Trust and Privacy in Grid Resource Auctions

Trust and Privacy in Grid Resource Auctions

Kris Bubendorfer (Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand), Ben Palmer (Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand) and Ian Welch (Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-184-1.ch009
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Abstract

A Grid resource broker is the arbiter for access to a Grid’s computational resources and therefore its performance and functionality has a wide-ranging influence on the utilization and performance of the Grid. Ideally, we want to avoid relying on a single ‘trusted’ resource broker because it may not be trustworthy. For example, a broker holding a resource auction could examine and reveal bid information to others, or defraud participants by subverting the auction results. The use of privacy preserving and verifiable auction protocols offers guarantees beyond those possible in real world auctions, making the electronic auctions as secure, or more secure, than their physical counterparts. This chapter provides the background to understand privacy preserving and verifiable auction schemes and discuss the implications of adopting them on Grid architecture. It then evaluates a range of potential secure auction schemes and identifies those that are most suitable to be adopted within for use in the Grid.
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Background

Auctions are favored as an efficient solution to the challenge of distributed resource allocation in both economic (Buyya et al., 2002; Bubendorfer et al., 2005; Chien et al., 2005) and can also be successfully applied in noneconomic (Malone, Fikes, Grant, and Howard, 1988) resource allocation systems. There are four main types of auction protocol; the English, Dutch, Sealed-Bid, and what has since become known as the Vickrey auction protocol. The English auction is the conventional open outcry, ascending price, multiple bid protocol. The Dutch auction is an open outcry, descending price, single bid protocol. The Sealed-Bid, or tender, is a sealed single bid, best price (1st price) protocol in which all bids are opened simultaneously. The Vickrey auction is similar to the Sealed-Bid auction, except that the winning bidder pays the amount of the second bid (2nd price). The second price bid mechanism results in a dominant strategy of truthful bidding in private value auctions, that is, bidding your true value will always give the best return regardless of other bidders strategies. It is worth noting that the revenue equivalence theorem states that all of the four main auction protocols return the same revenue in private value auctions (Vickrey, 1961), hence the selection of an auction protocol usually depends on implementation pragmatics such as messaging requirements.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Auction: The sale of some item or items where an auctioneer is selling to a set of bidders who place bids. An auction employs dynamic pricing dependant on the values of the bids.

Combinatorial Auction: An auction where there is more than one heterogeneous item for sale. Bidders can place bids on combinations of specific items.

Privacy Preserving: Maintaining the confidential nature of some item. An auction can be said to be privacy preserving if any confidential data sent to the auctioneer that does not need to be revealed to complete the auction remains confidential.

Trust: Reliance placed on a party for some purpose such as correctly computing an auction result, or not revealing private information.

Combinatorial Allocation Problem: How to efficiently allocate the items in a combinatorial auction to the bidders in an optimal way.

Verification: To check that some process has been correctly completed. Verification of an auction involves at the minimum checking that the auction protocol has been correctly executed, and that all bids have been counted.

Encryption: To alter data using a secret code so that it is unidentifiable to unauthorized parties. Authorized parties can use a code to decrypt the data to it’s original form.

Grid Economy: The grid economy is a market in which computing resources and services are bought and sold on demand.

Grid Resource Broker: A grid resource broker is a grid application scheduler that is responsible for resource discovery, selection, scheduling, and deployment of computations over resources.

Trustworthy: Deserving of trust, often due to past actions or reputation.

