Understanding the Underlying Constructs of WebQuests

Understanding the Underlying Constructs of WebQuests

Robert Zheng (University of Utah, USA)
Copyright: © 2008 |Pages: 16
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-59904-865-9.ch054
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Abstract

One of the challenges in integrating the Internet into classroom instruction is to identify factors that are critical to online teaching and functionally relevant to student learning (Snelbecker, Miller, & Zheng, 2006; Zheng, Stucky, McAlack, Menchaca, & Stoddort, 2005). This study focused on learner and teacher perceptions of WebQuest learning and identified three constructs - constructivist problem solving, social interaction and scaffolded learning - that were perceived by students and teachers as critical to the design and development of WebQuests. The constructs provide a theoretical framework that is not only instrumental to the design and development of WebQuests but also important for the design of effective web-based instruction.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Web-Based Learning: Web-based learning refers to the type of learning that uses the Internet as an instructional delivery tool to carry out various learning activities. It can take the form of (1) a pure online learning in which the curriculum and learning are implemented online without face-to-face meeting between the instructor and the students, or (2) a hybrid in which the instructor meets the students half of the time online and half of the time in the classroom, depending on the needs and requirement of the curriculum. Web-based learning can be integrated into a curriculum that turns into a full-blown course or as a supplement to traditional courses.

Online Problem Solving: As an alternative to the traditional problem-solving approach, the online problem solving provides a plateau that is not restricted by time and space. Like the traditional problem solving, the online problem solving emphasizes developing in students the ability to relate declarative knowledge to procedural knowledge, and using critical thinking skills to analyze, synthesize, and evaluate information. The online problem solving has been widely incorporated into various online instructional models such as WebQuests to enhance student learning in terms of content comprehension, knowledge construction, and application. As an instructional strategy, the online problem solving is often used in conjunction with other strategies such as online collaboration to teach students to solve problems collectively.

Functional Relevance: Based on Rogers’ (1969) concept of personally relevant learning as well as Heider’s (1958)common sense psychology, Snelbecker (1993) proposes the concept of functional relevance. Functional relevance basically focuses on the extent to which intended learners actually perceive instruction as being relevant for, and fit with, the way(s) that they function in their work, studies, personal lives, and so forth. According to Snelbecker et al. (2006) functional relevance basically focuses on the extent to which intended learners actually perceive instruction as being relevant for, and fit with, the way(s) that they function in their work, studies, personal lives, and so forth. Effective instruction is defined as enabling the learner to act in accordance with his or her own present perceptions about the situation, and less in automatic compliance with what instructors say that the learners should feel or perceive. Thus it is essential not only that instruction be designed so that it is relevant for how learners function but also that intended learners recognize how and why it is important for them. The concept of functional relevance is applicable in situations that focus on applying theories and innovations to improve learning and training.

Web-Based Learning Environment: Dabbagh and Bannan-Ritland (2005) noted differences between the traditional face-to-face learning environment and the Web-based learning environment. They concluded that the Web-based learning environment is characterized by six attributes that require a different instructional thinking and preparation from that of the traditional learning environment. The six attributes of the Web-based learning environment include: (1) globalization, (2) decentralized control, (3) multiple forms of interaction, (4) hypermedia with multidimensional space, (5) asynchronous communications, and (6) dynamic, real-time information.

Online collaboration: Online collaboration is defined as a group of students engaged in collaborative learning through cyber space. Based on Johnson and Johnson’s (1994) cooperative learning theory, online collaboration is an instructional strategy that uses digital learning technology—including the Internet—to engage learners in collaborative learning. Successful online collaboration includes the identification and use of the following elements in collaborative learning: (1) selecting appropriate level(s) of communication (e.g., synchronous vs. asynchronous; partners vs. small groups, etc.); (2) defining the role and responsibilities of collaboration (e.g., individual accountability, positive interdependence, etc.); and (3) building the motivational mechanism for learning (e.g., self-initiation, empowerment, etc.).

