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Wireless Technologies: Shifting into the Next Gear?

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DOI: 10.4018/978-1-61520-611-7.ch125
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MLA

Fabrizi, Simona. "Wireless Technologies: Shifting into the Next Gear?." Encyclopedia of E-Business Development and Management in the Global Economy. IGI Global, 2010. 1244-1255. Web. 14 Sep. 2014. doi:10.4018/978-1-61520-611-7.ch125

APA

Fabrizi, S. (2010). Wireless Technologies: Shifting into the Next Gear?. In I. Lee (Ed.), Encyclopedia of E-Business Development and Management in the Global Economy (pp. 1244-1255). Hershey, PA: Business Science Reference. doi:10.4018/978-1-61520-611-7.ch125

Chicago

Fabrizi, Simona. "Wireless Technologies: Shifting into the Next Gear?." In Encyclopedia of E-Business Development and Management in the Global Economy, ed. In Lee, 1244-1255 (2010), accessed September 14, 2014. doi:10.4018/978-1-61520-611-7.ch125

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Abstract

Mobile Operators (MOs) in several countries are constantly challenged with the urge to further enhance the quality of their existing wireless networks, often dictated by the need to meet the newest technological standards as progress in wireless technologies is made. While the pressure to upgrade wireless networks is constantly felt by MOs in this market, it is not uncommon to observe some MOs upgrading their networks earlier than others. This article provides a theoretical explanation for this apparent paradox of why some MOs postpone the upgrading while others do not. It is shown that in the presence of different types of users - conservative versus quality-seeking - MOs may find it more profitable to adopt asymmetric upgrading strategies. Furthermore, it is argued that the incentives by some MOs not to upgrade are the largest when the share of conservative users in the market is sufficiently high, relative to the additional cost that upgrading entails. In such a case the MOs that do not upgrade their networks enjoy higher profits than the ones that do so.
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Introduction And Background

<b><i>Motivation</i></b></div><p>It is not uncommon nowadays to be confronted with various and continuous forms of advertising by MOs trying to persuade (prospective) customers of Mobile Internet services that their respective network is the fastest, the one with the broader coverage, or the one with the overall best performance, and so on. One such example is that of Telecom NZ with its only very recently proposed slogan to current and prospective customers of broadband Internet services: “<i>Testdrive, Faster in more places</i>”.<sup>1</sup> Why would only some MOs engage in the upgrading of their networks? The answer to this question is far from obvious and the aim of this article is to fully characterize under which conditions such a behavior is perfectly rational.</p><p>The results of the analysis offer a way to reconcile the apparent contradiction of postponing the upgrading of their networks by some operators, but not others. By means of a theoretical model, the article first provides an explanation for the decision of MOs to engage in the upgrading of their networks. It is shown that those incentives to upgrade are the strongest, the tougher the competition between MOs for market shares, and the more alike the users with respect to their willingness to pay for the enhanced services. Further, it is analyzed and discussed that those incentives for MOs to all upgrade their networks change when the willingness to pay for enhanced services may vary considerably across potential users. In this case, it becomes relatively less attractive for MOs to align their networks to the highest technological standards, when others do so, and this could paradoxically guarantee the MOs that do not upgrade their network’s higher profits than the ones of MOs that decided to do so.</p><p>These findings may provide a rationale for why MOs such as, for example, Telecom NZ, are at times more aggressive players than others in their upgrading decisions. For Telecom NZ, that decided to start upgrading its network before its rivals, there is at stake the prospect of being the provider capturing the share of the market formed by the New Zealanders seduced by the enhanced speed of accessing mobile broadband services.<sup>2</sup> Similar cases can be found, in which MOs have alternatively behaved as the leaders (pioneers), or the followers, in the adoption of several and subsequent standards.<sup>3</sup> A related example, is the case of Telecom NZ that itself took years before adopting the same 3G standards used by its rivals, such as Vodafone NZ, preventing over these years the possibility of international roaming for its subscribers. It is only recent the passage to the same standards as the ones used by its rivals, after Australian operators switched to this alternative standard.</p></div><div class="preview-footer"><a href="javascript:__doPostBack('ctl00$ctl00$cphMain$cphFeatured$lnkAddToCart','')">Purchase this chapter to continue reading all 12 pages ></a></div></div></div><div id="table-of-contents" class="contentareac"><span class="tophash"><a href="#" class="navlinkc">Top</a></span><h2>Complete Chapter List</h2><div class="headerdivider"></div><div id="ctl00_ctl00_cphMain_cphCenterContent_ucBookContentOverview_pnlChapters"><div class="search-contents"><span class="text"> Search this Book: </span><span class="text-box-container"><input id="txtKeywords" type="text" maxlength="50" onkeypress="return SearchBookFulltextHandleEnter(event, 37278);" title="Full text search term(s)" class="SearchTextBox TextBoxWatermark text-box" /></span><span class="search"><span class="search-button" onclick="RemoveSpecialCharacters();SearchBookFulltext(37278);"></span></span><span class="reset"><span onclick="RemoveSpecialCharacters();SearchBookFulltextReset();" class="link-gray-s">Reset</span></span></div><div id="searchResults"></div><div id="full-toc"><div id="toc-front-materials-container"><div class="listitemouter"><div class="listiteminner" style="padding:5px 0px;"><table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0"><tr><td style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="font-size:14px;"> Table of Contents </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="preview-alt" style="width:93px;"><a id="samplePdfNoClick" href='/pdf.aspx?tid=109339&ptid=37278&ctid=15&t=table of contents' target="_blank" class="sample" style="width:76px;margin:0px 2px 0px 0px;text-align:center;"> View Full PDF </a></div></td></tr></table></div></div><div class="listitemouter"><div class="listiteminner" style="padding:5px 0px;"><table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0"><tr><td style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="font-size:14px;"> Preface </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">In Lee</span></div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="preview-alt" style="width:93px;"><a id="samplePdfNoClick" href='/pdf.aspx?tid=109340&ptid=37278&ctid=15&t=preface' target="_blank" class="sample" style="width:76px;margin:0px 2px 0px 0px;text-align:center;"> View Full PDF </a></div></td></tr></table></div></div></div><div id="toc-middle-materials-container"><div id="chapter41163" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 1</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/macroeconomic-impacts-business-economy/41163' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> The Macroeconomic Impacts of E-Business on the Economy </a>  (pages 1-11) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Daniel Heil, James E. Prieger</span></div><div><span title='The growing use of information and communications technology (ICT) by business—e-business— has a profound impact on the economy. E-business lowers costs and increases the choices available to consumers and firms. These microeconomic changes work their way through the economy and ultimately influence macroeconomic conditions. Overall, e-business benefits the economy in many ways. Nevertheless, not all the effects of e-business on macroeconomic conditions are positive, and some aspects of e-commerce may limit the effectiveness of monetary policy. E-business changes the macroeconomy in several beneficial ways. Some gains are static in nature, arising from the more efficient use of existing resources. For example, increases in productivity increase a nation’s GDP. In addition, by lowering search and transaction costs, e-business unleashes deflationary pressures (Willis, 2004). Other gains are dynamic, altering the path national growth takes. By lowering the cost of transferring and employing knowledge, ICT enables greater R&D and innovation, which is crucial to long-run economic growth. ' style="display:none;"> The growing use of information and communications technology (ICT) by business—e-business— has a profound impact on the economy. E-business lowers... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41163&ptid=37278&t=the macroeconomic impacts of e-business on the economy' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> The Macroeconomic Impacts of E-Business on the Economy </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82416NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82416&tid=41163&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82416NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82416','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82416NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41164" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 2</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/microeconomic-impacts-business-economy/41164' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> The Microeconomic Impacts of E-Business on the Economy </a>  (pages 12-22) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">James E. Prieger, Daniel Heil</span></div><div><span title='The use of information and communications technology (ICT) in business—the most expansive definition of e-business—is transforming the world economy. E-business at the microeconomic level of retail, wholesale, and labor market transactions has an enormous impact on the performance of companies and the economic welfare of consumers and workers. The gains in efficiency and economic benefits at the microeconomic level exert influence all the way up to the macroeconomic level of GDP and fiscal and monetary phenomena. However, new policy challenges accompany the rewards from ebusiness in the economy. The economics of e-business are shaped by the way that ICT lowers the cost of transferring, storing, and processing information (Borenstein & Saloner, 2001). When the cost of information falls, there are profound consequences for how firms conduct business with each other, with consumers, and with workers. This article covers both the economic theory that suggests how e-business changes the economy (to understand why e-business has proliferated) and the empirical magnitude of the impacts (to show the economic benefits). ' style="display:none;"> The use of information and communications technology (ICT) in business—the most expansive definition of e-business—is transforming the world... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41164&ptid=37278&t=the microeconomic impacts of e-business on the economy' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> The Microeconomic Impacts of E-Business on the Economy </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82417NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82417&tid=41164&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82417NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82417','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82417NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41165" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 3</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/power-laws-enterprise/41165' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> The Power Laws of Enterprise 2.0 </a>  (pages 23-35) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Jacques Bughin</span></div><div><span title='Parallel to the consumer social web, a myriad of companies are adopting social software either for internal or external collaboration with suppliers and customers. This article provides key stylized facts around the adoption, use and success of social software, a phenomenon dubbed “enterprise 2.0”. We observe that social software usage within companies is heavily concentrated with a long tail companies claiming limited business use and success. The head of “enterprise 2.0” distribution, composed of a small hub of high performing companies, is to be found in some sectors like high-tech, but more crucially, the success is driven by debottlenecking of organizational barriers to fully exploit “enterprise 2.0” for improved economic performance.' style="display:none;"> Parallel to the consumer social web, a myriad of companies are adopting social software either for internal or external collaboration with suppliers... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41165&ptid=37278&t=the power laws of enterprise 2.0' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> The Power Laws of Enterprise 2.0 </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82418NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82418&tid=41165&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82418NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82418','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82418NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41166" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 4</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/prices-internet/41166' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Prices on the Internet </a>  (pages 36-45) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Jihui Chen</span></div><div><span title='In the pre-Internet era, consumers relied on media such as Sunday newspapers and flyers for product and price information. Such a search process is time-consuming and unlikely to be exhaustive. Existence of incomplete information has been shown to lead to price dispersion (Stigler, 1961). Recent advances in information technology have dramatically changed the manner by which consumers and businesses gather and transmit information. With a few mouse-clicks, consumers are able to compare price information from a wide range of vendors. With the advent of the Internet, especially the introduction of price comparison sites or shopbots, competition among online retailers escalates and we might expect prices to converge in the new economy. However, substantially decreased transaction cost has apparently not led to online price convergence. An extensive literature on Internet pricing has documented persistent price dispersion in online markets. In this chapter, I review price dispersion and related literatures, and discuss future research directions. ' style="display:none;"> In the pre-Internet era, consumers relied on media such as Sunday newspapers and flyers for product and price information. Such a search process is... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41166&ptid=37278&t=prices on the internet' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Prices on the Internet </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82419NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82419&tid=41166&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82419NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82419','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82419NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41167" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 5</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/price-dispersion-internet/41167' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Price Dispersion on the Internet: A Further Review and Discussion </a>  (pages 46-54) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Fang-Fang Tang, Xiaolin Xing</span></div><div><span title='The emergence and explosive growth of e-commerce have ushered in a new era of retail business, which has in turned triggered an increased research interest in studying online pricing behavior. Online retailing promises the potentials of low barrier of entry, easy access of information, and low transactions costs. These features of online retailing imply that the growth of e-commerce has the potential of realizing often stated economic ideals for a truly competitive market: low search costs, fierce price reactions, low margins, and weak market power. Such benefits might provide significant welfare benefits to consumers. Early studies in the literature mainly focused on comparing price levels and price dispersion between offline and online competitors (e.g. Bailey 1998, Brynjolffson & Smith 2000). As online markets become more mature and more data on e-tailing become available, empirical studies have shifted from analyzing cross-sectional data to longitudinally investigating market dynamics in terms of price levels and price dispersions. Since customers can obtain price information in online markets easily and inexpensively, it might be expected that online price dispersion should be small. However, empirical studies have found significant price differences and persistent price dispersions in the Internet markets, for which we are going to review in the following sections.' style="display:none;"> The emergence and explosive growth of e-commerce have ushered in a new era of retail business, which has in turned triggered an increased research... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41167&ptid=37278&t=price dispersion on the internet: a further review and discussion' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Price Dispersion on the Internet: A Further Review and Discussion </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82420NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82420&tid=41167&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82420NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82420','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82420NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41168" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 6</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/electronic-law-one-price-elop/41168' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> The Electronic Law of One Price (eLOP) </a>  (pages 55-64) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Camillo Lento, Alexander Serenko, Nikola Gradojevic, Lorne Booker, Sert Yol</span></div><div><span title='The recent growth in the breadth of products sold in electronic commerce markets has created fertile grounds to investigate the Electronic Law of One Price (eLOP). Violations of this law are now more puzzling because many of the traditional frictions should no longer be relevant. This empirical study tests the eLOP by utilizing two datasets with online price data. Pairwise comparison tests reveal that the eLOP does not hold true for any of the product price categories tested.' style="display:none;"> The recent growth in the breadth of products sold in electronic commerce markets has created fertile grounds to investigate the Electronic Law of... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41168&ptid=37278&t=the electronic law of one price (elop)' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> The Electronic Law of One Price (eLOP) </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82421NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82421&tid=41168&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82421NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82421','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82421NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41169" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 7</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/trust-electronic-commerce/41169' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Trust in Electronic Commerce: Definitions, Sources, and Effects </a>  (pages 65-74) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Hongwei Du, Albert Lederer, Jiming Wu</span></div><div><span title='In the past two decades, electronic commerce has been growing rapidly due to the increasing popularization of personal computers, expanding penetration of broadband, and continuing development of the Internet and World Wide Web. According to eMarketer (2009), an e-business and online market research company, the total U.S. e-commerce sales (excluding travel) will grow from $127.7 billion in 2007 to $182.5 billion in 2010. The firm also estimates that the number of online shoppers in U.S. will increase from 131.1 million—nearly four-fifths of Internet users—by the year 2007, to 148.7 million by the year 2010. The growth of e-commerce relies not only on the great convenience of conducting transactions over the Internet but also on consumers’ willingness to trust an online merchant. This view is consistent with that advanced by Holsapple and Wu (2008): non-face-to-face, Internet-based transactions require an element of trust; in other words, trust is a foundation of e-commerce. ' style="display:none;"> In the past two decades, electronic commerce has been growing rapidly due to the increasing popularization of personal computers, expanding... