USGS Digital Libraries for Coastal and Marine Science

USGS Digital Libraries for Coastal and Marine Science

Frances L. Lightsom (U.S. Geological Survey at USGS Woods Hole Science Center, USA) and Alan O. Allwardt (ETI Professionals at USGS Pacific Science Center, USA)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-59904-879-6.ch043
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Abstract

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed three related digital libraries providing access to topical and georeferenced information for coastal and marine science: the Marine Realms Information Bank (MRIB) and its two offshoots, the Monterey Bay Science Digital Library and Coastal Change Hazards Digital Library. These three members of the MRIB family run on the same software and share a common database, but they employ different user interfaces targeting different audiences. This chapter reviews (1) distributed geolibraries, the conceptual foundation for MRIB, (2) the modular software of MRIB, permitting the rapid development of customized user interfaces, and (3) the Electronic Index Card (EIC) Creation Utility, encouraging users to contribute new metadata records to the MRIB database. The accompanying discussion addresses several challenges facing digital library developers: providing for scalability in the system; ensuring interoperability with other systems; and meeting the demands of characterizing information while facilitating its search and retrieval.
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Introduction

The Coastal and Marine Geology Program (CMGP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a family of distributed digital libraries providing access to topical and georeferenced information for coastal and marine science. This digital library system includes three user interfaces targeting different audiences:

  • 1.

    The Marine Realms Information Bank (MRIB; http://mrib.usgs.gov/), developed in 2001, is a general-purpose user interface providing access to free online scientific information about oceans, coasts, and coastal watersheds. MRIB encourages its users to discover these information resources by browsing a faceted classification with twelve main categories, including author, agency, discipline, feature type, named location, and “hot topics” (Figure 1). MRIB was also one of the first digital libraries to utilize interactive maps for searching and retrieving georeferenced information.

  • 2.

    The geographic search capabilities of MRIB were ideally suited for creating the Monterey Bay Science (MBS) Digital Library (http://mrib.usgs.gov/mbs/), a regional pilot project providing access to scientific information about the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary and coastal watersheds of central California (Figure 2). The MBS user interface, released in 2004, serves as a model for any regionally focused digital library based on the MRIB software architecture.

  • 3.

    The newest addition to the CMGP digital library system is the Coastal Change Hazards (CCH) Digital Library (http://mrib.usgs.gov/cch/), released in 2006. The specialized CCH user interface (Figure 3) focuses on natural hazards and human impacts in the coastal zone and replaces the MRIB hot topics with a more specific topical classification. Crosswalks between the MRIB and CCH topical classifications ensure that online resources originally cataloged for one interface can be searched and retrieved using the other interface. The Coastal Change Hazards Digital Library serves as a model for any topically focused digital library based on the MRIB software architecture.

    Figure 1.

    The Marine Realms Information Bank (MRIB), featuring three search options: by category, location, and keyword. The “Submit a Document” link at the bottom of the page connects the user to the Electronic Index Card (EIC) Creation Utility

    Figure 2.

    The Monterey Bay Science (MBS) Digital Library, a regionally focused member of the Marine Realms Information Bank (MRIB) family. The customized MBS user interface provides access to about one-fourth of the MRIB database

    Figure 3.

    The Coastal Change Hazards (CCH) Digital Library, a topically focused member of the Marine Realms Information Bank (MRIB) family. The customized CCH user interface provides access to about one-third of the MRIB database

These three closely related digital libraries, which run on the same software and share a common database, constitute the MRIB family of digital libraries. In the discussion that follows, the term “MRIB” will be used in a generic sense for all three members of the family, whereas “Marine Realms Information Bank” will refer specifically to the parent interface.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Distributed Geolibrary: In the online environment, a distributed geolibrary allows patrons to search centralized metadata records for information about specific places and then retrieve the original online resources from servers distributed across the Internet.

Knowledge Organization System (KOS): Any formalized scheme for managing information resources, including authority files, subject headings, taxonomies, thesauri, semantic networks, and ontologies.

