The Transport-Level Requirements of the Internet-Based Streaming

The Transport-Level Requirements of the Internet-Based Streaming

Dávid Tegze (Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary) and Gábor Hosszú (Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary)
Copyright: © 2009 |Pages: 7
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-59904-845-1.ch102
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This article presents the comparison of different transport level congestion control schemes, including variants of the TCP (Postel, 1981). The protocol mechanisms, implemented in various protocols are hard to investigate in a uniform manner (Hosszú, 2005); therefore, the simulator SimCast (Simulator for multicast) is developed for traffic analysis of the unicast (one-to-one communication) and multicast (one-to-many communication) streams. In this article, the TCP and other transport protocol mechanisms will be compared using the SimCast simulator (Orosz & Tegze, 2001). The simulated results are presented through examples.
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Internet streaming media changed the Web from a static medium into a multimedia platform, which supports audio and video content delivery. Today, streaming media turns into the standard way of global media broadcasting and distribution. The low costs, worldwide accessibility, and technical simplicity of this telecommunication way make media streams very attractive for content providers.

Streaming works by cutting the compressed media content into packets that are sent to the receiver. Packets are reassembled and decompressed on the receiver side into a format that can be played by the user. To achieve smooth playback, packets are buffered on the receiver side. However, in case of network congestion, the stream of packets slows down and the player application runs out of data, which results in poor playback quality.

This article presents the comparison of different transport level congestion control schemes, including variants of the TCP (Postel, 1981). The protocol mechanisms, implemented in various protocols are hard to investigate in a uniform manner (Hosszú, 2005); therefore, the simulator SimCast (Simulator for multicast) is developed for traffic analysis of the unicast (one-to-one communication) and multicast (one-to-many communication) streams. In this article, the TCP and other transport protocol mechanisms will be compared using the SimCast simulator (Orosz & Tegze, 2001). The simulated results are presented through examples.

Due to spreading of traffic lacking end-to-end congestion control, congestion collapse may arise on the Internet (Floyd & Fall, 1999). This form of congestion collapse is caused by congested links that are sending packets to be dropped only later in the network. The essential factor behind this form of congestion collapse is the absence of end-to-end feedback. On the one hand, an unresponsive flow fails to reduce its offered load at a router in response to an increased packet drop rate, and on the other hand, a disproportionate-bandwidth flow uses considerably more bandwidth than other flows in time of congestion. In order to achieve accurate multicast traffic simulation—because it is not so TCP-friendly yet—the effects of the flow control of the TCP protocol should be determined. However, there are many different kinds of TCP and other unicast transport protocol implementations with various flow control mechanisms, which make this investigation rather difficult (He, Vicat-Blanc Primet, & Welzl, 2005).

Until now, a lot of comparisons have been done. For example, Wang et al. reviewed the TCP-friendly congestion control schemes on the Internet (Wang, Long, Cheng, & Zhang, 2001). They differentiated two groups of the TCP-friendly congestion control algorithms as follows: (1) end-to-end and (2) hop-by-hop congestion control mechanisms. The end-to-end mechanisms are grouped into (a) additive increase multiplicative decrease (AIMD)-based schemes with the window- and rate-adaptation schemes, (b) modeling-based schemes, including equation based congestion control schemes and the so called model-based congestion schemes, and (c) a combination of AIMD-based and modeling-based mechanism. Wang’s classification is mostly used in our discussion, too.

Yu (2001) proposes another important approach about the survey on TCP-friendly congestion control protocols for media streaming applications, in which several TCP-friendly congestion control protocols were discussed via a comparison of many important issues that determine the performance and fairness of a protocol.

It is an important advantage of the simulator SimCast that the latest TCP congestion control mechanisms are also implemented. In this way, the cooperation among different TCP protocol entities or various other transport level protocols can be examined (Shalunov, Dunn, Gu, Low, Rhee, Senger, Wydrowski, & Xu 2005).

