Web Process Adaptation

Web Process Adaptation

Kunal Verma (Accenture Technology Labs, USA)
Copyright: © 2009 |Pages: 9
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-288-6.ch011
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Adaptation is an important concept for Web processes. The author provides an overview of adaptation with respect to control theory and how it is applied to other contexts. Specifically the author focuses on open loop and closed loop adaptation. Then the cahpter discusses the current Web process standard WS-BPEL supports open loop adaptation. Finally, the author discusses an academic research framework METEOR-S, which supports closed loop adaptation.
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Time features any aspect of human life, being associated or associable with any fact or information or event. The need for supporting temporal information, as well as storing, reasoning about, and representing data and facts, has been recognized for a long time (Snodgrass & Ahn, 1985), showing that a proper management of temporal information is required. The literature presents an analysis of the current status and sketches about future trends on storing (Jensen & Snodgrass, 1999, Khatri et al., 2004), representing and reasoning (Chittaro & Montanari, 2000) on temporal information: other papers consider these trends in several application domains, e.g. in medicine (Adlassnig et al., 2006, Combi & Pozzi, 2006b).

Time is thus relevant for any human activity, either if managed in a “traditional” way or with the support of ICT (Information and Communication Technology) tools. Workflow Management Systems - WfMS – (Aalst & van Hee, 2004, Grefen et al., 1999, Weske, 2007) can help in managing activities and/or business processes, and can be even more helpful if such systems can properly manage time and related temporal dimensions (i.e., temporalities). As an example, changes in the managed information, in the organization, in the process model, as well as deadlines, constraints on the activation or completion of a task or of the entire process, temporal synchronization of tasks can be easily defined, monitored, and detected by a suitable WfMS (Marjanovic & Orlowska, 1999a, Marjanovic & Orlowska, 1999b).

Since most of the information managed by a WfMS is stored by a database management system (DBMS), it can be easily observed that a suitable management of temporalities by the DBMS itself, which could result in a temporal DBMS (TDBMS), could be helpful. Unfortunately, and to the best of our knowledge, very few TDBMSs are available: despite this, we shall consider throughout the paper that some temporalities can be managed at the DBMS level: as an example, we shall assume that the valid time dimension, which is one of the relevant elements in managing temporalities, is available and manageable by the DBMS.

The chapter is organized as follows. The first section is entitled Temporalities in Workflow Models and it considers the main models and the related temporalities used in a workflow system: the process model, describing the single atomic work units and their coordination; the information model, describing all the information of the process instances (i.e., cases) by the workflow system; the organizational model, describing the agents (i.e., participants, which can be human or not, of an organization), and the structure of the organization where process instances will be executed.

The second section is entitled Temporalities in Expected Exceptions and it considers the abnormal events, also known as exceptions, which may occur during the execution of process instances. The section focuses on expected exceptions, i.e. those exceptions which must be considered at process design time, may occur at any time during the execution of the process, may deviate the “normal” flow of execution, and include a not negligible semantics.

The third section is entitled Temporal Scheduling and it considers the scheduler of a workflow management system, its policies for assigning tasks to agents and for fulfilling the defined temporal constraints. The section also includes the description of one possible algorithm for a temporal scheduler of a WfMS.

The fourth section is entitled Temporal Architectures for WfMSs and it considers both the general architecture of a WfMS and the changes that can be applied to such architecture, enriching it to suitably managing temporalities. The section discusses the pros and cons of three different architectures, depending on the availability of a full-fledged temporal database management system or not.

Finally, the last section entitled Conclusions provides an overview of the chapter and sketches out some possible research topics in the area.