False Drop: An instance of retrieving information that is not relevant to a given search.

Faceted Classification: An indexing system that employs several mutually exclusive metadata fields to characterize information resources.

Gazetteer: In the traditional sense, a gazetteer is a dictionary of place names. Digital gazetteers, in contrast, link place names to specific bounding boxes or polygonal footprints for the purposes of map display or information retrieval.

Crosswalk: A semantic mapping between the elements of two metadata standards, facilitating interoperability.

Controlled vocabulary: A list of preferred terms for indexing information resources, ideally with precise definitions and guidelines for application.

Granularity: The level of descriptive detail in a metadata record, usually representing a balance between the competing demands of fully characterizing information resources and facilitating the process of search and retrieval.

Interoperability: The ability of different information systems to exchange resources through shared standards.

Georeferencing: The practice of indexing information resources by geospatial coordinates, place names, or geographic codes.

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Table of Contents
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Foreword
Gary Gorman
Preface
Yin-Leng Theng, Schubert Foo, Dion Goh, Jin-Cheon Na
Acknowledgement
Chapter 1
Leonardo Candela, Donatella Castelli, Pasquale Pagano
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OpenDLib: A Digital Library Service System
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Chapter 2
Mohammed Nasser Al-Suqri, Esther O.A. Fatuyi
Deliberate exploitation of natural resources and excessive use of environmentally abhorrent materials have resulted in environmental disruptions... Sample PDF
Digital Library Service System; Digital Library System; Document Model; Grid Computing; Grid Infrastructure; Institutional Repository; Service Oriented Architecture
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Chapter 3
Sarah-Jane Saravani
This chapter describes a learning object repository case study undertaken at the Waikato Institute of Technology, Hamilton, New Zealand, during 2005... Sample PDF
Access and Control; Digital Libraries; Information Ethics; Privacy; Security
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Chapter 4
Jian-hua Yeh, Shun-hong Sie, Chao-chen Chen
In this chapter, we describe X-system, a general digital library platform which is capable of handling large-scale digital contents with flexible... Sample PDF
Extensible Digital Library Service Platform
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Chapter 5
Juan C. Lavariega, Lorena G. Gomez, Martha Sordia-Salinas, David A. Garza-Salazar
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Personal Digital Libraries
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Chapter 6
George Pyrounakis, Mara Nikolaidou
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Comparing Open Source Digital Library Software
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Chapter 7
Ian H. Witten, David Bainbridge
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The Greenstone Digital Library Software
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Chapter 8
Yin-Leng Theng, Nyein Chan Lwin Lwin, Jin-Cheon Na, Schubert Foo, Dion Hoe-Lian Goh
This chapter addresses the issues of resource discovery in digital libraries (DLs) and the importance of knowledge organization tools in building... Sample PDF
Design and Development of a Taxonomy Generator: A Case Example for Greenstone
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Chapter 9
Schubert Foo, Yin-Leng Theng, Dion Hoe-Lian Goh, Jin-Cheon Na
Digital archives typically act as stand-alone digital libraries to support search and discovery by users to access its rich set of digitized... Sample PDF
From Digital Archives to Virtual Exhibitions
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Chapter 10
Carmen Galvez
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Standardization of Terms Applying Finite-State Transducers (FST)
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Chapter 11
Fu Lee Wang, Christopher C. Yang
As more information becomes available online, information-overloading results. This problem can be resolved through the application of automatic... Sample PDF
Extracting the Essence: Automatic Text Summarization
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Chapter 12
Metadata Interoperability  (pages 122-130)
K. S. Chudamani, H. C. Nagarathna
Metadata is data about data. Metadata originated in the context of digital information in databases. This chapter looks at the various standards... Sample PDF
Metadata Interoperability
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Chapter 13
Payam M. Barnaghi, Wei Wang, Jayan C. Kurian
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Semantic Association Analysis in Ontology-Based Information Retrieval
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Chapter 14
Gerald Schaefer
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Effective and Efficient Browsing of Large Image Databases
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Chapter 15
Giovanni Semeraro, Pierpaolo Basile, Marco de Gemmis, Pasquale Lops
