Transforming a Pediatrics Lecture Series to Online Instruction

Transforming a Pediatrics Lecture Series to Online Instruction

Tiffany A. Koszalka (Syracuse University, USA) and Bradley Olson (SUNY Upstate Medical University, USA)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-002-8.ch029
OnDemand PDF Download:


A major issue facing medical education training programs across the USA is the recent advent of universal mandatory duty hour limitations and the time pressure it places on formal face-to-face educational sessions. In response to these mandates and associated issues many medical education programs are exploring the use of online instruction to address issues of accessibility. This chapter describes the instructional development process followed to transform a classroom-based pediatrics residency lecture series into an on-demand, video-enhanced, online instructional environment. An overview of the learning principles and instructional sciences that guided the design process is provided. The phases of the designed solution are then described in the context of enhancing the lecture series as it was transformed into online instruction. Implementation logistics are described followed by an overview of the benefits, barriers, and initial project outcomes. Plans for future enhancements and research projects are also discussed.
Chapter Preview


Designing good instruction is predicated on understanding learning. Effective learning is predicated on accurately defining learning outcomes and providing instructional environments that support the achievement of learning outcomes. Both are essential to successful online instruction (Koszalka, 2007, p. 2).

Principles of learning and the instructional sciences were used to enhance the overall strength of the pediatrics residency curriculum at SUNY Upstate Medical University in Syracuse, New York. In response to the recent advent of universal mandatory duty hour limitations and the time pressure it places on formal face-to-face educational sessions, the entire residency curriculum, consisting of a year-long classroom-based lecture series, was transformed into a blended video-based online format supported by application-based classroom experiences. The online lectures component was not a straight conversion where lectures were simply videotaped and offered to the residents through a distance education program, rather the demand for change was used as an opportunity to re-evaluate the design of the lecture series and apply sound learning and instructional design principles to enhance the overall residency instructional process.

Application of learning principles. Learning at its foundation is about change, change in human condition based on experiences. Principles of social learning theories posit that learning is a construction of knowledge based on an individual’s observations of, and interactions with, information and people around them. Learning can occur both at surface and deep levels depending on how individuals interact with new information.

Surface learning suggests storage and remembrance of information, facts, concepts, principles, and procedures. It often results in recalling basic information and demonstrating new procedures and behaviors, for example. Deep learning, or critical thinking, suggests activation of higher order thinking. Outcomes of this type of learning include constructing knowledge to evaluate, apply, diagnose, problem solve, debate, critique, and other activities that require successfully addressing complex and ill-structured problems, such as those encountered by medical professionals.

The construction or learning of knowledge at these different levels is supported through different types of interactions (instruction) with content and people that accommodate individual preferences and learning styles of the learner (Akdemir & Koszalka, In-press; Akdemir & Koszalka, 2005; Kidney, G., & Puckett, 2003). Thus, instruction is thought to be richest and most effective in facilitating deep learning when:

  • Learners are engaged in solving real-life problems;

  • Existing knowledge is activated as a foundation to new knowledge;

  • New knowledge is demonstrated to the learner;

  • When new knowledge is applied by the learner;

  • When new knowledge is integrated into the learner’s world (Merrill, 2000).

Application of instructional sciences and design processes. The instructional sciences inform how activities can be designed to prompt and facilitate required levels of learning that meet expected outcomes. To design instruction and learning experiences that apply learning principles successfully an instructional system design (ISD) process can be undertaken. The process includes: (A) analyzing the gap in knowledge (what does the learner know and what should they learn), (D) designing an instructional and learning solution, (D) developing the solution based on the design, (I) implementing and testing the solution, and (E) evaluating the results (Dick, Carey, & Carey, 2005; Smith & Ragan, 2005). An ADDIE approach, guided by principles of learning and instruction, is especially important when designing instruction for online applications, as the perceived separation of learner and facilitator can be distracting to the learner or fail to provide information and social learning interactions required by the learner.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Interface Complexity: A term that describes the degree of complexity that a user encounters when engaged with a digital medium like a website. With increasing complexity of the interface of a webpage, for example, the user required to dedicate cognitive energy to learning the intricacies of the interface as opposed to the content that is contained within the website.

American Board of Pediatrics Blueprint Document: This is a 212-page document that outlines the core content of the American Board of Pediatrics certification exam that is taken upon completion of pediatric residency training.

Instructional Systems Design: Systematic process for designing and developing instruction. Generally includes analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation phases.

Instructional Design: Phase with the instructional systems design process where instruction in planned that is designed to close and instructional gap based on learning theory and instructional design theory.

Course Management System (CMS): A packaged program that is used for creating, delivering, and managing online instruction. Often course management systems include menu and template based tools to help developers easily build content, communication, testing, and other types of screens that support teaching and learning. These systems often also include management functions that support assignment grading, monitoring learner access, and completing course evaluations. Examples of popular CMS include BlackBoard, WebCT, and ANGEL.

