This chapter describes personalization strategies adopted in digital libraries. Personalization and individualization are introduced as means to improve the usability of digital library services. The goal of personalization for digital libraries is mainly the presentation of individual results to the user. This can be modelled based on a user interest model which is applied during the search process. Two users with the same query can receive different results based on their interest profile maintained by the system. Typical approaches and systems for individualizing the results of information retrieval systems are presented. The retrieval process is described. Knowledge sources and common knowledge representation for personalization are elaborated. Most common, the search history and documents accessed in the past are exploited for modelling the user interest. Finally, the chapter mentions drawbacks and success factors for personalization and individualization systems.
Personalization And Individualization
Users are Different
Users can differ in many ways like age or culture. Most important for knowledge work which is supported by information system are cognitive differences. Users may differ in their knowledge about the interaction with the system and the domain. The differences between beginners and advanced users are an issue which is often exploited for personalization. At the same time, users may be different according to their knowledge (e.g., in a e-learning system, they may have reached different levels of knowledge). Resistance to change, intelligence, intro-/extroversion, fear of failure, and creativity are further personal features. For some interfaces, the spatial orientation capabilities may be of importance. Users can have different preferences in interaction styles. Some may prefer the keyboard, others the mouse, and again others, spoken language. Obviously, adaptation does contradict the human-computer interaction principle of consistency for interfaces. As a consequence, adaptation needs to improve the system up to an extent which exceeds these potential shortcomings. Certainly, adaptation is of specific value for beginners who start to use a system. However, for this group, it is hard to acquire knowledge.
Modifying A System
The modification of the system can affect the user interface (functions, appearance, way of interaction), the content (different knowledge objects), or the presentation (sequence, level of detail). For a digital library all of these three aspects can be of interest, however, content adaptation has been attracted most research in the digital library community. Content adaptation will be thoroughly discussed in the following section. Typical content adaptation is implemented by recommender systems which suggest new content items to users in e-commerce applications.
User interface adaptation has been the focus of much research. The adaptation initiated by users has been integrated in many systems for many years. Menus, tool bars, and other aspects of graphical user interfaces can be changed by users. Some aspects like desktop background pictures or ring tones for mobile phones are heavily used to express individuality through aesthetic elements.
Key Terms in this Chapter
Association Rules: Association rules describe relationships and correlations between attributes or objects in large data sets. Several algorithms have been developed to extract such rules from large data sets.
User Model: The user model is the collection of knowledge and assumption of the system about one user.
Machine Learning: Machine learning is a subfield of Artificial Intelligence which provides algorithms for the discovery of relations or rules in large data sets. Machine learning leads to functions which can automatically classify or categorize objects based on their features. Inductive learning from labeled examples is the most well known application.
Information Retrieval: Information retrieval is concerned with the representation and knowledge and subsequent search for relevant information within these knowledge sources. Information retrieval provides the technology behind search engines.
Human-Computer Interaction (HCI): Deals with the optimization of interfaces between human users and computing systems. Technology needs to be adapted to the properties and the needs of users. The knowledge sources available for this endeavor are guidelines, rules, standards, and results from psychological research on the human perception and cognitive capabilities. Evaluation is necessary to validate the success of interfaces.
Smart Home: Enriching houses with ubiquitous technology can lead to a smart home which better supports its inhabitants by automatically regulating its functions.
Adaptation: Adaptation can be seen as a process of modification based on input or observation. An information system should adapt itself to the specific needs of individual users.
Complete Chapter List
Detailed Table of Contents
Yin-Leng Theng, Schubert Foo, Dion Goh, Jin-Cheon Na
Leonardo Candela, Donatella Castelli, Pasquale Pagano
Mohammed Nasser Al-Suqri, Esther O.A. Fatuyi
Jian-hua Yeh, Shun-hong Sie, Chao-chen Chen
Juan C. Lavariega, Lorena G. Gomez, Martha Sordia-Salinas, David A. Garza-Salazar
George Pyrounakis, Mara Nikolaidou
Ian H. Witten, David Bainbridge
Yin-Leng Theng, Nyein Chan Lwin Lwin, Jin-Cheon Na, Schubert Foo, Dion Hoe-Lian Goh
Schubert Foo, Yin-Leng Theng, Dion Hoe-Lian Goh, Jin-Cheon Na
Fu Lee Wang, Christopher C. Yang
K. S. Chudamani, H. C. Nagarathna
Payam M. Barnaghi, Wei Wang, Jayan C. Kurian
Giovanni Semeraro, Pierpaolo Basile, Marco de Gemmis, Pasquale Lops
Shiyan Ou, Christopher S.G. Khoo, Dion Hoe-Lian Goh
Wooil Kim, John H.L. Hansen
Irene Lourdi, Mara Nikolaidou
Neide Santos, Fernanda C.A. Campos, Regina M.M. Braga Villela
Svenja Hagenhoff, Björn Ortelbach, Lutz Seidenfaden
Stefano Paolozzi, Fernando Ferri, Patrizia Grifoni
Ana Kovacevic, Vladan Devedzic
Jin-Cheon Na, Tun Thura Thet, Dion Hoe-Lian Goh, Yin-Leng Theng, Schubert Foo
Dion Hoe-Lian Goh, Khasfariyati Razikin, Alton Y.K. Chua, Chei Sian Lee, Schubert Foo
Taha Osman, Dhavalkumar Thakker, Gerald Schaefer
Stephen Kimani, Emanuele Panizzi, Tiziana Catarci, Margerita Antona
Spyros Veronikis, Giannis Tsakonas, Christos Papatheodorou
Mila M. Ramos, Luz Marina Alvaré, Cecilia Ferreyra, Peter Shelton
Robert Neumayer, Andreas Rauber
Gerald Schaefer, Simon Ruszala
Cláudio de Souza Baptista, Ulrich Schiel
Nuria Lloret Romero, Margarita Cabrera Méndez, Alicia Sellés Carot, Lilia Fernandez Aquino
Rubén Béjar, J. Nogueras-Iso, Miguel Ángel Latre, Pedro Rafael Muro-Medrano, F. J. Zarazaga-Soria
O. Cantán Casbas, J. Nogueras-Iso, F. J. Zarazaga-Soria
Piedad Garrido Picazo, Jesús Tramullas Saz, Manuel Coll Villalta
Wan Ab. Kadir Wan Dollah, Diljit Singh
Frances L. Lightsom, Alan O. Allwardt
Stephan Strodl, Christoph Becker, Andreas Rauber
Thomas Lidy, Andreas Rauber
Leonardo Bermón-Angarita, Antonio Amescua-Seco, Maria Isabel Sánchez-Segura, Javier García-Guzmán
Kanwal Ameen, Muhammad Rafiq
Seungwon Yang, Barbara M. Wildemuth, Jeffrey P. Pomerantz, Sanghee Oh
Faisal Ahmad, Tamara Sumner, Holly Devaul
Yongqing Ma, Warwick Clegg, Ann O’Brien
Chang Chew-Hung, John G. Hedberg
Michael B. Twidale, David M. Nichols
Soh Whee Kheng Grace