Exploring digital collections to find information relevant to a user’s interests is a challenging task. Information preferences vary greatly across... Sample PDF
User Profiles for Personalizing Digital Libraries
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Chapter 16
Shiyan Ou, Christopher S.G. Khoo, Dion Hoe-Lian Goh
This chapter describes various text summarization techniques and evaluation techniques that have been proposed in literature and discusses the... Sample PDF
Automatic Text Summarization in Digital Libraries
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Chapter 17
Wooil Kim, John H.L. Hansen
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Speechfind: Advances in Rich Content Based Spoken Document Retrieval
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Chapter 18
Sofia Stamou
This chapter introduces a personalized ranking function as a means of offering Web information seekers with search results that satisfy their... Sample PDF
Using Topic-Specific Ranks to Personalize Web Search
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Chapter 19
Irene Lourdi, Mara Nikolaidou
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Guidelines for Developing Digital Cultural Collections
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Chapter 20
Neide Santos, Fernanda C.A. Campos, Regina M.M. Braga Villela
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Chapter 21
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Chapter 22
Stefano Paolozzi, Fernando Ferri, Patrizia Grifoni
This chapter describes multimodality as a means of augmenting information retrieval activities in multimedia digital libraries. Multimodal... Sample PDF
Improving Multimedia Digital Libraries Usability Applying NLP Sentence Similarity to Multimodal Sentences
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Chapter 23
Ana Kovacevic, Vladan Devedzic
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Duplicate Journal Title Detection in References
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Chapter 24
Jin-Cheon Na, Tun Thura Thet, Dion Hoe-Lian Goh, Yin-Leng Theng, Schubert Foo
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Word Segmentation in Indo-China Languages for Digital Libraries
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Chapter 25
Dion Hoe-Lian Goh, Khasfariyati Razikin, Alton Y.K. Chua, Chei Sian Lee, Schubert Foo
Social tagging is the process of assigning and sharing among users freely selected terms of resources. This approach enables users to... Sample PDF
On the Effectiveness of Social Tagging for Resource Discovery
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Chapter 26
Taha Osman, Dhavalkumar Thakker, Gerald Schaefer
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Semantic Annotation and Retrieval of Images in Digital Libraries
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Chapter 27
Ali Shiri
This chapter introduces a new category of digital library user interfaces called metadata-enhanced visual interfaces. Drawing on the earlier... Sample PDF
Metadata and Metaphors in Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries
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Chapter 28
Judy Jeng
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Usability Evaluation of Digital Library
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Chapter 29
Stephen Kimani, Emanuele Panizzi, Tiziana Catarci, Margerita Antona
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Digital Library Requirements: A Questionnaire-Based Study
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Chapter 30
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Handhelds for Digital Libraries
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Chapter 31
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Chapter 32
Robert Neumayer, Andreas Rauber
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Map-Based User Interfaces for Music Information Retrieval
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Chapter 33
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Patent and Trade Secret in Digital Libraries
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Chapter 34
Thomas Mandl
This chapter describes personalization strategies adopted in digital libraries. Personalization and individualization are introduced as means to... Sample PDF
User-Adapted Information Services
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Chapter 35
Hepu Deng
Digital resources are readily available and easily accessible with the rapid development of information and communication technologies nowadays.... Sample PDF
An Empirical Analysis of the Utilization of University Digital Library Resources
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Chapter 36
Gerald Schaefer, Simon Ruszala
Following the ever-growing sizes of image databases, effective methods for visualising such databases and navigating through them are much sought... Sample PDF
Visualisation of Large Image Databases
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Chapter 37
Cláudio de Souza Baptista, Ulrich Schiel
A multimedia digital library copes with the storage and retrieval of resources of different media such as video, audio, maps, images, and text... Sample PDF
Towards Multimedia Digital Libraries