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Table of Contents
Foreword
Ruth E. Shaw
Preface
Emmanuel Udoh, Frank Zhigang Wang
Acknowledgment
Emmanuel Udoh
Chapter 1
Emmanuel Udoh, Frank Zhigang Wang, Vineet R. Khare
This chapter presents a historical record of the advent of Grid with a recourse to some basic definitions commonly accepted by most researchers. It... Sample PDF
Overview of Grid Computing
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Chapter 2
Eric Aubanel
The problem of load balancing parallel applications is particularly challenging on computational grids, since the characteristics of both the... Sample PDF
Resource-Aware Load Balancing of Parallel Applications
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Chapter 3
Enis Afgan, Purushotham Bangalore
Grid computing has emerged as the next generation computing platform. Because of the resource heterogeneity that exists in the grid environment... Sample PDF
Assisting Efficient Job Planning and Scheduling in the Grid
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Chapter 4
Kuo-Chan Huang, Po-Chi Shih, Yeh-Ching Chung
Most current grid environments are established through collaboration among a group of participating sites which volunteer to provide free computing... Sample PDF
Effective Resource Allocation and Job Scheduling Mechanisms for Load Sharing in a Computational Grid
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Chapter 5
Tevfik Kosar
As the data requirements of scientific distributed applications increase, the access to remote data becomes the main performance bottleneck for... Sample PDF
Data-Aware Distributed Batch Scheduling
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Chapter 6
Gianni Pucciani, Flavia Donno, Andrea Domenici, Heinz Stockinger
Data replication is a well-known technique used in distributed systems in order to improve fault tolerance and make data access faster. Several... Sample PDF
Consistency of Replicated Datasets in Grid Computing
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Chapter 7
Ming Wu, Xian-He Sun
Rapid advancement of communication technology has changed the landscape of computing. New models of computing, such as business-on-demand, Web... Sample PDF
Quality of Service of Grid Computing
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Chapter 8
QoS in Grid Computing  (pages 75-83)
Zhihui Du, Zhili Cheng, Xiaoying Wang, Chuang Lin
This chapter first summarizes popular terms of QoS related concepts and technologies in grid computing, including SLA, End-to-End QoS Provision and... Sample PDF
QoS in Grid Computing
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Chapter 9
Kris Bubendorfer, Ben Palmer, Ian Welch
A Grid resource broker is the arbiter for access to a Grid’s computational resources and therefore its performance and functionality has a... Sample PDF
Trust and Privacy in Grid Resource Auctions
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Chapter 10
Sandro Fiore, Alessandro Negro, Salvatore Vadacca, Massimo Cafaro, Giovanni Aloisio, Roberto Barbera
Grid computing is an emerging and enabling technology allowing organizations to easily share, integrate and manage resources in a distributed... Sample PDF
An Architectural Overview of the GRelC Data Access Service
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Chapter 11
Man Wang, Zhihui Du, Zhili Cheng
Resource Management System (RMS), which manages the Grid resources and matches the applications’ requests to the proper resources, is one of the... Sample PDF
Adaptive Resource Management in Grid Environment
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Chapter 12
Vineet R. Khare, Frank Zhigang Wang
The need for a dynamic and scalable expansion of the grid infrastructure and resources and other scalability issues in terms of execution efficiency... Sample PDF
Bio-Inspired Grid Resource Management
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Chapter 13
Yuhui Deng, Frank Zhigang Wang, Na Helian
Storage Grid is a new model for deploying and managing the heterogeneous, dynamic, large-scale, and geographically distributed storage resources.... Sample PDF
Service Oriented Storage System Grid
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Chapter 14
Dominic Cherry, Maozhen Li, Man Qi
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A Distributed Storage System for Archiving Broadcast Media Content
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Chapter 15
Maozhen Li, Man Qi, Bin Yu
The computational grid is rapidly evolving into a service-oriented computing infrastructure that facilitates resource sharing and large-scale... Sample PDF
Service Discovery with Rough Sets
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Chapter 16
Irfan Habib, Ashiq Anjum, Richard McClatchey
Due to some barriers to adoption we have not seen a proliferation of Grid Computing technologies throughout e-Science or other domains. This chapter... Sample PDF
On the Pervasive Adoption of Grid Technologies: A Grid Operating System
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Chapter 17
Kurt Vanmechelen, Jan Broeckhove, Wim Depoorter, Khalid Abdelkader
As grid computing technology moves further up the adoption curve, the issues of dealing with conflicting user requirements formulated by different... Sample PDF
Pricing Computational Resources in Grid Economies
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Chapter 18
Rosario M. Piro
Large, geographically distributed and heterogeneous computing infrastructures, such as the Grid, often span multiple organizations and... Sample PDF
Resource Usage Accounting in Grid Computing
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Chapter 19
Frans Arickx, Jan Broeckhove, Peter Hellinckx, David Dewolfs, Kurt Vanmechelen
Quantum structure or scattering calculations often belong to a class of computational problems involving the aggregation of a set of matrices... Sample PDF
Grid-Based Nuclear Physics Applications
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Chapter 20
Gabriel Aparicio, Fernando Blanco, Ignacio Blanquer, César Bonavides, Juan Luis Chaves, Miguel Embid, Álvaro Hernández
In the last years an increasing demand for Grid Infrastructures has resulted in several international collaborations. This is the case of the EELA... Sample PDF
Developing Biomedical Applications in the Framework of EELA
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Chapter 21
Gerald Schaefer, Roger Tait
Efficient approaches to computationally intensive image processing tasks are currently highly sought after. In this chapter, the authors show how a... Sample PDF
Distributed Image Processing on a Blackboard System
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Chapter 22
Daniele Andreotti, Armando Fella, Eleonora Luppi
The BaBar experiment uses data since 1999 in examining the violation of charge and parity (CP) symmetry in the field of high energy physics. This... Sample PDF
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Chapter 23
Diego Liberati
A framework is proposed that creates, uses, and communicates information, whose organizational dynamics allows performing a distributed cooperative... Sample PDF
A Framework for Semantic Grid in E-Science
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Chapter 24
Roberto Barbera, Valeria Ardizzone, Leandro Ciuffo
The Grid INFN virtual Laboratory for Dissemination Activities (GILDA) is a fully working Grid test-bed devoted to training and dissemination... Sample PDF
Grid INFN Virtual Laboratory for Dissemination Activities (GILDA)
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Chapter 25
Dirk Gorissen, Tom Dhaene, Piet Demeester, Jan Broeckhove
The simulation and optimization of complex systems is a very time consuming and computationally intensive task. Therefore, global surrogate modeling... Sample PDF
Grid Enabled Surrogate Modeling
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Chapter 26
Patrik Skogster
Grid computing is becoming as essential part of different business analysis. In traditional business computing infrastructures data transfer occurs... Sample PDF
GIS Grids and the Business Use of GIS Data
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Chapter 27
Gokop Goteng, Ashutosh Tiwari, Rajkumar Roy
The emerging grid technology provides a secured platform for multidisciplinary experts in the security intelligence profession to collaborate and... Sample PDF
Grid Computing: Combating Global Terrorism with the World Wide Grid
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Chapter 28
Salvatore Scifo
This chapter focuses on the efforts to design and develop a standard pure Java API to access the metadata service of the EGEE Grid middleware, and... Sample PDF
Accessing Grid Metadata through a Web Interface
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Chapter 29
Jyotsna Sharma
Efforts in Grid Computing, both in academia and industry, continue to grow rapidly worldwide for research, scientific and commercial purposes.... Sample PDF
Grid Computing Initiatives in India
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Chapter 30
Hai Jin, Li Qi, Jie Dai, Yaqin Luo
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