WebQuests: Originated by Dodge and March in 1995, WebQuest is an instructional tool for inquiry-oriented learning with an emphasis on developing learners’ critical thinking and social skills as well as their ability to construct new knowledge. Two levels of WebQuests exist: short term and long term. Short-term WebQuests focus on learners’ knowledge acquisition and integration that can be completed in one to three class hours, whereas long-term WebQuests may take between one week and a month in a classroom setting. A well designed WebQuest typically contains six parts: (1) introduction; (2) task; (3) information sources; (4) description of process; (5) guidance; and (6) conclusion. These segments guide learners through WebQuest activities by providing descriptive background information, defining tasks, supplying information resources needed to complete tasks, and a describing the process learners should go through in accomplishing tasks. As an online instructional model, WebQuest is considered to be an effective way to organize chaotic Internet resources and help learners gain new knowledge through a structured learning process.

Scaffolded Learning: Scaffolds in academia refer to tools, strategies, and guides used by educators to assist learners to develop understanding beyond their immediate grasp. They can appear in the form of scripts, teacher assistance, computer tutors, and animated pedagogical agents. Scaffolded learning involves providing assistance to students on an as-needed basis, fading the assistance as learner competence increases. As an instructional strategy, scaffolded learning has been incorporated into Web-based learning environments such as WebQuests and used to help develop critical thinking skills in students.