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Chapter 38
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Chapter 39
Rubén Béjar, J. Nogueras-Iso, Miguel Ángel Latre, Pedro Rafael Muro-Medrano, F. J. Zarazaga-Soria
This chapter introduces Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDI) and establishes their strong conceptual and technical relationships with geographic... Sample PDF
Digital Libraries as a Foundation of Spatial Data Infrastructures
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Chapter 40
O. Cantán Casbas, J. Nogueras-Iso, F. J. Zarazaga-Soria
A new collaboration paradigm is in order between Digital Libraries (DL) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). These important Information... Sample PDF
DL and GIS: Path to a New Collaboration Paradigm
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Chapter 41
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Digital Libraries Beyond Cultural Heritage Information
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Chapter 42
Wan Ab. Kadir Wan Dollah, Diljit Singh
Information and communication technologies have been used to assist in various functions of library and information units. Digital reference... Sample PDF
Reference Services in Digital Environment
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Chapter 43
Frances L. Lightsom, Alan O. Allwardt
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed three related digital libraries providing access to topical and georeferenced information for... Sample PDF
USGS Digital Libraries for Coastal and Marine Science
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Chapter 44
Digital Preservation  (pages 431-440)
Stephan Strodl, Christoph Becker, Andreas Rauber
The rapid ongoing changes in software and hardware put digital information at risk. The challenge is to keep electronic data accessible, viewable... Sample PDF
Digital Preservation
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Chapter 45
Gerald Schaefer
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Visual Pattern Based Compressed Domain Image Retrieval
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Chapter 46
Thomas Lidy, Andreas Rauber
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Music Information Retrieval
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Chapter 47
Juha Kettunen
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The Strategic Plan of Digital Libraries
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Chapter 48
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Software Process Asset Libraries Using Knowledge Repositories
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Chapter 49
Lee Yen Han
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The Role and Integration of Digital Libraries in E-Learning
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Chapter 50
Kanwal Ameen, Muhammad Rafiq
This chapter aims to discuss the development of digital libraries in Pakistan. It gives an account of the digital transformation taking place in the... Sample PDF
Development of Digital Libraries in Pakistan
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Chapter 51
Seungwon Yang, Barbara M. Wildemuth, Jeffrey P. Pomerantz, Sanghee Oh
This chapter introduces the effort of developing a digital library (DL) curriculum by an interdisciplinary team from Virginia Tech and the... Sample PDF
Core Topics in Digital Library Education
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Chapter 52
Natalie Pang
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Digital Libraries as Centres of Knowledge: Historical Perspectives from European Ancient Libraries
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Chapter 53
Wolfgang Ratzek
Triggered by a rapid diffusion of ICT within the last two decades, libraries have undergone a (r)evolutionary change in both mission and services.... Sample PDF
The European Approach Towards Digital Library Education: Dead End or Recipe for Success?
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Chapter 54
Faisal Ahmad, Tamara Sumner, Holly Devaul
The limited scope of digital libraries can be attributed to the brick and mortar vision of the library metaphor. In order to extend scope of digital... Sample PDF
New Roles of Digital Libraries
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Chapter 55
Yongqing Ma, Warwick Clegg, Ann O’Brien
In this entry, we review the history, development and current status of digital library (DL) courses and programmes now being offered, mainly by... Sample PDF
A Review of Progress in Digital Library Education
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Chapter 56
Chang Chew-Hung, John G. Hedberg
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The Future of Learning with Digital Libraries
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Chapter 57
Michael B. Twidale, David M. Nichols
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Computational Sense for Digital Librarians
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Chapter 58
Soh Whee Kheng Grace
Library digitization on a global basis is essential in the twenty-first century. The digital library development initiatives in most countries... Sample PDF
Digital Libraries Overview and Globalization
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About the Contributors