t-tests were used to explore differences in training satisfaction among groups of users by gender, job type, and education level. We found that training satisfaction differed based on job type and gender but not education level. Multiple regression analysis suggests that (1) post implementation training satisfaction is related to ease of use and (2) current training satisfaction and user participation are related to our variables for usefulness, which are perceived efficiency and effectiveness of the ERP systems in doing respondents’ jobs
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Introduction

Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems are complex, integrated, off-the-shelf IT solutions that promise to meet the information needs of an organization. ERP systems frequently replace aging and difficult-to-maintain legacy systems. Despite ERP’s promise, these systems are difficult, time consuming and expensive to implement. Many failed implementation projects have been widely cited in the business and academic press (Davenport, 1998; Steadman, 1999; Steadman, 1999a; Wah, 2000; Nelson, 2007).

In response to today’s constantly changing business conditions, many organizations are implementing ERP systems. Large sums are still being spent on ERP installations. A Forrester survey found that ERP and enterprise applications in general remain the top IT spending priority for 2005 (Hamerman & Wang, 2006). A survey of Society for Information Management members conducted in the summer of 2005 concluded that ERP is among the top six application concerns of its members (Luftman, Kempaiah, and Nash, 2006).

ERP systems allow organizations to put separate business processes together into one compact software system using what the vendors consider “best practices.” Integration of different business processes using off-the-shelf ERP solutions is predicted to reap benefits that will outweigh the costs involved with the implementation; however, practice has shown that ERP implementation is not an easy task. Davenport (1998) identified unsuccessful implementation efforts at Fox-Meyer Drug, Mobile Europe, Dell and Applied Materials. Stedman (1999) found that after spending $112 million on an ERP project, Hershey Foods was unable to fill Halloween candy orders in 1999, resulting in a 19% drop in quarterly profits. Wah (2000) observes that “ERP projects have snarled internal processes in big companies like Whirlpool, Hershey’s, Waste Management, Inc. and W. L. Gore & Associates.” Nike’s ERP implementation is included in a listing of “infamous failures in IT project management” because of a major inventory problem which resulted in a profit drop of $100 million in the 3rd quarter of 2000 (Nelson, 2007).

The case we report in this paper deals with a mid-sized university. Universities face many of the same problems as for profit organizations in installing ERP such as “the problems of coordinating resources, controlling costs, of stimulating and facilitating enterprise among the staff, and so on ” (Pollock and Cornford, 2004, p. 32). In face of cut-backs in funding, many universities turned to ERP systems to improve efficiency and to become more responsive to student needs. Higher education institutions are not exempt from implementation difficulties. Universities often suffer lost revenue, wasted time, cost overruns and delays during ERP systems implementations. For example, the state of Ohio sued PeopleSoft for $510 million for fraud and breach of contract (Songini, 2004). The University of Massachusetts – Amherst experienced a “nightmare” at registration (Bray, 2004) and Indiana University experienced difficulties in financial aid payments (Songini, 2004a).

We know from the Technology Acceptance Model (Davis, 1989) that successful implementation requires user acceptance. Since ERP systems are potentially a disruptive technology change, organizations undertake training as a way to gain technology acceptance. Only a small number of existing studies examined the effectiveness of training and education in ERP system implementation at higher-education institutions. This lack of exploration of an important factor in successful ERP implementations is what led us to this study. The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship of training and education to ERP project success. We use:

  • User perceptions of ease of use,

  • User perceptions of usefulness,

  • Efficiency and

  • Effectiveness

as predictors of use, an important element of ERP project success.

Complete Chapter List

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Table of Contents
Preface
Angappa Gunasekaran
Chapter 1
Emad M. Kamhawi
Responding to the need for a better understanding of the factors that explain ERP systems implementation success, this chapter used a field study to... Sample PDF
Examining the Factors Affecting Project and Business Success of ERP Implementation
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Chapter 2
Ronald E. McGaughey, Angappa Gunasekaran
Business needs have driven the design, development, and use of the enterprise-wide information systems we call Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)... Sample PDF
Evolution of Enterprise Resource Planning
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Chapter 3
Purnendu Mandal, Mohan P. Rao
The build-up of export-oriented companies since 1990s on the Mexico-USA boarder, and their recent decline, is no surprise to many policy analysts.... Sample PDF
Information Technology Usage in Maquila Enterprises
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Chapter 4
Henk Jonkers, Maria-Eugenia Iacob
In this chapter the authors address the integration of functional models with non-functional models in the context of service-oriented... Sample PDF
Performance and Cost Analysis of Service-Oriented Enterprise Architectures
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Chapter 5
S. Parthasarathy
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system is an integrated software system reflecting the business processes of an enterprise. Enterprise Resource... Sample PDF
Significance of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Nominal Group Technique (NGT) in ERP Implementation
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Chapter 6
Manuel Kolp, Yves Wautelet, Stéphane Faulkner
Organizational Modeling is concerned with analyzing and understanding the organizational context within which a software system will eventually... Sample PDF
Specifying Software Models with Organizational Styles
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Chapter 7
Piotr Soja
Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems have been implemented in various and diverse organizations. The size of companies, their industry, the... Sample PDF
Towards Identifying the Most Important Attributes of ERP Implementations
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Chapter 8
Shuchih Ernest Chang
Other than providing Web services through popular Web browser interfaces, pervasive computing may offer new ways of accessing Internet applications... Sample PDF
A Voice-Enabled Pervasive Web System with Self-Optimization Capability for Supporting Enterprise Applications
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Chapter 9
Hafid Agourram
Research has showed that social and socio-technical concepts are influenced by culture. The objective of this chapter is to explore how the... Sample PDF
The Impact of Culture on the Perception of Information System Success
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Chapter 10
John Krogstie, Csaba Veres, Guttorm Sindre
Much of the early focus in the area of Semantic Web has been on the development of representation languages for static conceptual information; while... Sample PDF
Achieving System and Business Interoperability by Semantic Web Services
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Chapter 11
Chen-Yang Cheng
The success of implementing Enterprise Information System (EIS) depends on exploring and improving the EIS software, and EIS software training.... Sample PDF
Integrated Research and Training in Enterprise Information Systems
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Chapter 12
Lea Kutvonen
Participation in electronic business networks has become necessary for the success of enterprises. The strategic business needs for participating in... Sample PDF
Service-Oriented Middleware for Managing Inter-Enterprise Collaborations
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Chapter 13
Joseph Bradley, C. Christopher Lee
Training is still a neglected part of most ERP implementation projects. This case study investigates the relation between training satisfaction and... Sample PDF
Training and User Acceptance in a University ERP Implementation: Applying the Technology Acceptance Model
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Chapter 14
Diego Milano
Data quality is a complex concept defined by various dimensions such as accuracy, currency, completeness, and consistency (Wang & Strong, 1996).... Sample PDF
Measuring and Diffusing Data Quality in a Peer-to-Peer Architecture
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Chapter 15
Vipul Jain
The key part of dynamic supply chain management is negotiating with suppliers and with buyers. Designing efficient business processes throughout the... Sample PDF
Modeling Buyer-Supplier Relationships in Dynamic Supply Chains
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Chapter 16
Ioannis Ignatiadis, Joe Nandhakumar
Enterprise Systems are widespread in current organizations and seen as integrating organizational procedures across functional divisions. An... Sample PDF
Enterprise Systems, Control and Drift
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About the Contributors