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Table of Contents
Preface
Terry T. Kidd, Holim Song
Acknowledgment
Terry T. Kidd, Holim Song
Chapter 1
Irene Chen
Instructional design (ID) is the systematic process of planning events to facilitate learning. The ID process encompasses a set of interdependent... Sample PDF
Instructional Design Methodologies
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Chapter 2
Paula Jones, Rita Davis
Effective teaching begins with effective planning of instruction. Planned instruction with technology integrated appeals to students and... Sample PDF
Instructional Design Methods Integrating Instructional Technology
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Chapter 3
Feng-Qi Lai, Lynn Lohmeyer
This paper discusses instructional design in corporate settings through describing and analyzing six real-world cases of instructional designers’... Sample PDF
Instructional Design in Corporate Settings
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Chapter 4
Irene Chen
The purpose of business education is to work cooperatively with the business community to prepare all students to live and work as productive... Sample PDF
Instructional Design Strategies for Business Education
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Chapter 5
Jared Keengwe, Grace Onchwari
We are moving toward a future in which computing is becoming more ubiquitous and there is evidence that technology is changing the way instructors... Sample PDF
Constructivism, Technology, and Meaningful Learning
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Chapter 6
Diana M. Ragbir, Permanand Mohan
This chapter presents the IMS Learning Design Specification and explains how it can be used to enhance the effectiveness of e-Learning scenarios. It... Sample PDF
The Potential of IMS Learning Design in E-Learning
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Chapter 7
Chaoyan Dong
In social psychology, “what is attractive is good” means that a physically attractive person is perceived to be more favorable and capable. In... Sample PDF
Interface Design, Emotions, and Multimedia Learning
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Chapter 8
Jun Hu
Kolb (1984) defined learning styles as one’s preferred methods for perceiving and processing information. Learning styles have been a high-profiled... Sample PDF
Impacts of Learning Styles on Hypermedia Projects
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Chapter 9
Petek Askar, Kagan Kalinyazgan, Arif Altun, S. Serkan Pekince
This chapter introduces the development of a K-12 education ontology for e-learning environments. It presents design and implementation processes... Sample PDF
An Ontology Driven Model for E-Learning in K-12 Education
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Chapter 10
Torsten Reiners, Imke Sassen
In this paper we present our e-learning approach and describe the technical and instructional design of an adaptive learning environment. In order... Sample PDF
A Framework for Adaptive Learning Points
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Chapter 11
Justin Marquis
The potential implications of a paradigm shift in learning theory from a cognitivist point of view to the social-constructivist point of view are... Sample PDF
The End of Instructional Design
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Chapter 12
Ali Ahmed, Abdulaziz Elfessi
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Student Decision Making in Technology Application
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Chapter 13
Heather Jagman, Melissa Koenig, Courtney Greene
Through leveraging the relationship between libraries and technology, colleges and universities can make the best use of the skills that librarians... Sample PDF
Leveraging Libraries to Support Academic Technology
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Chapter 14
Antonio Santos
Researchers and practitioners have been advocating that the nature of learning is contextually situated, and that this should be reflected in the... Sample PDF
Bringing Reality into the Classroom
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Chapter 15
Drew Polly, Craig Shepard
National organizations, federal policy and academic standards all call for technology to be integrated into K-12 classrooms in ways that are likely... Sample PDF
Preservice Teachers' Views of Appropriate Technology
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Chapter 16
Chien Yu, Angela Williams, Chun Fu Lin, Wei-Chieh Yu
Multimedia benefits students learning in many different ways. There are so many things that students can do and learn because of the variety of... Sample PDF
Planning Effective Multimedia Instruction
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Chapter 17
Robert Zheng
Teaching problem solving can be a challenge to teachers. However, the challenge is oftentimes not due to a lack of skills on the part of learners... Sample PDF
Cognitive Functionality of Multimedia in Problem Solving
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Chapter 18
Youmei Liu, Shawn McCombs
The emergence of Podcasting technology has turned MP3 players into effective learning tools. This chapter will examine this phenomenon and focuses... Sample PDF
Portable Education: Learning on the Go
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Chapter 19
Ann Wilson
This chapter examines the every-changing opportunities teachers have to incorporate innovative learning approaches with technology. Technology is... Sample PDF
Innovative Learning Approaches with Technology
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Chapter 20
Harrison Hao Yang, Sai-Wing Pun
This chapter presents an overview on the conceptualization of the inquiry-based learning approach, and how the WebQuest, which is a Web-based... Sample PDF
Beliefs and Concept Mapping on WebQuest Development
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Chapter 21
Merrilee Cunningham, Ruth Robbins, Deborah Buell
Universities can significantly increase the potential for academic success and degree completion for students who may be fearful of failing or have... Sample PDF
Learning Villages Network and its Computer Components
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Chapter 22
Dawn E. Woodland, Linda F. Szul
One method for positively incorporating technologies is the practice of team teaching. In this chapter the authors cover why it is important for... Sample PDF
Using Teams and Technology for Effective Instruction
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Chapter 23
Sarah R. Edmonson
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Technology in Primary and Secondary Medical Education