In this article, various TCP congestion control mechanisms as well as congestion control mechanisms for media streams are reviewed. Then a novel simulator for transport protocols is described and the various simulation results summarized. Lastly, conclusions are drawn and future work is identified.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Transceiver: An electronic device which is both a TRANSmitter and a reCEIVER.

Dielectrics: Materials, such as liquids, that are not able to conduct electricity. These materials interfere with the transmission of radio frequency waves.

EAN (13-digit UPC code): Provides more flexibility than original UPC code.

RFID: RFID, or radio frequency identification, is a form of Auto ID in which radio waves are used to gather information from electronic tags attached to items such as vehicles, merchandise, or animals.

Semi-active Tag: Type of RFID tag with a built-in battery power source which provides power to the electronic circuitry while the tag is communicating with the reader. Semi-active tags do not have enough power to autonomously generate radio waves.

Reader: One of the two components of an RFID system. The reader generates and sends a radio wave signal to the tag, and captures and decodes the reflected signal from the tag in order to identify the object to which the tag is attached. All readers have some power source. Also known as an interrogator.

Tag: One of the two components of an RFID system. The tag, a radio frequency transponder, is affixed to the product that needs to be identified and is actuated by receiving a radio wave sent to it by the reader. See passive tag, semi-active tag, and active tag.

EAS (Electronic Article Surveillance): The use of an RFID tag to identify valuable property in order to reduce theft.

Transponder: Also known as a tag, a transponder electronically TRANSmits and resPONDs.

Passive Tag: Type of RFID tag that does not have a battery incorporated and therefore must rely on power contained in the radio wave transmitted by the reader. Passive tags are the lowest cost tags, but also perform at the lowest level.

Air Interface: Air, the medium through which radio waves are transmitted.

Auto ID: Auto ID, also called “Automatic Identification,” is a form of ICT that enables identifying information about objects to be gathered through the agency of scanners and readers. Auto ID encompasses barcodes, RFID, and similar tagging technology which can be read and interpreted automatically by a mechanical device. A bar code reader can interpret a printed bar code; an RFID reader can interpret an RFID tag.

EPC (Electronic Product Code): Encoded on RFID tags and tied to a multiplicity of data concerning the object tagged. Standards are still being developed and proposed for EPC by EPCGlobal, an international organization devoted to creating a community of supply chain firms cooperating to consistent end-to-end partnerships of product movement and tracking.

UPC (Universal Product Code): UPCs are used to identify consumer goods and consist of a manufacturer’s number combined with a product number. The manufacturer’s identification number is assigned by the Uniform Code Council; the manufacturer can then assign its own product number.

EDI (Electronic Data Interchange): The electronic transmission of business information from one supply chain member to another, using a standard data format and standard transaction codes. An EDI transaction, known as Advance Shipment Notice, or ASN, is being coordinated with data tracked by RFID tags on products moving through supply chains.

HF (High Frequency): The original range of frequencies used with case and pallet level tagging in supply chains. The signals exchanged between HF tags and readers are subject to attenuation due to dielectrics.

Bar Code: Automatic identification technology that generally employs a series of black vertical bars separated by vertical white spaces as a method of encoding numeric and alphanumeric data. Commonly used forms of barcodes are placed on consumer goods to identify universal product codes (UPCs). Newer technologies of barcodes include 2D (two dimensional) which allow more information to be encoded using a smaller area. There must be a line of sight between barcodes and barcode scanners in order for information to be read.

Alignment: How the reader is oriented to the tag.

Frequency: Frequencies constitute the rate at which electromagnetic waves, such as light, television, and radio waves, oscillate. Electromagnetic waves are comprised of a continuum of emanations, including light waves which are visible, and invisible frequencies such as television and radio waves which are lower frequency than light, and x-rays and gamma rays which are higher frequency. Frequencies are measured in Hertz (Hz), kilohertz (kHz), megahertz (MHz), or gigahertz (GHz), and represent the rate of oscillation of the waves.