Complete Chapter List

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Table of Contents
Jorge Cardoso, Wil van der Aalst
Chapter 1
Tiziana Margaria, Bernhard Steffen
The one thing approach is designed to overcome the classical communication hurdles between application experts and the various levels of IT experts.... Sample PDF
Business Process Modeling in the jABC: The One-Thing Approach
Chapter 2
Huy Tran, Ta’id Holmes, Uwe Zdun, Schahram Dustdar
This chapter introduces a view-based, model-driven approach for process-driven, service-oriented architectures. A typical business process consists... Sample PDF
Modeling Process-Driven SOAs: A View-Based Approach
Chapter 3
Stefan Jablonski
This chapter presents a process modeling approach for holistic process management. The main idea is that domain specific process models are required... Sample PDF
Process Modeling for Holistic Process Management
Chapter 4
Matthias Kloppmann, Dieter Koenig, Simon Moser
This chapter introduces a set of languages intended to model and run business processes. The Business Process Modeling Notation 1.1 (BPMN) is a... Sample PDF
The Dichotomy of Modeling and Execution: BPMN and WS-BPEL
Chapter 5
Chun Ouyang, Michael Adams, Arthur H.M. ter Hofstede
Due to the absence of commonly accepted conceptual and formal foundations for workflow management, and more generally Business Process Management... Sample PDF
Yet Another Workflow Language: Concepts, Tool Support, and Application
Chapter 6
Modelling Constructs  (pages 122-141)
Ekkart Kindler
There are many different notations and formalisms for modelling business processes and workflows. These notations and formalisms have been... Sample PDF
Modelling Constructs
Chapter 7
Kwanghoon Kim, Clarence A. Ellis
This chapter introduces the basic concepts of information control net (ICN) and its workflow models. In principle, a workflow model is the... Sample PDF
ICN-Based Workflow Model and its Advances
Chapter 8
Manfred Reichert, Peter Dadam
In dynamic environments it must be possible to quickly implement new business processes, to enable ad-hoc deviations from the defined business... Sample PDF
Enabling Adaptive Process-Aware Information Systems with ADEPT2
Chapter 9
Macello La Rosa, Marlon Dumas, Arthur H.M. ter Hofstede
A reference process model represents multiple variants of a common business process in an integrated and reusable manner. It is intended to be... Sample PDF
Modeling Business Process Variability for Design-Time Configuration
Chapter 10
Cesare Pautasso
Model-driven architecture (MDA), design and transformation techniques can be applied with success to the domain of business process modeling (BPM)... Sample PDF
Compiling Business Process Models into Executable Code
Chapter 11
Cinzia Cappiello, Barbara Pernici
This chapter illustrates the concept of repairable processes and self-healing functionalities and discusses about their design requirements.... Sample PDF
Design of Repairable Processes
Chapter 12
Web Process Adaptation  (pages 245-253)
Kunal Verma
Adaptation is an important concept for Web processes. The author provides an overview of adaptation with respect to control theory and how it is... Sample PDF
Web Process Adaptation
Chapter 13
Carlo Combi, Giuseppe Pozzi
Time is a very important dimension of any aspect in human life, affecting also information and information management. As such, time must be dealt... Sample PDF
Temporalities for Workflow Management Systems
Chapter 14
Karsten Ploesser, Nick Russell
This chapter discusses the challenges associated with integrating work performed by human agents into automated workflows. It briefly recounts the... Sample PDF
The People Integration Challenge
Chapter 15
Dimka Karastoyanova, Tammo van Lessen, Frank Leymann, Zhilei Ma, Joerg Nitzche, Branimir Wetzstein
Even though process orientation/BPM is a widely accepted paradigm with heavy impact on industry and research the available technology does not... Sample PDF
Semantic Business Process Management: Applying Ontologies in BPM
Chapter 16
Hernani Mourao, Pedro Antunes
In this chapter the authors propose a solution to handle unexpected exceptions in WfMS. They characterize these events deeply and recognize that... Sample PDF
Using WfMS to Support Unstructured Activities
Chapter 17
Guillermo Jimenez
In this chapter the authors introduce the role of a business process engineer (BPE) and necessary competencies to define, simulate, analyze, and... Sample PDF
Business Process Engineering
Chapter 18
Christoph Bussler
This chapter introduces the application of process management to business-to-business (B2B) integration and enterprise application integration... Sample PDF
B2B and EAI with Business Process Management
Chapter 19
Paul Grefen
This chapter is devoted to automated support for interorganizational business process management, that is, formation and enactment of business... Sample PDF
Systems for Interorganizational Business Process Management
Chapter 20
Guido Governatori, Shazia Sadiq
It is a typical scenario that many organisations have their business processes specified independently of their business obligations (which includes... Sample PDF
The Journey to Business Process Compliance
Chapter 21
M. Castellanos, A.K. Alves de Medeiros, J. Mendling, B. Weber, A.J.M.M. Weijters
Business Process Intelligence (BPI) is an emerging area that is getting increasingly popular for enterprises. The need to improve business process... Sample PDF
Business Process Intelligence
Chapter 22
Diogo R. Ferreira
This chapter introduces the principles of sequence clustering and presents two case studies where the technique is used to discover behavioral... Sample PDF
Applied Sequence Clustering Techniques for Process Mining
Chapter 23
Kamal Bhattacharya, Richard Hull, Jianwen Su
This chapter describes a design methodology for business processes and workflows that focuses first on “business artifacts”, which represent key... Sample PDF
A Data-Centric Design Methodology for Business Processes
Chapter 24
Laura Sanchez, Andrea Delgado, Francisco Ruiz, Felix Garcia, Mario Piattini
The underlying premise of process management is that the quality of products and services is largely determined by the quality of the processes used... Sample PDF
Measurement and Maturity of Business Processes
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