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Chapter 24
Michael Rees, Charles Herring
Teaching institutions around the world are using large, unwieldy and expensive learning management system (LMS) packages that are beginning to have... Sample PDF
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Chapter 25
Kit Hang Leung, Zhidong Zhang
As an important aspect of instruction, assessment is mainly used for grading achievement rather than as a means to support teaching and learning.... Sample PDF
How CyberCoaching System Works
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Chapter 26
Luigi Anolli, Fabrizia Mantovani, Massimo Balestra, Piet Kommers, Odile Robotti, Anne-Dominique Salamin, Alessia Agliati, Olivia Realdon, Valentino Zurloni, Linda Confalonieri, Marcello Mortillaro, Antonietta Vescovo, Pietro Venturini, Joachim Wetterling, Anna Tarocchi
New trends in information technology are strongly influencing and shaping the growth of e-learning, and progressively resolving a number of critical... Sample PDF
Experiential Learning in the Myself Project
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Chapter 27
Robert A. Bartsch
Online library databases are the primary method for finding relevant literature in many fields. These databases either have primarily abstracts or... Sample PDF
Misuse of Online Databases for Literature Searches
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Chapter 28
Des Casey
Increasingly powerful, handheld, networked devices provide an opportunity for educators to explore and implement ubiquitous learning (u-learning)... Sample PDF
U-Learning: Educational Models and System Architectures
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Chapter 29
Justin Marquis
Since the introduction of popular video games such as Space Invaders and Pac Man, in the 1980’s the video game industry has grown to immense... Sample PDF
Computer Games as a New Arena for IST Research
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Chapter 30
Jeonghee Huh
Today’s youth are growing up with video and computer games. With such constant exposure to high-end graphics and games, it is no wonder that... Sample PDF
Adoption and Dissemination of Digital Game-Based Learning
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Chapter 31
Brian Cameron
Research has indicated that the depth of information processing is influenced by the type and intensity of rehearsal methods. However, an efficient... Sample PDF
Gaming, Cognitive Style, and Feedback in the Achievement of Learning Objectives
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Chapter 32
Chee Siang Ang, Panayiotis Zaphiris
The chapter discusses and examines the educational potential of computer games in language learning. The commercial success of games has recently... Sample PDF
Computer Games and Language Learning
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Chapter 33
Nancy Sardone, Roberta Devlin-Scherer, Joseph Martinelli
On occasion, talking with some colleagues about instructional techniques to interest and motivate students in a college classroom sometimes has... Sample PDF
Game-Based Instruction in a College Classroom
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Chapter 34
Brian Cameron
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IS Project and Portfolio Management
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Chapter 35
Spiros Borotis, Panagiotis Zaharias, Angeliki Poulymenakou
e-Learning attracts considerable interest in contemporary corporate training curricula. As it concerns a considerable investment, organizations that... Sample PDF
Critical Success Factors for E-Learning Adoption
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Chapter 36
Geoffrey Dick, Tom Case, Craig Van Slyke
This chapter examines the development of online learning systems, how they incorporate reusable learning modules and how various forms of assessment... Sample PDF
E-Learning Lessons from the Corporate World
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Chapter 37
John Duncan
Technology provides many solutions to meet diverse learning needs. Not all students learn the same way so it is important to model and scaffold... Sample PDF
Learning and Study Strategies for Online Teaching
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Chapter 38
Sunil Hazari, Kristin Caverly
Course management systems are becoming widespread in colleges and universities that offer distance learning courses and programs. As a result of... Sample PDF
Student and Faculty Satisfaction with Enterprise CMS
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Chapter 39
Jeonghee Huh, Atsusi Hirumi
Compared to conventional classroom settings, e-learning relies heavily on a student’s reading ability. However, many students, particularly those... Sample PDF
Reading Assessment Strategies for Online Learners
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Chapter 40
Jun Hu
Computer software training is one of the main areas of IT training. A key format of software training in e-learning is simulation. This article... Sample PDF
Computer Application Software Training via E-Learning
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Chapter 41
Fethi Inan, Michael Grant
Adaptive (Individualized) Web-based instruction provides mechanisms to individualize instruction for learners based on their individual needs. This... Sample PDF
Individualized Web-Based Instructional Design
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Chapter 42
Hyo-Jeong So
Despite the increasing numbers of online courses, there have been several concerns and criticisms related to teaching and learning in e-Learning.... Sample PDF
Designing Interactive and Collaborative E-Learning Environments
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Chapter 43
Xiaojing Liu, Seung-hee Lee, Curtis J. Bonk, Richard J. Magjuka, Shijuan Liu
The applications of advanced communication technology hold promises for high-quality online education. However, there is scant research on the uses... Sample PDF
Technology Use in an Online MBA Program
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Chapter 44
David Judkins, Youmei Liu
This chapter shares the experiences from a faculty member who teaches an online course-Shakespeare’s Major Plays, and from an instructional designer... Sample PDF
Teaching Shakespeare Online in a Virtual Classroom
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Chapter 45
The Handheld Hybrid  (pages 641-652)
Wendy Maboudian, Colin S. Ward
Two professors implemented a hybrid pilot program for college preparatory English as a Second Language (ESL) courses. The development and... Sample PDF
The Handheld Hybrid
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Chapter 46