American Board of Pediatrics (ABP): The governing agency that certifies pediatric practitioners within the United States of America. The certification process involves passing a norm-referenced examination upon completion of pediatric residency training.

E-Learning: Also referred to as online learning, it is the use of internet technologies to deliver a broad array of educational materials.

Instructional Development: Phase with the instructional systems design process where instructional materials and processes are built based on a blue print developed during a design phase.

Core Curriculum: The core curriculum is the agreed upon scope of material that defines the significant knowledge that is contained within a domain like pediatrics. It encompasses what would be reasonably expected for a practicing pediatrician to know.

Complete Chapter List

Search this Book:
Editorial Advisory Board
Table of Contents
Athina A. Lazakidou
Athina A. Lazakidou
Chapter 1
Sanjay P. Sood, Sandhya Keeroo, Victor W.A. Mbarika, Nupur Prakash, Ankur Seth
It is claimed that seeds of ‘medical informatics’ were sown in 1960s.From this time until the 1990s experts have described the discipline as... Sample PDF
Medical Informatics: Thirty Six Peer-Reviewed Shades
Chapter 2
D. John Doyle
E-health technology has started to become commonplace in the clinical world, with practitioners setting up their own Web sites to disseminate... Sample PDF
Medical Privacy and the Internet
Chapter 3
Ana Ferreira, Ricardo Cruz-Correia, Luís Antunes, David Chadwick
This chapter reports the authors’ experiences regarding security of the electronic medical record (EMR). Although the EMR objectives are to support... Sample PDF
Security of Electronic Medical Records
Chapter 4
György Surján
This chapter outlines the history of medical classifications in a general cultural context. Classification is a general phenomenon in science and... Sample PDF
The Cultural History of Medical Classifications
Chapter 5
Spyros Kitsiou
A fundamental requirement for achieving continuity of care is commonly accepted to be the integration and interoperability of different clinical... Sample PDF
Overview and Analysis of Electronic Health Record Standards
Chapter 6
Graham D. Bodie, Mohan J. Dutta, Ambar Basu
This chapter overviews an integrative model of e-health use that connects social disparities at the population level with individual characteristics... Sample PDF
The Integrative Model of E-Health Use
Chapter 7
Firat Kart
In this chapter we describe a distributed e-healthcare system that uses service oriented architecture as a basis for designing, implementing... Sample PDF
A Distributed E-Healthcare System
Chapter 8
Davor Mucic
In this chapter the author gives the short review over wide range of telepsychiatry applications. Furthermore, describes completely new and... Sample PDF
Telepsychiatry Within European E-Health
Chapter 9
Azizah Omar
In this chapter the author discusses several marketing principles and issues related to pitfalls and successes of Telehealth application in the case... Sample PDF
Pitfalls and Successes of a Web-Based Wellness Program
Chapter 10
Isabel de la Torre Díez
This chapter describes a Web -based application to store and exchange Electronic Health Records (EHR) and medical images in Ophthalmology... Sample PDF
A Web-Based Application to Exchange Electronic Health Records and Medical Images in Ophthalmology
Chapter 11
Mario Ceresa
This chapter mainly focuses on biomedical knowledge representation and its use in biomedicine. It first illustrates the existent more relevant... Sample PDF
Clinical and Biomolecular Ontologies for E-Health
Chapter 12
Roger Tait, Gerald Schaefer
The registration of corresponding patient volumes is often a pre-requisite for medical imaging tasks. Accurate alignment, however, usually results... Sample PDF
Distributed Medical Volume Registration
Chapter 13
Bill Ag. Drougas
Internet today is one of the most useful tools for information, education and business or entertainment. It is one of the modern technology tools... Sample PDF
Electronic Commerce for Health Products Services-Problems- Quality and Future
Chapter 14
Christos Bountis
This chapter introduces and reviews the concept of distributed knowledge management within the Healthcare environment and between Healthcare and... Sample PDF
Distributed Knowledge Management in Healthcare
Chapter 15
Jelena Vucetic
This paper describes business and technological challenges and solutions for a successful emergency telemedicine venture called MediComm. Its... Sample PDF
An Analysis of a Successful Emergency Telemedicine Venture
Chapter 16
Tammara Massey, Foad Dabiri, Roozbeh Jafari, Hyduke Noshadi, Philip Brisk, Majid Sarrafzadeh
This chapter introduces reconfigurable design techniques for light-weight medical systems. The research presented in this chapter demonstrates how... Sample PDF
Reconfigurable Embedded Medical Systems
Chapter 17
Konstantinos Perakis
The evolutions in the field of telecommunications technologies, with the robustness and the fidelity these new systems provide, have significantly... Sample PDF