UHF (Ultra High Frequency): UHF is being tested with Gen 2 chips as a means of overcoming problems with RF tags because the UHF emanations are not affected by dielectric materials in the same way in which RF is affected.

Gen 2: Second generation tags. Uses ultra high frequency range of radio waves.

Active Tag: Type of RFID tag that contains a battery power source that is used for all of its functioning. Active tags can autonomously produce radio waves without the presence of a reader.

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Ambient Intelligence
Chapter 6
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Chapter 9
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Chapter 18
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Chapter 21
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Chapter 22
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Chapter 27
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Chapter 30
Marco Pedroni
The aim of the Corona project, which was launched in 2003 in the context of methodological-technological research on the subject of e-learning... Sample PDF
E-Learning Function Integration with Corona 2
Chapter 31
Charilaos A. Karampotsios, Dimitris K. Kardaras, Eleutherios A. Papathanassiou
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Chapter 32
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Chapter 33
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Chapter 34
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Chapter 35
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Chapter 36
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Chapter 37
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Chapter 38
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Chapter 39
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Chapter 40
Jaideep Motwani, Asli Y. Akbulut
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ERP Integration into Existing Courses: A Three-Step Approach
Chapter 41
E-Tutor  (pages 308-314)
Maria Ranieri
In recent years, there have been extensive discussions in the information system (IS) community on how to best respond to developments in the... Sample PDF
Chapter 42
Emilio Lastrucci, Debora Infante, Angela Pascale
The history of usability began almost 20 years ago when computers were about to be used outside the designer and programmer environment. Until the... Sample PDF
Evaluating Usability to Improve Efficiency in E-Learning Programs
Chapter 43
Athanassios Jimoyiannis
In this article the factors involved in the uptake of ICT by the teachers and the schools are examined. The focus of our argumentation is that... Sample PDF
Factors Determining Teachers' Beliefs and Perceptions of ICT in Education
Chapter 44
Donatella Persico, Francesca Pozzi, Luigi Sarti
Some collaborative learning strategies widely used in face-to-face settings can also be adapted to online contexts. They allow us to master the... Sample PDF
Fostering Collaboration in CSCL
Chapter 45
Cristina Corsi
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GIS Use in Landscape Archaeology
Chapter 46
Antonio Cartelli
Technologies entered in education since their first appearance and were used both for improving the efficacy and efficiency of traditional teaching... Sample PDF
Higher Education's New Frontier for the E-University and Virtual Campus
Chapter 47
Laura Corazza
In Italy, as in other European countries such as Germany and France, the words “multicultural” and “intercultural” have distinct meanings1. In some... Sample PDF
ICT and Interculture Opportunities Offered by the Web
Chapter 48
Carmen de Pablos Heredero
The need to be adapted to the changes in the environment, to improve the operational efficiency, and to increase the level of satisfaction in... Sample PDF
ICT and the Virtual Organisation
Chapter 49
Chad Lin, Yu-An Huang
Business-to-business electronic commerce (B2BEC) represents the largest growth sector, that is, 80% of revenues—in e-commerce (Pires & Aisbett... Sample PDF
ICT Investment Evaluation Practices in Large Organizations
Chapter 50
Ritchie Macefield
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ICT Literacy in the Information Age
Chapter 51
ICT Policies in Africa  (pages 384-389)
Esharenana E. Adomi, Stella E. Igun
During the last 20 years, information and communication technologies (ICTs) have greatly provided a wealth of new technological opportunities, with... Sample PDF
ICT Policies in Africa
Chapter 52
Jason S. Lecoure, Wendy R. Carroll
The purpose of this chapter is to bring these smaller self-forming, informal academic research teams into focus to understand the effects of ICT and... Sample PDF
ICT Processes for Virtual Academic Research Teams (VART) in Academia
Chapter 53
Nwachukwu Prince Ololube, Andrew Egba Ubogu
Advances in information and communication technologies (ICTs) have posed complex problem for colleges and universities in Nigeria especially in... Sample PDF
ICTs and Distance Education in Nigeria