Patricia Lupion Torres, Rita de Cassia Veiga Marriott
Economic globalisation and technological changes have led to one of the greatest challenges that education faces – the access to permanent education... Sample PDF
The LOLA Strategy and E-Learning Knowledge Management
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Chapter 47
Christal Pritchett
Web-based learning provides many new and potentially integrated educational capabilities to support diverse educators’ and learners’ needs via... Sample PDF
Implementation of the Ford PAS Web-Based Curriculum
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Chapter 48
Tibor Skala, Igor Ljubi
This session will discuss issues raised during author’s involvement in building Croatian e-learning community. Proposed chapter will focus on how... Sample PDF
Raising Motivation to Achieve Collaboration in Online Courses
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Chapter 49
Tibor Skala, Stella Lee
This chapter will focus on two cross-cultural case studies on the development and implementation of e-learning programs between two universities in... Sample PDF
Comparison of Case Studies in Managing E-Learning Programs
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Chapter 50
Holim Song
As online course has become a popular course delivery method in American higher education, developing online courses has raised controversial issues... Sample PDF
Challenges Instructors Face in Online Courses
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Chapter 51
Charlene Sox, Pil-Won On
Research substantiates the effectiveness of problem-based, project-based, and case-based learning as effective tools for student learning. Research... Sample PDF
Achieving Classroom Excellence in a Virtual Classroom
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Chapter 52
Furkan Tari
Advances in information technology and the redefined web trigger a holistic view of learning process. The objective of this study is to provide a... Sample PDF
A Review of Emerging Technological Trends in E-Learning
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Chapter 53
Panagiotis Zaharias, Angeliki Poulymenakou
E-Learning is emerging as one of the fastest organizational uses of the Internet; it is also applicable across all areas of workforce training.... Sample PDF
Design Guidelines for Asynchronous E-Learning Applications
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Chapter 54
Robert Zheng
One of the challenges in integrating the Internet into classroom instruction is to identify factors that are critical to online teaching and... Sample PDF
Understanding the Underlying Constructs of WebQuests
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Chapter 55
Habib Mir M. Hosseini, Keck Voon Ling, Bing Duan
Online learning environments provide the students access to the course content at any time and from anywhere. Most of the existing e-Learning... Sample PDF
Learning Object Model for Online Laboratories
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Chapter 56
Kit Leung
This research studies higher order thinking (HOT) processes in asynchronous discussions situated in a campus-based course that involved 11 pairs of... Sample PDF
Higher Order Thinking in Online Courses
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Chapter 57
Valentino Zurloni, Fabrizia Mantovani, Marcello Mortillaro, Antonietta Vescovo, Luigi Anolli
Emotions are attracting growing attention within the instructional design research community. However, clarification is still required as to how... Sample PDF
Addressing Emotions within E-Learning Systems
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Chapter 58
Luigi Anolli, Olivia Realdon, Linda Confalonieri, Alessia Agliati, Fabrizia Mantovani
Depending on the meaning individuals give to a specific learning situation, emotions can be seen as relevant mediation devices between them and the... Sample PDF
Affective Agents in the E-Learning Process
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Chapter 59
Emmanuel Blanchard, Claude Frasson
This chapter introduces the concepts of Culturally AWAre Systems CAWAS), a new family of adaptive systems that try to adapt learning contents and... Sample PDF
Cross-Cultural Adaptation of E-Learning
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Chapter 60
Deepak Prem Subramony
This paper explores how the “meanings” of technology use are being culturally negotiated between Western educators and native Iñupiat Eskimo... Sample PDF
Culturally Negotiating the Meanings of Technology Use
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Chapter 61
Thomas A. Lucey, Michael Grant
The Digital Divide refers to the social challenges of inequitable technology distribution and access. Educators must recognize that the digital... Sample PDF
Considering Dimensions of the Digital Divide
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Chapter 62
Jorge Gaytan, Sunil Hazari, Alexa North
Business teacher educators are being challenged to establish ethical frameworks to teach students to solve problems related to business ethics and... Sample PDF
Cyberethics Across the Curriculum
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Chapter 63
Karen Rasmussen, Joyce Coleman Nichols
To be successful members of a diverse, multicultural society, individuals must possess a fundamental level of knowledge about others and develop... Sample PDF
Case Studies in Virtual Multicultural Education
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Chapter 64
Justin Marquis
There is an ever-widening gap between the social classes in American society reflected in wages, living conditions, health care and access to... Sample PDF
Developing a Socially Responsible Approach to IT Research
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Chapter 65
António Quintas-Mendes, Lina Morgado, Lúcia Amante
The complexities of computer-mediated communication (CMC) are visible in the diversity of the theoretical models that try to explain the... Sample PDF
Online Communication and E-Learning
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Chapter 66
Robert A. Bartsch
This chapter examines how principles in social psychology can be applied to instructional technology. Two areas are discussed to explain why... Sample PDF
Social Psychology and Instructional Technology
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Chapter 67
Sue-Jen Chen, Edward Caropreso, Chao-Li Hsu
Current information and communication technologies allow for many and varied cross-cultural connections. To succeed in the 21st century global... Sample PDF
Designing Cross-Cultural Collaborative Online Learning
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