Third Generation (3G) Cellular Networks in Telemedicine: Technological Overview, Applications, and Limitations
Chapter 18
Anton V. Vladzymyrskyy
This chapter introduces usage of telemedicine consultations in daily clinical practice. Author has describe process of teleconsultation, sample... Sample PDF
Telemedicine Consultations in Daily Clinical Practice: Systems, Organisation, Efficiency
Chapter 19
Cheon-Pyo Lee, J. P. Shim
Ubiquitous healthcare has become possible with rapid advances in information and communication technologies. Ubiquitous healthcare will bring about... Sample PDF
Ubiquitous Healthcare: Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) in Hospitals
Chapter 20
Rafael Capilla, Alfonso del Río, Miguel Ángel Valero, José Antonio Sánchez
This chapter deals with the conceptualization, design and implementation of an m-health solution to support ubiquitous, integrated and continuous... Sample PDF
Agile Patient Care with Distributed M-Health Applications
Chapter 21
Žilbert Tafa
This chapter describes the very actual issues on mobile health (M-H) and home care (H-C) telecare systems, reviewing state of the art as well as... Sample PDF
Mobile Health Applications and New Home Care Telecare Systems: Critical Engineering Issues
Chapter 22
José Antonio Seoane Fernández, Juan Luis Pérez Ordóñez, Noha Veiguela Blanco
This chapter presents an architecture for the integration of various algorithms for digital image processing (DIP) into web-based information... Sample PDF
A New System for the Integration of Medical Imaging Processing Algorithms into a Web Environment
Chapter 23
Daniel Welfer
This chapter discusses the concept of open-source picture archiving and communication systems (i.e. PACS), which are low cost, and easy to... Sample PDF
PACS Based on Open-Source Software Components
Chapter 24
Carolin Kaiser
This chapter introduces a case based reasoning (CBR) system for customizing treatment processes. The CBR system enables the generating of inpatient... Sample PDF
Case Based Reasoning for Customizing Treatment Processes
Chapter 25
I. Apostolakis, A. Chryssanthou, I. Varlamis
A significant issue in health related applications is protecting a patient’s profile data from unauthorized access. In the case of telemedicine... Sample PDF
A Holistic Perspective of Security in Health Related Virtual Communities
Chapter 26
Stamatia Ilioudi
This chapter aims to present various virtual learning environments for medical purposes in the world. More than ever, medical students and... Sample PDF
Virtual Learning Environments in Health
Chapter 27
Jelena Vucetic
In the last decade, advances in medicine, telemedicine, computer technologies, information systems, Web applications, robotics and... Sample PDF
Multimedia Distance Learning Solutions for Surgery
Chapter 28
Maria Andréia F. Rodrigues
This chapter shows how recent computing technologies such as collaborative virtual environments, high speed networks and mobile devices can be used... Sample PDF
Collaborative Virtual Environments and Multimedia Communication Technologies in Healthcare
Chapter 29
Tiffany A. Koszalka, Bradley Olson
A major issue facing medical education training programs across the USA is the recent advent of universal mandatory duty hour limitations and the... Sample PDF
Transforming a Pediatrics Lecture Series to Online Instruction
Chapter 30
Anastasia N. Kastania, Stelios Zimeras
In this chapter the authors investigate telehealth quality and reliability assurance. Various models and standards can be applied to assess software... Sample PDF
Quality and Reliability Aspects in Telehealth Systems
Chapter 31
Kleopatra Alamantariotou
Recent statistics show that the World Wide Web has now grown to over 100 million sites: a phenomenal expansion in only 15 years (Mulligan 2007). It... Sample PDF
Quality of Health Information on the Internet
Chapter 32
Kashif Hussain
This chapter provides a practical approach to computerized system validation (CSV) for the pharmaceutical organizations for the users dealing with... Sample PDF
A Practical Approach to Computerized System Validation
Chapter 33
Bill Ag Drougas, Maria Sevdali
Ergophysiology as a division of the Physiology and helps us today to understand what happens in the human body and movement and how we are able to... Sample PDF
Organization and Evaluation of Experimental Measurements of Ergophysiological Data with the Method of SF12V2
Chapter 34
Daniele Apiletti
Current advances in sensing devices and wireless technologies are providing a high opportunity for improving care quality and reducing the medical... Sample PDF
Ubiquitous Risk Analysis of Physiological Data
Chapter 35
Manfred Doepp
In our energy diagnostic department we noticed more and more cases with irrational stimulus-reaction- patterns and with a chaotic regulation state... Sample PDF
Chaotization of Human Systems by Technical Electromagnetic Fields
Chapter 36
Mary Schmeida, Ramona McNeal
This chapter is an analysis of demographic variables influencing policy outcomes with online health information searches in the general U.S. public.... Sample PDF
Demographic Differences in Telehealth Policy Outcomes
About the Contributors