Chapter 54
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The Impact of Technological Frames on Knowledge Management Procedures
Chapter 55
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The Implementation of Practices with ICT as a New Teaching-Learning Paradigm
Chapter 56
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Chapter 57
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Chapter 58
Juha Kettunen, Jouni Hautala, Mauri Kantola
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Information Environments of Middle Managers in Higher Education
Chapter 59
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Integrating Software Engineering and Costing Aspects within Project Management Tools
Chapter 60
Vanja Kljajevic
As we are witnessing an increase in multifunctionality of interactive devices, two problems are taking shape in user interface (UI) design: first... Sample PDF
An Integrative Approach to User Interface Design
Chapter 61
Uros Krcadinac, Milan Stankovic, Vitomir Kovanovic, Jelena Jovanovic
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Intelligent Multi-Agent Systems
Chapter 62
Sheng-Uei Guan, Ping Cheng Tan
A business-to-consumer environment can be developed through software agents (Guan, Zhu, & Maung, 2004; Maes, 1994; Nwana & Ndumu, 1996; Wang, Guan... Sample PDF
Intelligent User Preference Mining
Chapter 63
Roberto Cuccu
Today, there are more than 70 million people aged 60 and above in the European Union. According to Eurostat, over the next 15 years, the population... Sample PDF
Interactive Television Accessibility and Usability
Chapter 64
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The rapid expansion and dramatic advances in information technology in recent years have without question generated tremendous benefits to business... Sample PDF
Introduction to Computer Forensics in the Age of Information Warfare
Chapter 65
Yasin Ozcelik
In this article, we first discuss the effects of ITenabled BPR on firm productivity by providing both empirical and theoretical evidence from the... Sample PDF
IT-Enabled Reengineering: Productivity Impacts
Chapter 66
Juha Kettunen, Jouni Hautala, Mauri Kantola
The purpose of this article is to analyse the interaction between the dynamic information environment (IE) and the operational environment to... Sample PDF
Knowledge Management with Partners in a Dynamic Information Environment
Chapter 67
Fortunato Sorrentino
Personal knowledge management (PKM) is a conceptual framework applicable to personal knowledge. It is about taking an individual responsibility... Sample PDF
From Knowledge to Personal Knowledge Management
Chapter 68
Manuela Gallerani
Confronting with the educational emergences defined— in the white paper presented in 1995 by the European commission with the title “Teaching and... Sample PDF
Learning Processes and ITC
Chapter 69
Mahesh S. Raisinghani
A supply chain is a network of facilities and distribution options that performs the functions of procurement of materials, transformation of these... Sample PDF
Leveraging Supply Chain Management in the Digital Economy
Chapter 70
Kar-Tin Lee, Hitendra Pillay, Vinesh Chandra
This article will examine the development and implementation of two information and communications technology (ICT) e-assessment tools—a diagnostic... Sample PDF
Linking E-Assessment to Student's Use of Online Learning Content
Chapter 71
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The communication and implementation of a strategic plan is typically based on various measures in educational institutions. The balanced scorecard... Sample PDF
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Chapter 72
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Pownell and Bailey (2001) identify four “technological trends” in the relationship between Information and Communication Technologies and... Sample PDF
Mobile Learning and an Experience with Blended Mobile Learning
Chapter 73
Modeling Business Actions  (pages 554-562)
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The effective use of information and communication technology, or ICT (Barua, Kriebel, & Mukhopadhyay, 1995; Burn & Szeto, 2000; Mahmood & Mann... Sample PDF
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Chapter 74
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This article is partly based on the research being done by Turku University of Applied Sciences in Turku, Finland. The research was started in... Sample PDF
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Chapter 75
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Multimedia Integration in Active Online Learning Environments
Chapter 76
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Narrative Learning Environments
Chapter 77
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Chapter 78
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The reliance on computer communications networks for business and commerce, education, entertainment and many other applications demands these... Sample PDF
