Many companies use the Web to communicate with the external world as well as within their organizations and to carry out their business processes more effectively. A survey on Web application development shows that 84% of development projects do not meet business needs, 56% do not have the required functionality, 79% are behind schedule, and 63% are over budget (Standish Group, 2002). García-Cabrera, Rodríguez-Fórtiz, and Parets-Llorca (2002) report that the development of a Web application is never finished, and the nature of Web applications is evolutionary. The architecture of Web applications has three layers: conceptual, presentation, and navigation. It also has two perspectives: designer and viewer. Software evolution is “the dynamic behavior of programming systems as they are maintained and enhanced over their life times” (Belady & Lehman, 1976). Web application evolution is of increasing importance as more Web systems are in production.
Key Terms in this Chapter
Brochureware: This refers to Web sites or pages that are produced by taking an organization’s printed brochure and translating it directly to the Web without regard for the possibilities of the new medium. The result will almost always be static.
Enterprise Application Integration (EAI): This is a process that helps to integrate applications inside an organization (e.g., an ordering system with an inventory on hand) or applications of different organizations in a seamless fashion. It is done by EAI vendors with special software tools.
Application Evolution: This concerns any change that is being made to the entire set of programs, procedures, and related documentation associated with a computer system that makes up an application software system. Application evolution contains two parts: evolution processes and the evolution of their products.
Stage of E-Government Development: The stages are a method for quantifying progress. They are representative of the government’s level of development based primarily on the content and deliverable services available through official Web sites.
Organization/Government Portal: This is a personalized, single point of access through a Web browser to critical business information located inside and outside of an organization. Portals provide gateways to organization data, information, and knowledge.
E-Government: This is the use of information and communication technology in general to provide citizens and organizations with more convenient access to government information and services. It is an efficient way of conducting business transactions with citizens and business and within the governments themselves.
Web Application System: This is computer software using a Web browser as the interface to support organizational functions or processes. The system is the integration of computer hardware, software, databases, networks, procedures, and people to collect, process, store, and distribute information for specific business purposes.