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Chapter 79
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A New Algorithm for Minimizing Tree Pattern Queries
Chapter 80
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In computer engineering, a number of programming tasks involve a special problem, the so-called tree matching problem (Cole & Hariharan, 1997), as a... Sample PDF
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Chapter 81
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A Novel Application of the P2P Technology for Intrusion Detection
Chapter 82
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On the Stability of Peer-to-Peer Networks in Real-World Environments
Chapter 83
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Online Catalogue of Manuscripts Conserved in Libraries in the Veneto Region
Chapter 84
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Online Learning's Future in the Workplace with Augmented Reality
Chapter 85
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Online Trust in Mobile Commerce
Chapter 86
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Chapter 87
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Chapter 88
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A Participatory Design Project on Mobile ICT
Chapter 89
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Chapter 90
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Chapter 91
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Chapter 92
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Semantic Web Adaptation
Chapter 94
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Social Networking and Personal Learning Environment
Chapter 95
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Theories and Principles for E-Learning Practices with Instructional Design
Chapter 100
Hitendra Pillay, John A. Clarke
Information and communication technologies (ICTs) present interesting challenges for educators and ICT designers, not the least of which is the... Sample PDF
Towards a Framework for Evaluating ICT-Based Materials
Chapter 101
Antonio Cartelli
The 20th century has marked the transformation of the philosophical definition of knowledge into a new and different one. The new idea of knowledge... Sample PDF
Towards a New Model for Knowledge Construction and Evolution
Chapter 102
Dávid Tegze, Gábor Hosszú
This article presents the comparison of different transport level congestion control schemes, including variants of the TCP (Postel, 1981). The... Sample PDF
The Transport-Level Requirements of the Internet-Based Streaming
Chapter 103
Susan A. Vowels
RFID, also known as radio frequency identification, is a form of Auto ID (automatic identification). Auto ID is defined as “the identification of an... Sample PDF
Understanding RFID (Radio Frequency Identification)
Chapter 104
Giuditta Alessandrini, Giovanni Rosso
The term communities of practice (CoPs) has been coined by Lave and Wenger (1991) during their quests on apprenticeship from 1988. They considered... Sample PDF
University Training on Communities of Practice
Chapter 105
Joan Bellou
According to the literature, the problems that appear in Physical Geography teaching and learning can be classified in the following five... Sample PDF
Using Dynamic Visualizations to Enhance Learning in Physical Geography
Chapter 106
Video Object Segmentation  (pages 809-816)
Ee Ping Ong, Weisi Lin
Video object segmentation aims to extract different video objects from a video (i.e., a sequence of consecutive images). It has attracted vast... Sample PDF
Video Object Segmentation
Chapter 107
Maria Ranieri
In this chapter I will discuss some of the main issues arising from online collaboration, through the presentation of a methodological model of a... Sample PDF
Virtual Communities and Collaborative Learning in a Post-Graduate Course
Chapter 108
Fortunato Sorrentino
Since cyberspace appeared (Gibson, 1984), our existence has been endowed of a new dimension: “the virtual”. This new “space”, open to many... Sample PDF
The Virtual Identity, Digital Identity, and Virtual Residence of the Digital Citizen
Chapter 109
Nicoletta Sala
Virtual reality (2007), or VR, is defined in the Encyclopædia Britannica as: the use of computer modeling and simulation that enables a person to... Sample PDF
Virtual Reality and Virtual Environments in Education
Chapter 110
Princely Ifinedo
The objective of this article is to present the results of a study that investigates the acceptance of WCMS among college students in Estonia. The... Sample PDF
Web-Based Course Management Systems (WCMS) Acceptance with College Students in Estonia
Chapter 111
Terry T. Kidd
The current wireless revolution in our society is increasing the impending need to be able to facilitate communication and have the availability of... Sample PDF
The Wireless Revolution and Schools
About the Editors