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41169&ptid=37278&t=trust in electronic commerce: definitions, sources, and effects' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Trust in Electronic Commerce: Definitions, Sources, and Effects </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82422NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82422&tid=41169&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82422NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82422','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82422NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41170" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 8</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/avatar-theory/41170' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Avatar Theory </a>  (pages 75-81) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Ching-I Teng, Shao-Kang Lo</span></div><div><span title='Online games are a popular application in electronic commerce. The number of customers playing a single online game has reached as high as 9,000,000 (Blizzard Entertainment, 2008), indicating the relevance of online games to marketers. When playing online games, customers focus on avatars, which represent them in the game world (Vasalou & Joinson, 2009). Recent studies have addressed the role of avatars in online game play (i.e., Lo, 2008). However, few investigations have attempted to improve practitioner understanding of avatars, limiting the wider utilization of avatar design in improving customer satisfaction. This phenomenon is perhaps owing to the lack of avatar-related theories. Theoretical investigations are necessary to clarify how customers use avatars to satisfy their needs when playing online games. This chapter thus presents Avatar Theory to outline fundamental propositions related to avatars. Avatar Theory can provide a background theory for subsequent avatar studies related to online games, demonstrating the value and potential impact of Avatar Theory within the literature on electronic commerce. Since gamers can select, play, change, discard and play multiple avatars, this chapter develops the Avatar Theory in order to understand these avatar use behavior. ' style="display:none;"> Online games are a popular application in electronic commerce. The number of customers playing a single online game has reached as high as 9,000,000... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41170&ptid=37278&t=avatar theory' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Avatar Theory </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82423NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82423&tid=41170&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82423NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82423','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82423NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41171" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 9</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/relationship-between-second-life-economy/41171' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Relationship Between Second Life and the U.S. Economy </a>  (pages 82-94) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Rosemarie Reynolds, Yusuke Ishikawa, Amanda Macchiarella</span></div><div><span title='Second Life is a virtual world designed to be a free, laissez-faire market economy in which Linden Dollars are used to buy and sell goods and services. This study investigated the relationship between the economies of Second Life and the United States, using financial data collected from Linden Lab and the Federal Reserve. Partial correlation analyses were computed between two pairs of economic measures, and our results indicated that there was a significant relationship between the two economies.' style="display:none;"> Second Life is a virtual world designed to be a free, laissez-faire market economy in which Linden Dollars are used to buy and sell goods and... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41171&ptid=37278&t=relationship between second life and the u.s. economy' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Relationship Between Second Life and the U.S. Economy </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82424NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82424&tid=41171&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82424NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82424','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82424NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41172" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 10</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/business-adoption-its-impact-performance/41172' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> E-Business Adoption and its Impact on Performance </a>  (pages 95-105) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Sabah Abdullah Al-Somali, Ben Clegg, Roya Gholami</span></div><div><span title='Organizations today face intense competitive and economic pressures leading to large scale transformation of existing business operations and transactions. In addition, organizations have adopted automated business processes to deal with partners and customers. E-business diffusion is a multi-phase process, moving from initiation through to routinisation and an insight into the adoption processes helps organizations to adopt e-business more effectively. It is imperative that organizations effectively manage the e-business environment, and all associated changes to accommodate the changing relationships with customers and business partners and more importantly, to improve performance. This chapter discusses the process of e-business implementation, usage and diffusion (routinisation stage) on business performance.' style="display:none;"> Organizations today face intense competitive and economic pressures leading to large scale transformation of existing business operations and... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41172&ptid=37278&t=e-business adoption and its impact on performance' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> E-Business Adoption and its Impact on Performance </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82425NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82425&tid=41172&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82425NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82425','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82425NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41173" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 11</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/b2b-website-benefits-realization-australian/41173' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> B2B Website Benefits Realization in Australian SMEs </a>  (pages 106-114) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Chad Lin, Yu-An Huang, Rosemary Stockdale</span></div><div><span title='One aspect of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) electronic commerce activity that is acknowledged but rarely examined is their use of websites as they are a critical element of their business growth and competitiveness (Loiacono et al., 2002). Their successful design and use can alter the effectiveness of an SME’s venture into electronic commerce. However, SMEs are still lagging behind larger organizations in the adoption and evaluation of their electronic commerce activities despite the benefits it offers (Lin et al., 2007) and in overcoming the potential barriers that hamper their evaluation practices (Standing and Lin, 2007). Understanding the factors used by the SMEs’ potential customers to evaluate their website effectiveness can serve as a basis for creating and improving websites (Simmons et al., 2007). ' style="display:none;"> One aspect of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) electronic commerce activity that is acknowledged but rarely examined is their use of... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41173&ptid=37278&t=b2b website benefits realization in australian smes' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> B2B Website Benefits Realization in Australian SMEs </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82426NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82426&tid=41173&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82426NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82426','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82426NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41174" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 12</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/lifelong-learning-knowledge-economy/41174' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Lifelong Learning in the Knowledge Economy: An Empirical Analysis of e-Learning Adoption at Firm-Level </a>  (pages 115-124) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Maria Rosalia Vicente, Ana Jesus Lopez</span></div><div><span title='In a global knowledge-based economy, the performance of business organizations depends on ensuring that all categories of employees possess current and up-to-date knowledge and skills. Therefore, businesses must analyze their training needs in greater depth and update workers’ skills much more rapidly than in the past, while attempting to reduce training costs to remain competitive in this changing environment (Roy & Raymond, 2008). This requires organizations to educate and train anyone, anytime, and from anywhere with the lowest possible costs (Ong et al., 2004). Thus, many enterprises have turned to e-Learning as a best practice to provide adequate training to their employees. The aim of this paper is to examine e-learning adoption among a sample of European firms (an area for which empirical evidence is quite scarce), and investigate the factors driving its introduction. ' style="display:none;"> In a global knowledge-based economy, the performance of business organizations depends on ensuring that all categories of employees possess current... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41174&ptid=37278&t=lifelong learning in the knowledge economy: an empirical analysis of e-learning adoption at firm-level' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Lifelong Learning in the Knowledge Economy: An Empirical Analysis of e-Learning Adoption at Firm-Level </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82427NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82427&tid=41174&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82427NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82427','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82427NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41175" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 13</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/measuring-quality-business-services/41175' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Measuring the Quality Of E-Business Services </a>  (pages 125-134) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Mark Springer, Craig K. Tyran, Steven Ross</span></div><div><span title='Electronic service quality, or e-service quality, refers to the quality experienced by the user of a service delivered via the Internet. Over the past several years, researchers have developed different models of e-service quality with the objective of identifying those aspects that are most important for customer satisfaction and loyalty. The current authors develop a framework to compare and contrast these models. While there is some agreement between existing models regarding the key dimensions of e-service quality, these models focus almost exclusively on retail e-commerce Web sites. Additional research is needed not only to resolve the differences between existing quality models for e-commerce Web sites, but also to develop e-service quality assessment tools for the entire range of e-business services.' style="display:none;"> Electronic service quality, or e-service quality, refers to the quality experienced by the user of a service delivered via the Internet. Over the... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41175&ptid=37278&t=measuring the quality of e-business services' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Measuring the Quality Of E-Business Services </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82428NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82428&tid=41175&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82428NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82428','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82428NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41176" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 14</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/measuring-b2c-quality-electronic-service/41176' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Measuring B2C Quality of Electronic Service: Towards A Common Consensus </a>  (pages 135-143) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Mahmoud Amer, Jorge Marx Gómez</span></div><div><span title='In our efforts to study the dimensions affecting the electronic service quality (eSQ) measurement in the Business to Business (B2B) domain, we were faced with a problem of the lack of consensus on the Business to Consumer (B2C) eSQ measurement dimensions, which makes it difficult for researchers in this field to generalize their findings on the B2B domain. Due to this lack of consensus on the subject, we have decided to propose a B2C electronic Service Quality “eSQ” model of consensus summarizing the past research efforts in this domain. In order to test - in future research- if the model proposed here for B2C eSQ can be extended to the B2B domain or not. This study tries to explain some of the current scales used in measuring electronic service quality in the Business to Consumer “B2C” domain, propose a model of consensus for the eSQ B2C based on an extensive literature review of the collective work done by the researches in this field. ' style="display:none;"> In our efforts to study the dimensions affecting the electronic service quality (eSQ) measurement in the Business to Business (B2B) domain, we were... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41176&ptid=37278&t=measuring b2c quality of electronic service: towards a common consensus' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Measuring B2C Quality of Electronic Service: Towards A Common Consensus </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82429NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82429&tid=41176&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82429NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82429','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82429NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41177" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 15</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/business-value-collaboration/41177' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> The Business Value of E-Collaboration: A Conceptual Framework </a>  (pages 144-154) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Lior Fink</span></div><div><span title='This article presents a conceptual framework of the business value of e-collaboration. In the past decade, firms have increasingly implemented collaborative technologies to support business activities, and investments in collaborative technologies have taken an increasing share of firms’ e-business investments. Presumably, such investments have been motivated by the notion that the implementation of collaborative technologies has business value. While research has repeatedly demonstrated the individual- and group-level impacts of collaborative technologies, it has rarely addressed their impacts at the organizational level and demonstrated their business value. In this article, I draw on three strategic management frameworks – the resource-based view of the firm, the knowledge-based view of the firm, and the dynamic capabilities perspective – to describe how specialized knowledge assets can be integrated through collaborative processes to create and sustain a competitive advantage. I then use this conceptualization as a platform for defining the organizational roles of collaborative technologies and the potential impact of each role on organizational performance. The main objective of this article is to provide a conceptual framework for researchers and practitioners who are interested in investigating and understanding the organizational impacts of collaborative technologies. ' style="display:none;"> This article presents a conceptual framework of the business value of e-collaboration. In the past decade, firms have increasingly implemented... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41177&ptid=37278&t=the business value of e-collaboration: a conceptual framework' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> The Business Value of E-Collaboration: A Conceptual Framework </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82430NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82430&tid=41177&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82430NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82430','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82430NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41178" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 16</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/model-antecedents-consequences-procurement/41178' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> A Model of the Antecedents and Consequences of E-procurement </a>  (pages 155-165) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">M. José Garrido, Ana Gutiérrez, Rebeca San José</span></div><div><span title='The Internet is used by firm purchasers as a source of information in procurement. We propose a model of the determinants and consequences of Internet use in this process. We analyzed whether different Internet tools are used throughout all purchasing phases and whether the characteristics of the buying situation determined the use of the Internet in that process. We also proposed to analyze how Internet use in this process impacts companies from two different points of view: organizational and economical. Organizational consequences refer to the buying center structure in terms of size, participation, number of hierarchical levels, and functional areas. Economical consequences refer to purchase results in terms of efficacy and efficiency. Implications for business-to-business marketers and researchers are discussed.' style="display:none;"> The Internet is used by firm purchasers as a source of information in procurement. We propose a model of the determinants and consequences of... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41178&ptid=37278&t=a model of the antecedents and consequences of e-procurement' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> A Model of the Antecedents and Consequences of E-procurement </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82431NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82431&tid=41178&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82431NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82431','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82431NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41179" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 17</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/global-online-performance-service-orientation/41179' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Global Online Performance and Service Orientation </a>  (pages 166-177) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Anna Morgan-Thomas, Robert Paton</span></div><div><span title='The competition currently facing small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) is characterized by three interacting trends: market globalization; enhanced e-commerce technology; and the growth of the service economy. With respect to the first trend, globalization has led SMEs into world markets and some are rapidly becoming global players (Chetty and Blankenburg Holm, 2000; Oviatt and McDougall, 1997). Understanding the processes that underpin success is of paramount importance to academics and practitioners alike (Beamish et al., 1999; Cavusgil and Zou, 1994). With respect to the second trend, e-commerce has redefined the nature of global business (Karavdic and Gregory, 2005; Quelch and Klein, 1996). By facilitating a direct link between the firm and customer, e-commerce provides a low cost gateway to global markets (Etemad and Wright, 1999). For many SMEs, online activity accelerates the growth dynamics by increasing global sales (Morgan- Thomas and Bridgewater, 2004; Raymond et al., 2005); reduces global operational costs (Lohrke et al., 2006; Matlay and Westhead, 2005); or enhances the rate and geographical spread of foreign market entries (Kim, 2003). ' style="display:none;"> The competition currently facing small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) is characterized by three interacting trends: market globalization;... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41179&ptid=37278&t=global online performance and service orientation' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Global Online Performance and Service Orientation </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82432NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82432&tid=41179&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82432NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82432','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82432NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41180" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 18</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/electronic-funds-transfer-systems-landscapes/41180' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Electronic Funds Transfer Systems and the Landscapes of Global Finance </a>  (pages 178-187) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Barney Warf</span></div><div><span title='Electronic funds transfer systems (EFTS) are the primary means by which capital moves through the world economy, including real time gross settlement systems for handling international payments as well as foreign exchange transactions. This paper starts by noting how the world of the Bretton-Woods system differed from the hypermobile, digitized world that followed. Next, it summarizes some major public and private EFTS networks and the repercussions for capital markets, stock exchanges, and foreign exchange markets. Third it summarizes how EFTS challenge national monetary controls and the implications. Finally, it points to the centrality of EFTS in the emergence and growth of offshore banking centers.' style="display:none;"> Electronic funds transfer systems (EFTS) are the primary means by which capital moves through the world economy, including real time gross... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41180&ptid=37278&t=electronic funds transfer systems and the landscapes of global finance' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Electronic Funds Transfer Systems and the Landscapes of Global Finance </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82433NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82433&tid=41180&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82433NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82433','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82433NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41181" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 19</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/intermediaries-commerce-value-creation-roles/41181' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Intermediaries in E-Commerce: Value Creation Roles </a>  (pages 188-197) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Nirvikar Singh</span></div><div><span title='Very early in the evolution of e-commerce, predictions were made that a significant degree of disintermediation would occur, i.e., that middlemen would be eliminated from the value chain through the use of the Internet. The reasoning was as follows. The economic benefit of middlemen, or intermediaries, is that they reduce transaction costs for functions that are outside the firm (Coase, 1937). Therefore, as digital technology reduced transaction costs in the open market, the role of these middlemen would be threatened (Tapscott, 1996; Downes & Mui, 1998). However, intermediaries have proven to be remarkably robust, even as they have transformed their roles and functions. The success of e-commerce firms like Amazon, eBay, and Yahoo is a testament to the continued value of intermediation. Even in an economy reshaped by digital technology, intermediaries still add value, and find new ways of doing so. This article examines the evolution and robustness of intermediation in e-commerce, by examining the fundamental economics of intermediation in terms of economies of specialization, scale, and scope. It considers ownership, transformation, and agency as different dimensions of intermediaries. It examines various intermediary roles, and how they are combined, driven by economies of scope and strategic attempts to capture value. It discusses how the various intermediary roles are changing in e-commerce, through the impact of digital technology. The specific case of financial intermediaries, at the forefront of digital technology usage, provides several examples (Singh, 2000). The conclusion is that intermediaries are important and varied enough that they will survive and thrive in the era of ecommerce. Disintermediation will not be a general outcome. Traditional intermediaries that perform manual tasks, or are part of slow or inefficient value chains are in danger, but the economic roles that intermediation plays are unchanged by e-commerce, and will be carried out in new ways. ' style="display:none;"> Very early in the evolution of e-commerce, predictions were made that a significant degree of disintermediation would occur, i.e., that middlemen... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41181&ptid=37278&t=intermediaries in e-commerce: value creation roles' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Intermediaries in E-Commerce: Value Creation Roles </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82434NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82434&tid=41181&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82434NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82434','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82434NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41182" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 20</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/identifying-factors-lead-successful-intermediary/41182' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Identifying the Factors that Lead to a Successful Intermediary in Electronic Commerce </a>  (pages 198-206) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Margaret Jackson, Marita Shelly</span></div><div><span title='The Internet has changed the way we interact with others in both our business and personal spheres. Electronic commerce has developed beyond buying and selling of goods electronically. It is now leading to new online intermediaries such as aggregators of information, peer-to-peer and social networking sites which allow sharing between individuals without the need for commercial service providers, and new on-line payment mechanisms such as BPAY in Australia, which provide additional services to those from existing credit providers. Using a case study approach, this chapter explores the factors that have led to the success of financial intermediaries and in particular, BPAY Ltd.' style="display:none;"> The Internet has changed the way we interact with others in both our business and personal spheres. Electronic commerce has developed beyond buying... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41182&ptid=37278&t=identifying the factors that lead to a successful intermediary in electronic commerce' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Identifying the Factors that Lead to a Successful Intermediary in Electronic Commerce </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82435NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82435&tid=41182&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82435NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82435','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82435NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41183" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 21</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/framework-identifying-b2b-marketplace-strategies/41183' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> A Framework for Identifying B2B E-Marketplace Strategies </a>  (pages 207-217) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">George Mangalaraj, Chandra S. Amaravadi</span></div><div><span title='Different types of Electronic Marketplace (EM) strategies have been articulated in the literature. EM strategies vary from public exchanges to private extranets. This chapter reviews existing literature and provides a parsimonious framework for classifying EMs. The proposed framework utilizes two dimensions: relationship and product’s level of value addition. Based on the framework, the research theoretically derives five dominant EM strategies. The authors also highlight the applicability of their framework by providing illustrative examples of current industry practices in the realm of B2B EM.' style="display:none;"> Different types of Electronic Marketplace (EM) strategies have been articulated in the literature. EM strategies vary from public exchanges to... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41183&ptid=37278&t=a framework for identifying b2b e-marketplace strategies' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> A Framework for Identifying B2B E-Marketplace Strategies </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82436NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82436&tid=41183&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82436NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82436','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82436NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41184" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 22</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/electronic-logistics-marketplaces/41184' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Electronic Logistics Marketplaces </a>  (pages 218-226) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Yingli Wang, Mohamed Naim, Andrew Potter</span></div><div><span title='As B2B e-business shifted to the Internet, Electronic Marketplaces (EMs) have grown rapidly in usage (Rask & Kragh, 2004). Definitions of an EM are diverse. One of the earliest and broadest definitions is offered by Bakos (1991), who referred to an EM as “an inter-organizational system that allows the participating buyers and sellers to exchange information about price and product offerings”. In the context of logistics, EMs can be termed Electronic Logistics Marketplaces (ELMs), referring to an electronic hub using web-based systems that link shippers and carriers together for the purpose of collaboration and/or trading (Wang, Potter, & Naim, 2007a). ELM is a context specific type of EM, which facilitates the provision of logistics services. Traditional forms of communication between a shipper and a carrier are rather fragmented when a shipper has a number of carriers to manage. Such one-toone exchanges can be costly and sometimes very time-consuming. Communicating through an ELM allows the connection of a number of shippers and carriers using a single interface, normally a Webbased system. This has brought advantages to organizations in terms of low cost inter-organization information connectivity, (near) real time visibility, and flexible partnership configurations. ' style="display:none;"> As B2B e-business shifted to the Internet, Electronic Marketplaces (EMs) have grown rapidly in usage (Rask & Kragh, 2004). Definitions of an EM are... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41184&ptid=37278&t=electronic logistics marketplaces' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Electronic Logistics Marketplaces </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82437NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82437&tid=41184&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82437NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82437','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82437NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41185" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 23</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/agent-based-b2c-electronic-market/41185' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> An Agent-Based B2C Electronic Market in the Next-Generation Internet </a>  (pages 227-238) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Vedran Podobnik, Krunoslav Trzec, Gordan Jezic</span></div><div><span title='In a global multi-service and multi-provider market, Internet Service Providers (ISPs) will increasingly need to base their operation on new consumer-centric business models. In this article, the authors present an agent-based framework for the Business-to-Consumer (B2C) electronic market, comprising User Agents, Broker Agents and Provider Agents, which enable Internet users to select an ISP in an automated manner.' style="display:none;"> In a global multi-service and multi-provider market, Internet Service Providers (ISPs) will increasingly need to base their operation on new... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41185&ptid=37278&t=an agent-based b2c electronic market in the next-generation internet' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> An Agent-Based B2C Electronic Market in the Next-Generation Internet </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82438NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82438&tid=41185&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82438NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82438','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82438NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41186" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 24</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/concept-agent-based-electronic-marketplace/41186' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Concept of an Agent-Based Electronic Marketplace </a>  (pages 239-251) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Norleyza Jailani, Ahmed Patel, Muriati Mukhtar, Salha Abdullah, Yazrina Yahya</span></div><div><span title='This study explains the concepts of an electronic marketplace (e-marketplace) and the types of e-marketplaces in today’s computing environment that is facilitated and driven by the Internet. The concept of software agent and the different types of agents which may exist in an e-marketplace application in the current setting of the global economy is also discussed. Specifically the idea of using mobile agents in the implementation of an e-marketplace is investigated. This article also introduces an example of a mobile agent-based e-marketplace which offers secure infrastructure services. The complex and challenging computing environment in which agents operate requires efforts in the standardization and management of agents.' style="display:none;"> This study explains the concepts of an electronic marketplace (e-marketplace) and the types of e-marketplaces in today’s computing environment that... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41186&ptid=37278&t=concept of an agent-based electronic marketplace' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Concept of an Agent-Based Electronic Marketplace </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82439NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82439&tid=41186&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82439NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82439','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82439NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41187" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 25</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/concept-mobile-agent-based-electronic/41187' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Concept of Mobile Agent-Based Electronic Marketplace – Safety Measures </a>  (pages 252-264) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Ahmed Patel</span></div><div><span title='In mobile agent-based systems, the use of mobile agents in pervasive ubiquitous electronic marketplace (e-marketplace) environment requires very well protected, secure and safe infrastructure and networking services, if they are to be trusted. The important issues and functions of security, privacy, trust and audit complement the basic requirements of mobile agent-based systems. These must support e-marketplace trading in today’s computing arena facilitated and driven by the Web, Internet and ad hoc networks. In this chapter, the concept and application of security, privacy, trust, and audit for normal business and digital forensics purposes under the single term safety measures are presented. These measures are the key drivers and principles of secure mobile agents for mobile agent based environments.' style="display:none;"> In mobile agent-based systems, the use of mobile agents in pervasive ubiquitous electronic marketplace (e-marketplace) environment requires very... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41187&ptid=37278&t=concept of mobile agent-based electronic marketplace – safety measures' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Concept of Mobile Agent-Based Electronic Marketplace – Safety Measures </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82440NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82440&tid=41187&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82440NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82440','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82440NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41188" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 26</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/time-constraints-sellers-electronic-markets/41188' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Time Constraints for Sellers in Electronic Markets </a>  (pages 265-272) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Kostas Kolomvatsos, Stathes Hadjiefthymiades</span></div><div><span title='Electronic markets provide virtual places for negotiation over the exchange of products. In such places entities representing buyers and sellers can interact and agree upon a product price. Both parties try to maximize their profit. The authors model such an interaction as a finite horizon bargaining game and try to quantify the maximum time of seller participation in the game. The estimated deadline indicates until when the interaction is profitable for the seller. The authors’ model defines the appropriate value for a patience factor which finally results in the seller deadline fully adapted in each product characteristics.' style="display:none;"> Electronic markets provide virtual places for negotiation over the exchange of products. In such places entities representing buyers and sellers can... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41188&ptid=37278&t=time constraints for sellers in electronic markets' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Time Constraints for Sellers in Electronic Markets </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82441NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82441&tid=41188&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82441NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82441','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82441NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41189" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 27</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/towards-efficient-trust-aware-marketplace/41189' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Towards Efficient Trust Aware E-Marketplace Frameworks </a>  (pages 273-283) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Malamati Louta, Angelos Michalas</span></div><div><span title='In the liberalized and deregulated e-marketplace some key factors for service providers’ success are the following. First, the efficiency with which services will be developed. Second, the quality level, in relation with the corresponding cost, of new services. Third, service providers’ reliability with respect to service provisioning. Fourth, the efficiency with which the services will be operated (controlled, maintained, administered, etc.). The aim of this paper is, in accordance with efficient service operation objectives, to propose enhancements to the sophistication of the negotiation functionality that can be offered by e-commerce systems in open competitive communications environments. In the highly competitive and dynamic emarketplaces, Service/Product Requestors (SPRs) should be provided with mechanisms that enable them to find and associate with the most appropriate Service/Product Providers (SPPs), i.e., those offering the desirable quality of service / product at a certain time period, in a cost efficient manner. Such mechanisms may entail a wide variety of negotiation mechanisms, including auctions, bilateral (1 to 1) and/or multilateral (M to N) negotiation models and strategies, as well as posted offer schemes (i.e., a nonnegotiable, take-it-or-leave-it offer) in order to establish the ‘best’ possible contract terms and conditions with respect to service / product access and provision. ' style="display:none;"> In the liberalized and deregulated e-marketplace some key factors for service providers’ success are the following. First, the efficiency with which... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41189&ptid=37278&t=towards efficient trust aware e-marketplace frameworks' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Towards Efficient Trust Aware E-Marketplace Frameworks </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82442NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82442&tid=41189&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82442NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82442','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82442NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41190" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 28</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/assessing-relational-strategy-supporting-business/41190' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Assessing Relational E-Strategy Supporting Business Relationships </a>  (pages 284-295) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Anne-Marie Croteau, Anne Beaudry, Justin Holm</span></div><div><span title='As per the Census Bureau of the Department of Commerce, the estimate of U.S. retail e-commerce sales for the first quarter of 2009 was $31.7 billion. For the same period, e-commerce accounted for 3.5 percent of total sales with a value of $30.2 billion sales. As electronic business (e-business) has become essential in our economy, organizations have begun to demand a return on their investment in such endeavors (Damanpour and Damanpour, 2001). More recently, research indicates that webbased technologies enhance performance when the environmental pressures are high, the technical capabilities within the organization are well integrated, and the management team highly supports and sees value in e-business initiatives (Sanders, 2007). An extensive and diverse body of literature has been produced regarding e-business. One research angle that lacked over the years is the definition and assessment of an e-business strategy (e-strategy). Some efforts were made in evaluating e-strategy through an electronic simulation (Ha and Forgianne, 2006). Another recent research observed that human, technological and business capabilities and e-business implementation influence the business performance at various levels (Coltman, Devinney, and Midgley, 2007). However, both studies did not develop an e-strategy construct empirically tested with managers. ' style="display:none;"> As per the Census Bureau of the Department of Commerce, the estimate of U.S. retail e-commerce sales for the first quarter of 2009 was $31.7... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41190&ptid=37278&t=assessing relational e-strategy supporting business relationships' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Assessing Relational E-Strategy Supporting Business Relationships </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82443NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82443&tid=41190&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82443NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82443','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82443NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41191" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 29</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/leading-organizational-dynamics-business-firms/41191' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Leading the Organizational Dynamics of E-Business Firms </a>  (pages 296-304) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Esin Can Mutlu, Yasemin Bal, Pinar Büyükbalci</span></div><div><span title='As a result of globalization and continuously changing environmental conditions, new business models emerge in the new era of management. E-business firms also have been formed during this era and took attention of management scholars as they show a wide variety of new organizational dynamics in terms of certain structural characteristics. Leading these dynamics requires special leadership traits that constitute a base for the harmonic functioning of e-business firms. In this context, the main aim of this study is to conceptually discuss the important organizational aspects in e-business firms and support them with the needed leadership traits.' style="display:none;"> As a result of globalization and continuously changing environmental conditions, new business models emerge in the new era of management. E-business... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41191&ptid=37278&t=leading the organizational dynamics of e-business firms' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Leading the Organizational Dynamics of E-Business Firms </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82444NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82444&tid=41191&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82444NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82444','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82444NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41192" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 30</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/adoption-commerce-canadian-smes/41192' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Adoption of e-Commerce by Canadian SMEs: Defining Organizational, Environmental and Innovation Characteristics </a>  (pages 305-315) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Lynn L. Sparling, Aileen Cater-Steel, Mark Toleman</span></div><div><span title='While online sales have experienced high growth rates, e-commerce adoption rates by Canadian SMEs have not kept pace. Canadian SMEs continue to lag behind the US and the EU in adopting e-commerce. Recently, a survey of SMEs’ adoption of e-commerce was conducted to determine reasons for this low adoption rate (Sparling, 2007; Sparling, Cater-Steel, & Toleman, 2007). Constructs used in the survey focussed on three contexts: organizational, external environmental and innovation. The study found significant factors that differentiated adopters and non-adopters of e-commerce included technological opportunism and readiness, owner experience with computers, support within the organization, relative advantage and compatibility. This chapter focuses on the definitions of the variables in the organizational context. ' style="display:none;"> While online sales have experienced high growth rates, e-commerce adoption rates by Canadian SMEs have not kept pace. Canadian SMEs continue to lag... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41192&ptid=37278&t=adoption of e-commerce by canadian smes: defining organizational, environmental and innovation characteristics' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Adoption of e-Commerce by Canadian SMEs: Defining Organizational, Environmental and Innovation Characteristics </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82445NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82445&tid=41192&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82445NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82445','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82445NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41193" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 31</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/business-strategy-franchising/41193' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> E-Business Strategy in Franchising </a>  (pages 316-324) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Ye-Sho Chen, Chuanlan Liu, Qingfeng Zeng</span></div><div><span title='Franchising as a global growth strategy is gaining its popularity (Justis and Judd, 2002; Thomas and Seid, 2000; Chen and Justis, 2006). For example, the U.S. Commercial Service estimated that China, having over 2,600 brands with 200,000 franchised retail stores in over 80 sectors, is now the largest franchise market in the world (U.S. Commercial Service, 2008). The popularity of franchising continues to increase, as we witness an emergence of a new e-business model, Netchising, which is the combination power of the Internet for global demand-and-supply processes and the international franchising arrangement for local responsiveness (Chen, Justis, and Yang, 2004; Chen, Chen, and Wu, 2006). For example, Entrepreneur magazine – well known for its Franchise 500 listing – in 2001 included Tech Businesses into its Franchise Zone that contains Internet Businesses, Tech Training, and Miscellaneous Tech Businesses. At the time of this writing, 45 companies are on its list. In his best seller, Business @ the Speed of Thought, Bill Gates (1999) wrote: “Information Technology and business are becoming inextricably interwoven. I don’t think anybody can talk meaningfully about one without talking about the other.” (p. 6) Gates’ point is quite true when one talks about e-business strategy in franchising. Thus, to see how e-business can be “meaningfully” used in franchising, one needs to know how franchising really works. ' style="display:none;"> Franchising as a global growth strategy is gaining its popularity (Justis and Judd, 2002; Thomas and Seid, 2000; Chen and Justis, 2006). For... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41193&ptid=37278&t=e-business strategy in franchising' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> E-Business Strategy in Franchising </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82446NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82446&tid=41193&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82446NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82446','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82446NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41194" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 32</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/exploring-impact-government-policies-corporate/41194' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Exploring the Impact of Government Policies and Corporate Strategies on the Diffusion of Mobile Data Services: Case of Economies at Different Stages of Transition </a>  (pages 325-335) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Tugrul U Daim, Jing Zhang, Byung-Chul Choi</span></div><div><span title='We are experiencing a revolution in the mobile industry as 3G transition is being realized globally. This represents a shift from voice driven services to multimedia driven ones. Worldwide subscriber number is reported to reach 700 million. This chapter will explore how governments and businesses impact this phenomenon with their policies and strategies. To be able to understand variations and to generalize conclusions, the authors looked at economies at different stages of transition. They explored US as the major economic power and then Korea as a country that reached the status of a developed nation recently and China that has been growing at an exponential rate. The comparison results reveal that the mobile data services have been developing better in South Korea and China than in the US. Mobile data services can be a large potential market and play an important strategic role in a national economy and society. A keystone strategy is effective to promote the diffusion of contents and applications for mobile services. It is important to lead customer consumptions and reach the balance between mobile data services and voice services. The experience from the three countries can provide significant insights for mobile operators in most other counties.' style="display:none;"> We are experiencing a revolution in the mobile industry as 3G transition is being realized globally. This represents a shift from voice driven... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41194&ptid=37278&t=exploring the impact of government policies and corporate strategies on the diffusion of mobile data services: case of economies at different stages of transition' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Exploring the Impact of Government Policies and Corporate Strategies on the Diffusion of Mobile Data Services: Case of Economies at Different Stages of Transition </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82447NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82447&tid=41194&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82447NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82447','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82447NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41195" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 33</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/business-resource-based-view/41195' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> E-Business and the Resource-Based View: Towards a Research Agenda </a>  (pages 336-346) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Pedro Soto-Acosta</span></div><div><span title='The article provides a review of the adoption of a resource-based view of the firm (RBV) in eBusiness literature and, then, suggests directions for future research. First, a distinction is drawn between Internet resources and eBusiness capabilities. Second, the relationship between Internet resources and eBusiness value is emphasized. Third, the relationships among Internet resources, eBusiness capabilities and firm performance are argued and, finally, the complementarity of Internet resources and eBusiness capabilities is proposed as source of business value. In this regard, a set of propositions is advanced to help guide future research.' style="display:none;"> The article provides a review of the adoption of a resource-based view of the firm (RBV) in eBusiness literature and, then, suggests directions for... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41195&ptid=37278&t=e-business and the resource-based view: towards a research agenda' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> E-Business and the Resource-Based View: Towards a Research Agenda </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82448NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82448&tid=41195&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82448NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82448','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82448NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41196" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 34</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/commerce-business-models/41196' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> E-Commerce Business Models: Part 1 </a>  (pages 347-358) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Khaled Ahmed Nagaty</span></div><div><span title='In this article the author explained the classes of e-commerce business models and their advantages and disadvantages. He discussed the important issues and problems facing e-commerce web sites and how to build a successful e-commerce Web site using techniques of security, privacy and authentication, guidelines of maintenance, collecting user’s information for personalization, using multi-tier architecture to achieve high performance and high availability.' style="display:none;"> In this article the author explained the classes of e-commerce business models and their advantages and disadvantages. He discussed the important... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41196&ptid=37278&t=e-commerce business models: part 1' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> E-Commerce Business Models: Part 1 </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82449NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82449&tid=41196&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82449NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82449','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82449NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41197" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 35</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/commerce-business-models/41197' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> E-Commerce Business Models: Part 2 </a>  (pages 359-369) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Khaled Ahmed Nagaty</span></div><div><span title='In this article the author explained some of the common artificial intelligence techniques used in e-commerce web sites and how these techniques are implemented in auctions, intermediaries and e-marketplaces to increase customer’s satisfaction, minimize the look up time, reduce costs and improve the usability of e-commerce Web sites so that visitors can quickly access the required information or perform required transactions without being overwhelmed or confused with the large amount of data.' style="display:none;"> In this article the author explained some of the common artificial intelligence techniques used in e-commerce web sites and how these techniques are... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41197&ptid=37278&t=e-commerce business models: part 2' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> E-Commerce Business Models: Part 2 </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82450NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82450&tid=41197&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82450NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82450','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82450NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41198" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 36</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/creating-business-opportunities-based-use/41198' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Creating Business Opportunities Based on Use of Electronic Knowledge Business Models </a>  (pages 370-379) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Tsung-Yi Chen, Yuh-Min Chen</span></div><div><span title='The advent of the innovation economy has transformed knowledge into the most valuable corporate asset and a key driver of product and service innovation. Therefore, the determinants of enterprise success have shifted from external factors, such as market and competitive factors, to internal factors, such as dynamic innovation capability, based on enterprise core competences and knowledge. Knowledge-based enterprises can convert intellectual assets (IA) into currency via commercial methods such as sales, licensing, joint ventures, strategic alliances, mergers, new business entities and donations (Skyrme, 2001; Sullivan, 2000; Wang et al., 2009). Trading and sharing of knowledge with other enterprises can be more beneficial than using knowledge internally. Electronic commerce (e-commerce) supports on-line functions such as transmission, trading and making payments for products and services. Moreover, electronic commerce- based knowledge commerce (k-commerce) denotes real-time marketing and the delivery of existing organizational knowledge via the Internet to enable the legal and rapid transfer of knowledge from owners to consumers. ' style="display:none;"> The advent of the innovation economy has transformed knowledge into the most valuable corporate asset and a key driver of product and service... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41198&ptid=37278&t=creating business opportunities based on use of electronic knowledge business models' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Creating Business Opportunities Based on Use of Electronic Knowledge Business Models </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82451NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82451&tid=41198&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82451NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82451','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82451NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41199" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 37</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/online-private-sales-clubs/41199' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Online Private Sales Clubs: An Emerging Model of Fashionable E-Commerce at Promotional Prices </a>  (pages 380-387) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Ana Isabel Jiménez-Zarco, María Pilar Martínez-Ruiz, Silvia Sivera-Bello, Sandra Vilajoana-Alejandre</span></div><div><span title='Considering the advantages of the Internet for commercializing a vast array of products and services (Steinfeld and Whitten, 1999; Webb, 2002), it is little wonder that more and more companies have decided to offer a broad array of products online (Jiménez, 2005). Some companies even have chosen to use the Internet as the exclusive channel for selling products and services. When they follow this route, one of the most successful sales models has been the online private sales club, a multibrand outlet format that relies on a strong, free-flowing relationship among the company, the supplier, and the consumer (B2B2C). The model also adopts an attractive and innovative (relational, emotional, holistic) marketing strategic orientation that combines the attractiveness of traditional marketing elements, including prestigious brands, sales promotions, and exclusive distribution, with marketing elements specific to virtual markets, such as viral communication, intensive customer relationship management (CRM) systems, and secure payment methods. ' style="display:none;"> Considering the advantages of the Internet for commercializing a vast array of products and services (Steinfeld and Whitten, 1999; Webb, 2002), it... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41199&ptid=37278&t=online private sales clubs: an emerging model of fashionable e-commerce at promotional prices' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Online Private Sales Clubs: An Emerging Model of Fashionable E-Commerce at Promotional Prices </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82452NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82452&tid=41199&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82452NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82452','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82452NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41200" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 38</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/business-model-renewal/41200' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Business Model Renewal: The TIA-MARIA Framework for Enterprise Realignment </a>  (pages 388-398) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Rebecca De Coster</span></div><div><span title='Increasingly high technology firms are required to develop new products or solutions in emerging markets which are outside of their existing business operation. This may necessitate that firms realign themselves and their business model so that they are able to create value in a new and emerging market. This chapter develops a framework for business model renewal based on case study research into firms entering the emerging sector of mobile networking. The framework presented here is focused on innovation strategies and the associated enterprise realignment for managing technology and innovation. The theoretical basis for this work is from a synthesis of literature drawn from the fields of strategic management, entrepreneurship and innovation management. This framework recognises the importance of the legacy basis/expertise of firms both in terms of resources and market credibility.' style="display:none;"> Increasingly high technology firms are required to develop new products or solutions in emerging markets which are outside of their existing... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41200&ptid=37278&t=business model renewal: the tia-maria framework for enterprise realignment' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Business Model Renewal: The TIA-MARIA Framework for Enterprise Realignment </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82453NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82453&tid=41200&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82453NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82453','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82453NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41201" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 39</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/architectural-model-supply-chain-orchestration/41201' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Architectural Model for Supply Chain Orchestration and Management </a>  (pages 399-407) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Marijn Janssen</span></div><div><span title='In a global economy, organizations are increasingly geographically dispersed, which means that the coordination process becomes increasingly complex and information-intensive. Conducting transactions and carrying out online business requires information sharing and supply chain coordination. An efficient and effective coordination of supply chains becomes increasingly important with competition taking place more and more at the level of supply chains, rather than at the level of individual organizations. Consequently, success in creating and maintaining a competitive advantage depends on the reconfiguration of supply chains. Although organizations participating in a supply chain are becoming increasingly aware of the opportunities and threats of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) when it comes to improving coordination with their supply chain partners, organizations whose core business does not involve ICT and supply chain management often lack the knowledge and experience needed to coordinate of supply chains. In this respect, Supply Chain Coordinators (SCC) and Supply Chain Orchestrators (SCO) play a pivotal role in providing the means to automate and manage the coordination of supply chains (Hagel-III, Durchslag, & Brown, 2002). These specialized organizations can provide the necessary services and support to enable the creation and operation of supply chains. ' style="display:none;"> In a global economy, organizations are increasingly geographically dispersed, which means that the coordination process becomes increasingly complex... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41201&ptid=37278&t=architectural model for supply chain orchestration and management' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Architectural Model for Supply Chain Orchestration and Management </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82454NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82454&tid=41201&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82454NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82454','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82454NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41202" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 40</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/ambient-service-bottom-collaborative-business/41202' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Ambient E-Service: A Bottom-up Collaborative Business Model </a>  (pages 408-417) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Yuan-Chu Hwang</span></div><div><span title='The e-services have introduced a significant wave of change in communication patterns around the world. Such e-services are capable of intelligent interaction and are able to discover and negotiate with each other, mediate on behalf of their users and reconfigure themselves into services that are more complex. In this chapter, the author explores the future opportunities and its applications of ambient eservice. Contrast to traditional e-business service delivery method, their proposed service focus on the bottom-up collaborative approach that enables e-business participants to cooperate with nearby users and encourage information sharing and experience co-creation. The notion of ambient e-service is defined to identify a new scope of mobile e-service, which address dynamic collective efforts between mobile users (enabled by Mobile Peer-to-Peer technology), dynamic interactions with ambient environments (envisioned by Location-Based Service), the moment of value (empowered by wireless technologies), and low cost service provision. Several ambient e-service application scenarios will be introduced in the following sections. ' style="display:none;"> The e-services have introduced a significant wave of change in communication patterns around the world. Such e-services are capable of intelligent... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41202&ptid=37278&t=ambient e-service: a bottom-up collaborative business model' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Ambient E-Service: A Bottom-up Collaborative Business Model </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82455NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82455&tid=41202&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82455NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82455','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82455NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41203" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 41</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/online-auctions-pragmatic-survey-market/41203' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Online Auctions: Pragmatic Survey and Market Analysis </a>  (pages 418-427) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">James K. Ho</span></div><div><span title='The Internet is a new medium of communication connecting potential partners in trade worldwide. The initial frenzy over its promises led to grossly exaggerated valuations of business models that were mere transplantations of existing processes to the alternative channel. Now that the bubble has burst, more sensible and critical thoughts can be turned to true transformations that are creating and nurturing markets of the future. Online auction is one of the very few cases that has held a steady course, as evidenced in the success to date of eBay.com. Founded in September 1995, eBay has become a global trading platform with presence in 39 markets where on any given day, there are more than 113 million listings across 50,000 plus categories. In 2009, at least 86 million people will buy and sell well over $2000 worth of goods every second (www. ebay.com). To survey the state of development of online auctions apart from eBay, on a pragmatic rather than theoretical basis, we examine variations in auction mechanisms, and give examples of implementation online at this writing. The commonly used terminology and definition of auction models can be found in e.g. McAfee and McMillan (1987). For conciseness and consistency, the www prefix and .com suffix are omitted from the URL of corresponding companies, and all lowercase is used throughout. ' style="display:none;"> The Internet is a new medium of communication connecting potential partners in trade worldwide. The initial frenzy over its promises led to grossly... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41203&ptid=37278&t=online auctions: pragmatic survey and market analysis' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Online Auctions: Pragmatic Survey and Market Analysis </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82456NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82456&tid=41203&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82456NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82456','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82456NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41204" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 42</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/configurators-choiceboards-uses-benefits-analysis/41204' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Configurators/Choiceboards: Uses, Benefits, and Analysis of Data </a>  (pages 428-435) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Paul D. Berger, Richard C. Hanna, Scott D. Swain, Bruce D. Weinberg</span></div><div><span title='This article discusses the uses and benefits of configurator/choiceboard systems, and how analysis of data from its use can be useful to the company having such a system. Dell and other companies have greatly improved, if not perfected, the art of product customization by using a system of choiceboards or configurators (used here as interchangeable terms) that allow consumers to customize their products. A popular term for what is being accomplished by the use of choiceboards is “mass customization,” a term that not long ago may have been thought of as an oxymoron. We always had “job shops” that produced to order for individual consumers or companies. However, relatively speaking, individual customization did not occur on a large-scale basis, and was quite distinct from what was called mass production, and surely, was not routinely available online even when there was first an “online.” ' style="display:none;"> This article discusses the uses and benefits of configurator/choiceboard systems, and how analysis of data from its use can be useful to the company... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41204&ptid=37278&t=configurators/choiceboards: uses, benefits, and analysis of data' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Configurators/Choiceboards: Uses, Benefits, and Analysis of Data </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82457NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82457&tid=41204&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82457NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82457','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82457NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41205" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 43</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/crm-key-issue-today-competitive/41205' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> E-CRM: A Key Issue in Today's Competitive Environment </a>  (pages 436-444) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">María Rosa Llamas-Alonso, Ana Isabel Jiménez-Zarco</span></div><div><span title='As competition and the cost of acquiring new customers continue to increase, the need to build and enhance customer relationships has become paramount for businesses. The building of strong customer relationships has been suggested as a means for gaining competitive advantage (Mckenna, 1993) so, in today’s marketplace, a growing number of firms seek to develop profound, close and long-lasting relationships with their customers since it is much more profitable to keep and satisfy current customers than to manage an ever-changing customer portfolio (Reinartz & Kumar, 2003; Ross, 2005; Llamas-Alonso et al. 2009). This one is a consequence of many paradigmatical changes in the marketing field during the past decades, such as a transition from a focus on the product, transactional marketing, acquiring clients (responsive marketing approach) and market share towards a customer centric approach, relationship marketing, two-way communication, retaining customers (proactive and holistic marketing approaches) and share of customer. Thus, in this fastmoving and highly competitive scenario Customer Relationship Management (hereafter referred to as CRM) emerges as a business philosophy devoted to enhance customer relationships and consequently create value for both the company and the customer. ' style="display:none;"> As competition and the cost of acquiring new customers continue to increase, the need to build and enhance customer relationships has become... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41205&ptid=37278&t=e-crm: a key issue in today's Competitive Environment' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> E-CRM: A Key Issue in Today's Competitive Environment </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82458NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82458&tid=41205&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82458NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82458','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82458NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41206" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 44</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/effective-virtual-project-management-using/41206' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Effective Virtual Project Management Using Multiple E-Leadership Styles </a>  (pages 445-454) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Margaret R. Lee</span></div><div><span title='The field of organizational behavior defines leadership as “the ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals” (Capella, 2005, p. 294). Leadership styles have been well studied and researched. Early leadership studies were developed using traditional, co-located work arrangements in mind. Later studies expanded to include traditional project team environments. In the current business environment, however, nontraditional virtual work arrangements are becoming more popular. Virtual project teams are increasing in business today and will continue to become more common in the future (Martins, Gilson, & Maynard, 2004). Managing nontraditional work involving virtual teams is becoming a necessity in the current business environment. The type of leadership emanagers must demonstrate for successful virtual team management is different from traditional project team management (Konradt & Hoch, 2007). Understanding appropriate leadership styles for virtual project teams and the transition toward new leadership styles is an important part of managing human resources in organizations and successful virtual project management. Emerging e-leadership roles and management concepts for virtual teams include multiple leadership models, and their application is an important part of our evolving virtual organizational behavior. ' style="display:none;"> The field of organizational behavior defines leadership as “the ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals” (Capella, 2005, p.... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41206&ptid=37278&t=effective virtual project management using multiple e-leadership styles' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Effective Virtual Project Management Using Multiple E-Leadership Styles </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82459NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82459&tid=41206&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82459NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82459','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82459NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41207" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 45</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/line-credit-card-payment-processing/41207' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> On-Line Credit Card Payment Processing and Fraud Prevention for e-Business </a>  (pages 455-473) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">James G. Williams, Wichian Premchaiswadi</span></div><div><span title='As the volume of purchases for products and services on the Internet has increased and the chosen method of payment is a credit or debit card, e-commerce merchants must be capable of accepting such payment methods. Unfortunately, cyber-criminals have found ways to steal personal information found on credit cards and debit cards and fraudulently use this information to purchase products and services which costs merchants lost revenue and fees for chargebacks. This article discusses the process by which credit card payments are processed beginning with the e-commerce merchant’s web site to a credit card processor or service gateway to the credit card company’s network to the issuing bank’s network with an accept or decline response being returned to the merchant’s shopping cart system via the same networks. The article addresses the issue of credit card fraud in terms of how the cyber-criminals function and the potential solutions used to deter these attempts by the cybercriminals. A list of preventive measures that should be used by e-commerce merchants is provided.' style="display:none;"> As the volume of purchases for products and services on the Internet has increased and the chosen method of payment is a credit or debit card... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41207&ptid=37278&t=on-line credit card payment processing and fraud prevention for e-business' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> On-Line Credit Card Payment Processing and Fraud Prevention for e-Business </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82460NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82460&tid=41207&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82460NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82460','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82460NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41208" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 46</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/virtual-stock-markets-research-tool/41208' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Virtual Stock Markets as a Research Tool in Marketing and Management </a>  (pages 474-480) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Lorenz Zimmermann</span></div><div><span title='Virtual Stock Markets (VSM) are a young, powerful and still evolving research tool. VSM were developed around 20 years ago as forecasting instrument of election outcomes, having delivered very precise results ever since. In recent years, various business applications of the given concept have been presented, namely forecast generation, decision support, product concept evaluation and the identification of lead users. This article explains the basic concept of VSM, describes the potential areas of application and shows examples of successful implementations in business practice. Directions for further research are identified.' style="display:none;"> Virtual Stock Markets (VSM) are a young, powerful and still evolving research tool. VSM were developed around 20 years ago as forecasting instrument... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41208&ptid=37278&t=virtual stock markets as a research tool in marketing and management' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Virtual Stock Markets as a Research Tool in Marketing and Management </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82461NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82461&tid=41208&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82461NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82461','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82461NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41209" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 47</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/potential-benefits-analyzing-website-analytic/41209' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Potential Benefits of Analyzing Website Analytic Data </a>  (pages 481-487) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Elizabeth Votta</span></div><div><span title='This article presents an overview of the potential benefits of analyzing website analytic data. During the last several years I have gained first-hand knowledge of Internet marketing programs of a variety of companies ranging from national name brands to small businesses. In addition, I have been active in the local chapter of the American Marketing Association. During this time, it has become clear to me that many small business owners and marketing managers at various size companies lack a basic understanding of the potential benefits of analyzing website analytic data. This article introduces the basics of website analytics and the potential benefits derived from analyzing that data. ' style="display:none;"> This article presents an overview of the potential benefits of analyzing website analytic data. During the last several years I have gained... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41209&ptid=37278&t=potential benefits of analyzing website analytic data' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Potential Benefits of Analyzing Website Analytic Data </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82462NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82462&tid=41209&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82462NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82462','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82462NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41210" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 48</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/teams-leaders-concept-tol-business/41210' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Teams of Leaders Concept (ToL) and E-Business Operations </a>  (pages 488-503) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Dag von Lubitz</span></div><div><span title='Information Technology (IT), and the subsequent broad acceptance of Information and Knowledge Management (IM/KM) methods revolutionized the way business is thought of and practiced. With e-business facilitating the ability to do more, more, faster, at a wider range, and to influence ever larger and more diverse consumer groups, the impact of technology on commerce, finance, and global economy has been frequently compared to the “paradigm shift” that Kuhn (1970) proposed as the essence of scientific revolution. Yet, despite the transformational influence of modernity on the ancient art, the fundamental principles of business have not changed: overreliance on the facilitation of business operations as the substitution for the adherence to the soundness of their conduct fuelled rampant growth of corporate laisse faire, and already twice brought the world to the brink of economic disaster (Stiglitz, 2003; Steingart, 2008). ' style="display:none;"> Information Technology (IT), and the subsequent broad acceptance of Information and Knowledge Management (IM/KM) methods revolutionized the way... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41210&ptid=37278&t=teams of leaders concept (tol) and e-business operations' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Teams of Leaders Concept (ToL) and E-Business Operations </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82463NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82463&tid=41210&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82463NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82463','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82463NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41211" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 49</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/customer-relationship-management-crm/41211' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Customer Relationship Management (CRM): A Dichotomy of Online and Offline Activities </a>  (pages 504-513) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Kelley O’Reilly, David Paper</span></div><div><span title='By establishing the position that electronic customer relationship management (eCRM) is a form of CRM, this chapter sets out to aid the reader in understanding why CRM and eCRM initiatives are both promising and challenging. By exposing the reader to common CRM literature, the chapter documents how companies can determine the best blended approach to CRM initiatives that balance both online and offline marketing initiatives. Additionally, by considering that each unique customer touch point represents a key market strategy decision, companies can thoughtfully, and with strategic intent, design, develop, and ultimately deploy systems that effectively balance human and computer interaction. By following the suggested guidelines provided for optimizing strategic marketing decisions, companies are more likely to avoid the common pitfalls and barriers to success that have been experienced by others as documented in the literature.' style="display:none;"> By establishing the position that electronic customer relationship management (eCRM) is a form of CRM, this chapter sets out to aid the reader in... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41211&ptid=37278&t=customer relationship management (crm): a dichotomy of online and offline activities' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Customer Relationship Management (CRM): A Dichotomy of Online and Offline Activities </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82464NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82464&tid=41211&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82464NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82464','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82464NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41212" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 50</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/understanding-payment-services-traditionally-cash/41212' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Understanding E-Payment Services in Traditionally Cash-Based Economies: The Case of China </a>  (pages 514-520) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Xiaolin Li, Dong-Qing Yao, Yanhua Liu</span></div><div><span title='Electronic payment or e-payment refers to any payment transactions conducted electronically. In narrow terms, it usually refers only to online payment. E-payment is a crucial part of e-commerce. It increases transaction speed, improves merchants’ liquidity, and enhances buyers’ online shopping satisfaction. E-payment also reduces transport costs, robbery, and counterfeiting of fiat cash (Panurach, 1996). However, e-payment development in emerging economies—most of which rely heavily on cash for e-commerce transactions—has not kept up with advances in e-commerce. As a result, inefficient payment methods have become a bottleneck of further e-commerce growth. ' style="display:none;"> Electronic payment or e-payment refers to any payment transactions conducted electronically. In narrow terms, it usually refers only to online... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41212&ptid=37278&t=understanding e-payment services in traditionally cash-based economies: the case of china' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Understanding E-Payment Services in Traditionally Cash-Based Economies: The Case of China </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82465NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82465&tid=41212&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82465NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82465','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82465NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41213" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 51</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/scenario-driven-decision-support/41213' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Scenario Driven Decision Support </a>  (pages 521-529) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">M. Daud Ahmed, David Sundaram</span></div><div><span title='Though traditional DSS provide strong data management, modelling and visualisation capabilities for the decision maker, they do not explicitly support scenario management appropriately. Systems that purport to support scenario planning are complex and difficult to use and do not fully support all phases of scenario management. This research presents a life cycle approach for scenario management. The proposed process helps the decision maker with idea generation, scenario planning, development, organization, analysis, execution, and the use of scenarios for decision making. This research introduces scenario as a DSS component and develops a domain independent, component-based, modular framework that supports the proposed scenario management process. ' style="display:none;"> Though traditional DSS provide strong data management, modelling and visualisation capabilities for the decision maker, they do not explicitly... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41213&ptid=37278&t=scenario driven decision support' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Scenario Driven Decision Support </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82466NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82466&tid=41213&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82466NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82466','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82466NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41214" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 52</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/hrm-turkey-case-study/41214' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> E-HRM in Turkey: A Case Study </a>  (pages 530-540) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Yonca Gürol, R. Aysen Wolff, Esin Ertemsir Berkin</span></div><div><span title='This chapter is about the role of electronic Human Resource Management (E-HRM) in Turkey. E-HRM can be briefly defined as the planning, implementation and application of information technology for both networking and supporting at least two individuals or collective actors in their shared performing of HR activities. New knowledge economy increased competition throughout the world and living in an age of massive technological evolution is changing the nature of business; especially e-business. E-business is challenging current HRM policies and functions as it uses internet technology to drive organizational performance. This study attempts to investigate several specific and critical points that will contribute to a better understanding of E-HRM by illustrating how it is used by a Turkish firm in the health sector. In this sense, the authors’ findings will try to exemplify how an E-HRM policy is realized. Our aim is to provide a model for the implementation of E-HRM in other companies.' style="display:none;"> This chapter is about the role of electronic Human Resource Management (E-HRM) in Turkey. E-HRM can be briefly defined as the planning... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41214&ptid=37278&t=e-hrm in turkey: a case study' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> E-HRM in Turkey: A Case Study </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82467NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82467&tid=41214&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82467NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82467','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82467NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41215" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 53</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/ariba-successful-story-commerce/41215' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> ARIBA: A Successful Story in E-Commerce </a>  (pages 541-551) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Zhongxian Wang, Ruiliang Yan, James Yao</span></div><div><span title='Ariba services major corporations, and provides services to smaller companies as well. In this chapter, the authors will examine how Ariba, a small startup company during the Internet boom of the 90’s was able to overcome hardships, survive market and industry downturns, and continue to thrive and survive in such a competitive industry. The authors will also review major events and innovations that helped the company to grow and succeed rather than to fail.' style="display:none;"> Ariba services major corporations, and provides services to smaller companies as well. In this chapter, the authors will examine how Ariba, a small... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41215&ptid=37278&t=ariba: a successful story in e-commerce' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> ARIBA: A Successful Story in E-Commerce </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82468NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82468&tid=41215&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82468NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82468','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82468NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41216" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 54</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/integrated-optimal-procedure-internet-marketing/41216' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Integrated Optimal Procedure of Internet Marketing </a>  (pages 552-559) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Lan Zhao</span></div><div><span title='The article focuses on how to integrate all the phases of Internet marketing process into a seamless pipeline. The current techniques used in three main phases: (1) customer targeting; (2) ads piece designing; and (3) marketing budget allocation, are described in detail to reveal the cohering inside of searching optimal marketing strategies.' style="display:none;"> The article focuses on how to integrate all the phases of Internet marketing process into a seamless pipeline. The current techniques used in three... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41216&ptid=37278&t=integrated optimal procedure of internet marketing' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Integrated Optimal Procedure of Internet Marketing </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82469NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82469&tid=41216&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82469NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82469','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82469NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41217" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 55</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/managerial-succession-business/41217' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Managerial Succession and E-Business </a>  (pages 560-569) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Anthonia Adenike Adeniji</span></div><div><span title='There have been several studies on managerial succession otherwise known as succession planning but greater percentage of them focused on succession planning as related to family owned small to medium sized enterprises (SME’s), government establishments, effects of succession planning on performance and profitability of a business organization, CEOs perspectives on planning for succession, family business and succession planning to mention just a few (Motwani,et al 2006,Brown 2007, Dunemann & Barreff, 2004). ' style="display:none;"> There have been several studies on managerial succession otherwise known as succession planning but greater percentage of them focused on succession... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41217&ptid=37278&t=managerial succession and e-business' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Managerial Succession and E-Business </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82470NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82470&tid=41217&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82470NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82470','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82470NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41218" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 56</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/business-web-accessibility/41218' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> E-Business and Web Accessibility </a>  (pages 570-577) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Panayiotis Koutsabasis</span></div><div><span title='E-business has developed due to the fast penetration of the Web to human activities ranging from work and education to news and entertainment. The power of the Web is in its universality, and, in principle, everyone can access e-business websites and benefit from available information, products and services. However, in practice, universal access to the Web - and subsequently e-business websites - is not merely an issue of availability or technical development. Web accessibility emphasizes the incorporation of requirements of people with special needs to the design of Internet applications. Notwithstanding these requirements, the spectrum of accessibility concerns is even larger, for example if we think about the changing form of the computer and how people work and communicate: access is not required only from a PC, but also users are on the move and use other access devices (in terms of both hardware and software). ' style="display:none;"> E-business has developed due to the fast penetration of the Web to human activities ranging from work and education to news and entertainment. The... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41218&ptid=37278&t=e-business and web accessibility' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> E-Business and Web Accessibility </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82471NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82471&tid=41218&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82471NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82471','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82471NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41219" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 57</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/understanding-use-business-employee-b2e/41219' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Understanding the Use of Business-to-Employee (B2E) Portals in an Australian University though the Management Lens: A Qualitative Approach </a>  (pages 578-588) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Md Mahbubur Rahim, Mohammad Quaddus, Mohini Singh</span></div><div><span title='The application of the Internet for commercial purposes has led to different types of e-business initiatives, which have been widely discussed in the scholarly literature and trade magazines. However, it is the Business-to-Consumers (B2C) and Business-to-Business (B2B) e-businesses that have so far dominated discussion in the contemporary literature. These two types of e-business initiatives collectively are believed to have enormous impact on business practices, industry structure and our society at large. On the other hand, Business-to- Employee (B2E), which represents an employee centric e-business initiative (Turban et al., 2008), is relatively less recognized in extant literature. Despite little attention given to B2E e-business, it represents an emerging area which has the potential to benefit businesses and IT vendors alike (Rahim and Singh, 2007). For businesses, B2E e-business solutions can act as a source of competitive advantage through retention of satisfied workforce (Hansen and Deimler, 2001). The IT vendors are currently competing to capture market share by offering various types of innovative web-based B2E solutions (e.g. employee portals, e-HR systems and ESS). According to several industry sources, an increased growth has been observed in the demand for various types of B2E products (Killen Associates Report, 2006; Merrill Lynch Capital Markets cited ' style="display:none;"> The application of the Internet for commercial purposes has led to different types of e-business initiatives, which have been widely discussed in... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41219&ptid=37278&t=understanding the use of business-to-employee (b2e) portals in an australian university though the management lens: a qualitative approach' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Understanding the Use of Business-to-Employee (B2E) Portals in an Australian University though the Management Lens: A Qualitative Approach </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82472NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82472&tid=41219&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82472NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82472','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82472NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41220" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 58</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/understanding-use-business-employee-b2e/41220' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Understanding the Use of Business-to-Employee (B2E) Portals in an Australian University through the Employee Lens: A Quantitative Approach </a>  (pages 589-602) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Md Mahbubur Rahim, Mohammad Quaddus, Mohini Singh</span></div><div><span title='The focus of the existing body of e-business literature is primarily directed at Business-to-Consumers (B2C) and Business-to-Business (B2B) forms of e-business. In contrast, Business-to-Employee (B2E) is relatively less highlighted in the scholarly literature. Despite the lack of attention given to B2E systems, it represents an emerging area which has the potential to have a major impact on organisations. In general, B2E systems use intra-business networks allowing organisations to provide useful services, information, or products to their disperse employees (Turban et al., 2008). By providing easy access to relevant information, services, and products, B2E systems help in creating satisfied workforce that is expected to be more loyal to organisations (Dube, 2005). These systems also help organisations in reducing their administrative costs by streamlining employee related process (Singh, 2005) and eliminating expenses related to paperwork, postage, printing and travel (Killen Associates Report, 2001). Adoption of B2E e-business systems can even assist organisations in outperforming competitors by connecting their employees together (Hansen and Deimler, 2001). ' style="display:none;"> The focus of the existing body of e-business literature is primarily directed at Business-to-Consumers (B2C) and Business-to-Business (B2B) forms of... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41220&ptid=37278&t=understanding the use of business-to-employee (b2e) portals in an australian university through the employee lens: a quantitative approach' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Understanding the Use of Business-to-Employee (B2E) Portals in an Australian University through the Employee Lens: A Quantitative Approach </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82473NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82473&tid=41220&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82473NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82473','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82473NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41221" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 59</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/exploratory-study-user-adoption-central/41221' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> An Exploratory Study on the User Adoption of Central Cyber Government Office of the Hong Kong Government </a>  (pages 603-614) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Kevin K.W. Ho, Calvin Chun Yu, Michael C.L. Lai</span></div><div><span title='This chapter investigates those factors affecting the user adoption of the Intranet Portal of the Hong Kong Government, a.k.a., Central Cyber Government Office (CCGO). The authors conducted a survey study in 2004 and they interviewed some of the users to collect their feedbacks on the user adoption of CCGO based on the premises of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). Based on the results of their survey and interviews, the authors noted that civil servants of Hong Kong demonstrated strong reluctance to adopt CCGO.' style="display:none;"> This chapter investigates those factors affecting the user adoption of the Intranet Portal of the Hong Kong Government, a.k.a., Central Cyber... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41221&ptid=37278&t=an exploratory study on the user adoption of central cyber government office of the hong kong government' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> An Exploratory Study on the User Adoption of Central Cyber Government Office of the Hong Kong Government </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82474NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82474&tid=41221&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82474NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82474','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82474NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41222" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 60</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/exploratory-study-information-quality-satisfaction/41222' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> An Exploratory Study on the Information Quality Satisfaction of Central Cyber Government Office of the Hong Kong Government </a>  (pages 615-627) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Kevin K.W. Ho</span></div><div><span title='Information quality is critical for a communication portal because there are myriad information types, including textual, audio, video and other complex information types, which an organization has to manage. In this chapter, the author examine the information quality satisfaction of the Central Cyber Government Office (CCGO), which is a communication portal developed by the Hong Kong Government. A survey study was conducted to investigate how users evaluate the information quality of CCGO. This portal case is interesting because: (1) Hong Kong Government has invested millions of US dollars in its implementation; and (2) the number of potential users is huge (over 140,000) in 2007.' style="display:none;"> Information quality is critical for a communication portal because there are myriad information types, including textual, audio, video and other... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41222&ptid=37278&t=an exploratory study on the information quality satisfaction of central cyber government office of the hong kong government' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> An Exploratory Study on the Information Quality Satisfaction of Central Cyber Government Office of the Hong Kong Government </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82475NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82475&tid=41222&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82475NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82475','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82475NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41223" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 61</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/visual-merchandising-online-retailing-based/41223' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Visual Merchandising in Online Retailing Based on Physical Retailing Design Principles </a>  (pages 628-636) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Tony Pittarese</span></div><div><span title='Effective design guidelines aid in the creation of successful online stores. One possible resource to aid in formulating effective online store design guidelines is found in principles and practices of physical retailers. In particular, physical store merchandising techniques provide a significant body of research from which online store guidelines may be constructed. By examining the research literature and common practices of physical retailers, online retailers may glean new and interesting ideas upon which to base guidelines for online store design.' style="display:none;"> Effective design guidelines aid in the creation of successful online stores. One possible resource to aid in formulating effective online store... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41223&ptid=37278&t=visual merchandising in online retailing based on physical retailing design principles' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Visual Merchandising in Online Retailing Based on Physical Retailing Design Principles </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82476NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82476&tid=41223&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82476NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82476','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82476NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41224" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 62</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/internet-consumer-behavior/41224' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Internet Consumer Behavior: Flow and Emotions </a>  (pages 637-646) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Marie-Odile Richard, Michel Laroche</span></div><div><span title='As the internet is a new medium and a new distribution channel, it is important to understand the behavior of site visitors. This requires the development of a new model of Internet consumer behavior. The model in Figure 1-1 is an original model based on Mehrabian and Russell’s (1974)SOR paradigm (i.e., stimulus, organism, response) which is explicated in this chapter and the next three ones. In this chapter we will explain the shaded areas of Figure 1 ' style="display:none;"> As the internet is a new medium and a new distribution channel, it is important to understand the behavior of site visitors. This requires the... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41224&ptid=37278&t=internet consumer behavior: flow and emotions' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Internet Consumer Behavior: Flow and Emotions </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82477NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82477&tid=41224&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82477NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82477','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82477NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41225" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 63</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/internet-consumer-behavior/41225' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Internet Consumer Behavior: Web Atmospherics </a>  (pages 647-654) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Marie-Odile Richard, Michel Laroche</span></div><div><span title='This chapter develops the major components of web atmospherics (Richard, 2005). In retailing research, retail atmospherics (e.g., scents, color, design) are very important to the success of retailers. Similarly, Richard (2005) demonstrates that web atmospherics are important to the development of positive attitudes toward the website and the products it describes. In Figure 1, these are the shaded areas. ' style="display:none;"> This chapter develops the major components of web atmospherics (Richard, 2005). In retailing research, retail atmospherics (e.g., scents, color... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41225&ptid=37278&t=internet consumer behavior: web atmospherics' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Internet Consumer Behavior: Web Atmospherics </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82478NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82478&tid=41225&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82478NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82478','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82478NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41226" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 64</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/internet-consumer-behavior/41226' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Internet Consumer Behavior: Behavioral Variables </a>  (pages 656-665) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Marie-Odile Richard, Michel Laroche</span></div><div><span title='In the previously, the authors covered the major stimulus variables, i.e., flow, emotions and web atmospherics, which impact the organism and response variables of the model. This chapter now covers some behavioral variables as indicated in the shaded areas of Figure 1. ' style="display:none;"> In the previously, the authors covered the major stimulus variables, i.e., flow, emotions and web atmospherics, which impact the organism and... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41226&ptid=37278&t=internet consumer behavior: behavioral variables' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Internet Consumer Behavior: Behavioral Variables </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82479NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82479&tid=41226&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82479NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82479','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82479NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41227" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 65</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/internet-consumer-behavior/41227' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Internet Consumer Behavior: Major Moderating Variables </a>  (pages 666-675) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Marie-Odile Richard, Michel Laroche</span></div><div><span title='This chapter concludes the model of internet consumer behavior by describing some key moderating variables such as gender, need for cognition (NFC) and optimum stimulation level (OSL)(Figure 1). ' style="display:none;"> This chapter concludes the model of internet consumer behavior by describing some key moderating variables such as gender, need for cognition (NFC)... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41227&ptid=37278&t=internet consumer behavior: major moderating variables' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Internet Consumer Behavior: Major Moderating Variables </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82480NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82480&tid=41227&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82480NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82480','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82480NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41228" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 66</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/consumer-information-sharing/41228' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Consumer Information Sharing </a>  (pages 676-682) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Jonathan Foster, Angela Lin</span></div><div><span title='One area of e-business that has visibly changed in the last few years is the capacity of the Internet for supporting consumer-to-consumer information sharing. By using a variety of social media software applications such as online reviews, blogs, social tagging, and wikis, consumers are increasingly able to generate and share content about the products and services that are available in the marketplace. Collectively the labor expended by consumers in generating such content is considerable, influencing other consumers’ perceptions of these products and services and informing their purchasing decisions. It has been estimated for example that more than 5 million customers have reviewed products on the Amazon.com site, with many more making purchasing decisions informed by reading such reviews (Amazon, 2008). According to the findings of a recent Pew Internet & American Life Project survey, consumer generated information sources such as product reviews and blogs are also considered equally as important as commercial information, e.g. manufacturers’ specifications, when making a purchasing decision (Horrigan, 2008). This article aims to provide an up-to-date review of the practice of consumer information sharing. First the different kinds of information sought by consumers are identified; second the social media software applications that consumers use to create, organize and share information with other consumers are discussed; and finally consideration is given to the marketing implications of consumer information sharing and how e-businesses can utilize social media for developing and managing relations with their customers. ' style="display:none;"> One area of e-business that has visibly changed in the last few years is the capacity of the Internet for supporting consumer-to-consumer... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41228&ptid=37278&t=consumer information sharing' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Consumer Information Sharing </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82481NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82481&tid=41228&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82481NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82481','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82481NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41229" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 67</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/b2c-commerce-acceptance-models-based/41229' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> B2C E-Commerce Acceptance Models Based On Consumers' Attitudes and Beliefs: Integrating Alternative Frameworks </a>  (pages 683-692) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Ángel Herrero-Crespo, Ignacio Rodríguez-del-Bosque</span></div><div><span title='The novelty and dynamism of Internet and ecommerce have lead to the revision of the classic paradigm of consumer behaviour and to the continuous study of individuals’ conduct in virtual environments. In this context, the literature on Internet has placed special attention on the development and testing of theoretical models aimed to describe and explain e-commerce acceptance by final consumers. In this sense, two theoretical frameworks stand out as the most relevant and widely used approaches in e-commerce adoption literature: the Theory of Planned Behaviour (Schifter & Ajzen, 1985; Ajzen, 1991) and the Technology Acceptance Model (Davis, 1989; Davis et al., 1989). Both models are based on traditional theory of consumer behaviour and focus on individuals’ attitudes and beliefs about e-commerce and virtual transactions. However, TPB and TAM differ in the variety of explanatory variables they include and in the identification of beliefs considered as determinants of individuals’ attitudes towards a behaviour or technology. ' style="display:none;"> The novelty and dynamism of Internet and ecommerce have lead to the revision of the classic paradigm of consumer behaviour and to the continuous... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41229&ptid=37278&t=b2c e-commerce acceptance models based on consumers' Attitudes and Beliefs: Integrating Alternative Frameworks' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> B2C E-Commerce Acceptance Models Based On Consumers' Attitudes and Beliefs: Integrating Alternative Frameworks </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82482NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82482&tid=41229&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82482NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82482','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82482NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41230" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 68</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/effect-perceived-risk-commerce-acceptance/41230' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Effect of Perceived Risk on E-Commerce Acceptance: State of the Art and Future Research Directions </a>  (pages 693-700) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Ángel Herrero-Crespo, Ignacio Rodríguez-del-Bosque</span></div><div><span title='The risk or uncertainty perceived on a conduct (e.g. purchasing or consuming of a product, or using an information system) by the individuals has been traditionally identified as one of the main determinants of consumer behavior. In particular, the influence of perceived risk has been specially linked to high involvement products or conducts (Laurent & Kapferer, 1985) which imply a high value or concern for the individual, and that are usually purchased after long and careful consideration. In the specific context of e-commerce, perceived risk has been traditionally identified as one of the main barriers for Internet shopping acceptance and diffusion (Korgaonkar & Wolin, 1999; Goldsmith & Lafferty, 2001; Miyazaki & Fernández, 2001; Wu & Wang, 2005). However, the empirical evidence available regarding this issue is contradictory, and some authors have found that the influence exerted by perceived risk on consumers’ online shopping behavior may not be so relevant (Jarvenpaa & Todd, 1997; Herrero & Rodríguez del Bosque, 2008). ' style="display:none;"> The risk or uncertainty perceived on a conduct (e.g. purchasing or consuming of a product, or using an information system) by the individuals has... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41230&ptid=37278&t=effect of perceived risk on e-commerce acceptance: state of the art and future research directions' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Effect of Perceived Risk on E-Commerce Acceptance: State of the Art and Future Research Directions </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82483NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82483&tid=41230&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82483NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82483','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82483NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41231" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 69</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/third-party-internet-seals/41231' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Third Party Internet Seals: Reviewing the Effects on Online Consumer Trust </a>  (pages 701-708) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Peter Kerkhof, Guda van Noort</span></div><div><span title='Buying online is still perceived as risky. A key strategy of online marketers to increase consumer trust in online ordering is to display privacy and security seals on their web sites. Although research indicates that these Internet seals do not necessarily mean better safety for online consumers, findings of several other studies demonstrated that these safety cues do influence consumer responses. The goal of this chapter is to provide the reader with an overview of findings regarding the persuasiveness of Internet seals and to reflect upon possible explanatory mechanisms for these effects. Future research directions and managerial implications for e-business are provided.' style="display:none;"> Buying online is still perceived as risky. A key strategy of online marketers to increase consumer trust in online ordering is to display privacy... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41231&ptid=37278&t=third party internet seals: reviewing the effects on online consumer trust' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Third Party Internet Seals: Reviewing the Effects on Online Consumer Trust </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82484NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82484&tid=41231&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82484NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82484','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82484NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41232" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 70</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/importance-gender-experience-media-rich/41232' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> The Importance of Gender, IT Experience, and Media-Rich Social Cues on Initial Trust in E-Commerce Websites </a>  (pages 709-718) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Khalid AlDiri, Dave Hobbs, Rami Qahwaji</span></div><div><span title='The rapid advance of the Internet and global information technology has changed the way many people view shopping and undertake daily transactions. Despite the Internet advantages, the rate of Internet shopping remains low; commonly explained by a lack of trust in the new shopping mode (Kim & Tadisina, 2005). Consumer trust may be even more important in electronic transactions than in traditional forms, lacking the assurance provided in traditional settings through formal proceedings, receipts and face-to-face interactions. Since trust should play an essential role in online transactions, identifying the antecedents of a consumer’s trust is important in the context of Internet transactions so that consumers can feel relaxed and confident. ' style="display:none;"> The rapid advance of the Internet and global information technology has changed the way many people view shopping and undertake daily transactions.... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41232&ptid=37278&t=the importance of gender, it experience, and media-rich social cues on initial trust in e-commerce websites' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> The Importance of Gender, IT Experience, and Media-Rich Social Cues on Initial Trust in E-Commerce Websites </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82485NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82485&tid=41232&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82485NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82485','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82485NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41233" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 71</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/using-internet-study-human-universals/41233' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Using the Internet to Study Human Universals </a>  (pages 719-724) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Gad Saad</span></div><div><span title='Many human preferences, choices, emotions, and actions occur in universally similar manners because they are rooted in our common biological heritage. As such, irrespective of whether individuals are Peruvian, French, or Togolese, they are likely to share commonalities as a result of their shared Darwinian histories. In the current article, I provide a brief overview of how the Internet is a powerful tool for investigating such human universals. Given my work at the nexus of evolutionary theory and consumption, I begin with an example from marketing. Few marketing scholars are versed in evolutionary theory and related biological formalisms (Saad, 2007a; Saad, 2008a). As such, they generally view the environment as the key driver in shaping consumption patterns. This is part and parcel of the blank slate view of the human mind (Pinker, 2002), which purports that humans are born with empty minds that are subsequently filled via a wide range of socialization forces (e.g., parents, advertising content, or movies). Given that marketing scholars rely heavily on the expansive shoulders of socialization in explaining consumption, they are strong proponents of cultural relativism namely the notion that cultures need to be investigated from an emic perspective. Hence, marketers spend much of their efforts cataloging endless crosscultural differences, seldom recognizing that there are numerous commonalities shared by consumers around the world. ' style="display:none;"> Many human preferences, choices, emotions, and actions occur in universally similar manners because they are rooted in our common biological... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41233&ptid=37278&t=using the internet to study human universals' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Using the Internet to Study Human Universals </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82486NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82486&tid=41233&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82486NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82486','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82486NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41234" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 72</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/neurocognitive-evolutionary-bases-sex-differences/41234' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> The Neurocognitive and Evolutionary Bases of Sex Differences in Website Design Preferences: Recommendations for Marketing Managers </a>  (pages 725-733) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Eric Stenstrom, Gad Saad</span></div><div><span title='Marketing managers habitually use sex as a form of segmentation since it satisfies several requirements for efficient implementation including profitability, identifiability, accessibility, and measurability (Darley & Smith, 1995). Nevertheless, sex differences in marketing remain under-researched and continue to be a source of confusion for managers (Hupfer, 2002). Sex differences in cognitive processing are particularly relevant to e-business managers given that online consumers must process various types of spatial and perceptual information while navigating online. Despite the large body of evidence documenting consistent sex differences in cognition (Kimura, 2004), there is a paucity of research exploring how male and female consumers respond differently to various website design aspects (Cyr & Bonanni, 2005; Moss, Gunn, & Heller, 2006; Simon, 2001). Moreover, the few studies that have examined sex differences in online preferences were not grounded in any consilient theoretical framework. ' style="display:none;"> Marketing managers habitually use sex as a form of segmentation since it satisfies several requirements for efficient implementation including... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41234&ptid=37278&t=the neurocognitive and evolutionary bases of sex differences in website design preferences: recommendations for marketing managers' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> The Neurocognitive and Evolutionary Bases of Sex Differences in Website Design Preferences: Recommendations for Marketing Managers </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82487NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82487&tid=41234&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82487NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82487','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82487NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41235" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 73</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/exploring-video-games-evolutionary-psychological/41235' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Exploring Video Games from an Evolutionary Psychological Perspective </a>  (pages 734-742) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Zack Mendenhall, Marcelo Vinhal Nepomuceno, Gad Saad</span></div><div><span title='Video games are a relatively recent form of entertainment whose sales growth has been enormous (almost 700% from 1996 to 2007), with sales for 2007 reaching 9.5 billion dollars in the US (Entertainment Software Association, 2007). This figure does not include the sales of hardware components such as consoles and accessories, or subscriptions to high-speed Internet providers. To contextualize this sales figure, the US cinema industry garnered 9.6 billion dollars domestically in the same year (MPAA, 2007). The video game industry is so robust that it appears to be impervious to the current economic crisis (Economist, December 20, 2008). ' style="display:none;"> Video games are a relatively recent form of entertainment whose sales growth has been enormous (almost 700% from 1996 to 2007), with sales for 2007... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41235&ptid=37278&t=exploring video games from an evolutionary psychological perspective' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Exploring Video Games from an Evolutionary Psychological Perspective </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82488NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82488&tid=41235&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82488NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82488','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82488NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41236" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 74</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/integrated-model-crm-internet-shopping/41236' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> An Integrated Model for E-CRM in Internet Shopping: Evaluating the Relationship between Perceived Value, Satisfaction and Trust </a>  (pages 743-751) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Changsu Kim, Weihong Zhao, Kyung Hoon Yang</span></div><div><span title='Customer relationship management in electronic commerce (e-CRM) is one of the fastest growing management techniques adopted by online enterprises (Letaifa & Perrien, 2007). Much research has been done on topics such as e-CRM management (Romano & Fjermestad, 2003; Letaifa & Perrien, 2007), e-CRM marketing techniques (Jackson & Wang 1995; Pan & Lee, 2003), the adoption of e-CRM in organizations (Wu & Wu, 2005), and e- CRM applications that facilitate Internet business (Wang & Head 2001; Adebanjo, 2003; Joo & Sohn, 2008). Still, many online enterprises encounter difficulties implementing effective e-CRM because they tend to overlook customer’s perspective on e-CRM issues (Woodcock & Starkey, 2001). ' style="display:none;"> Customer relationship management in electronic commerce (e-CRM) is one of the fastest growing management techniques adopted by online enterprises... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41236&ptid=37278&t=an integrated model for e-crm in internet shopping: evaluating the relationship between perceived value, satisfaction and trust' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> An Integrated Model for E-CRM in Internet Shopping: Evaluating the Relationship between Perceived Value, Satisfaction and Trust </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82489NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82489&tid=41236&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82489NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82489','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82489NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41237" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 75</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/mobile-communications-mobile-marketing/41237' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Mobile Communications / Mobile Marketing </a>  (pages 752-758) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Suzanne Altobello Nasco</span></div><div><span title='Mobile communications have become so widespread around the world that they are now ubiquitous, mostly due to the widespread availability, adoption, and affordability of mobile technologies. Today, there are almost 5 billion mobile phone subscriptions worldwide. Wireless services have grown at an annual rate of over 20% per annum over the past 8 years and mobile penetration has more than doubled every 4 years. Mobile penetration is now at over 60% worldwide (based on number of mobile subscriptions, not people); this growth is driven mostly by the Brazil, Russia, India, and China (BRIC) economies (Acharya, 2008). China is the largest wireless market, with over 600 million subscribers for mobile services. Reports by the mobile industry’s trade association, Cellular Telecommunications and Internet Association (CTIA), state that the U.S. mobile phone market accounted for over 276 million wireless subscriptions in June 2009 and over 89% of the U.S. population has at least one wireless phone subscription (CTIA, 2009). As of early 2009, worldwide, there are over 1 billion more mobile phones than there are computers (Mandel, 2008). ' style="display:none;"> Mobile communications have become so widespread around the world that they are now ubiquitous, mostly due to the widespread availability, adoption... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41237&ptid=37278&t=mobile communications / mobile marketing' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Mobile Communications / Mobile Marketing </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82490NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82490&tid=41237&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82490NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82490','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82490NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41238" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 76</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/c2c-mobile-commerce/41238' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> C2C Mobile Commerce: Acceptance Factors </a>  (pages 759-767) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Lori N. K. Leonard</span></div><div><span title='C2C e-commerce is being changed by the acceptance of mobile commerce devices. However, the extent of the use of mobile devices for C2C e-commerce is affected by many factors. A model of an individual’s intention to make use of mobile devices for C2C e-commerce is presented. That model includes usefulness, ease of use, convenience, trust, and security. Propositions are developed for future research endeavors.' style="display:none;"> C2C e-commerce is being changed by the acceptance of mobile commerce devices. However, the extent of the use of mobile devices for C2C e-commerce is... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41238&ptid=37278&t=c2c mobile commerce: acceptance factors' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> C2C Mobile Commerce: Acceptance Factors </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82491NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82491&tid=41238&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82491NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82491','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82491NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41239" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 77</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/exploring-mobile-consumer/41239' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Exploring the Mobile Consumer </a>  (pages 768-778) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Kaan Varnali, Cengiz Yilmaz</span></div><div><span title='The article provides insights into consumers’ experience with mobile marketing by presenting a review of the mobile consumer behavior literature in an organized framework. An important contribution of this study is that it compiles a list of prominent predictor variables that come into play in the process of consumer adoption and acceptance of mobile marketing. The resulting list is purported to be beneficial to both academics by providing a state-of-the-art and practitioners by providing a powerful item battery to be used in setting up effective mobile marketing campaigns.' style="display:none;"> The article provides insights into consumers’ experience with mobile marketing by presenting a review of the mobile consumer behavior literature in... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41239&ptid=37278&t=exploring the mobile consumer' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Exploring the Mobile Consumer </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82492NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82492&tid=41239&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82492NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82492','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82492NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41240" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 78</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/personalization-privacy-paradox/41240' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> The Personalization Privacy Paradox: Mobile Customers' Perceptions of Push-Based vs. Pull-Based Location Commerce </a>  (pages 779-788) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Heng Xu, John M. Carroll, Mary Beth Rosson</span></div><div><span title='Recent advances in positioning technologies, such as global positioning systems and cellular triangulation techniques, have not only provided consumers with unprecedented accessibility to network services while on the move, but also enabled the localization of services (Bellavista, Kupper, & Helal, 2008). Locatability, that is, the ability of mobile hosts to determine the current physical location of wireless devices, is thus the key enabler of an alluring mobile business operation (Junglas & Watson, 2003). In the literature, commercial location-sensitive applications and services that utilize geographical positioning information to provide value-added services are generally termed location-based services (LBS), marketed under terms like ‘Location-Commerce’ or ‘L-Commerce’ (Barnes, 2003). ' style="display:none;"> Recent advances in positioning technologies, such as global positioning systems and cellular triangulation techniques, have not only provided... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41240&ptid=37278&t=the personalization privacy paradox: mobile customers' Perceptions of Push-Based vs. Pull-Based Location Commerce' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> The Personalization Privacy Paradox: Mobile Customers' Perceptions of Push-Based vs. Pull-Based Location Commerce </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82493NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82493&tid=41240&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82493NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82493','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82493NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41241" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 79</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/mobile-gaming-perspectives-issues/41241' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Mobile Gaming: Perspectives and Issues </a>  (pages 789-800) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Krassie Petrova</span></div><div><span title='Mobile gaming (mGaming) belongs to the category of mobile entertainment applications. It is widely adopted in some countries –for example in Japan (Baldi & Thaung, 2002; Chan, 2008) and is fast becoming a popular and profitable mobile commerce service (Kleijnen, de Ruyter, & Wetzels, 2003; Paavilainen, 2004, p. 133). In 2006, the revenue from phone games in Europe alone reached US$6 billion (Fritsch, Ritter, & Schiller, 2006). It is predicted that worldwide mGaming revenues will continue to grow with Asia-Pacific markets contributing significantly to the growth (Paul, Jensen, Wong, & Khong, 2008). ' style="display:none;"> Mobile gaming (mGaming) belongs to the category of mobile entertainment applications. It is widely adopted in some countries –for example in Japan... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41241&ptid=37278&t=mobile gaming: perspectives and issues' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Mobile Gaming: Perspectives and Issues </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82494NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82494&tid=41241&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82494NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82494','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82494NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41242" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 80</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/role-personal-innovativeness-intentions-adopt/41242' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Role of Personal Innovativeness in Intentions to Adopt Mobile Services – Cross-Service Approach </a>  (pages 801-811) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Sanna Sintonen, Sanna Sundqvist</span></div><div><span title='Because only a fraction of new service ideas are successful, and due to the turbulence and dynamics in mobile business markets, a thorough understanding of factors underlying mobile service adoption decisions is necessary. Use of mobile communications has been increasing extensively (Watson et al., 2002). Today, an extensive selection of mobile services is available to consumers. However, consumers use mobile devices mainly for simple services, like text messaging (Nysveen et al., 2005a). In order to better understand the acceptance of mobile services, it is necessary to study behavioral intentions (i.e. antecedents of actual adoption behavior) of consumers adopting new mobile services. ' style="display:none;"> Because only a fraction of new service ideas are successful, and due to the turbulence and dynamics in mobile business markets, a thorough... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41242&ptid=37278&t=role of personal innovativeness in intentions to adopt mobile services – cross-service approach' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Role of Personal Innovativeness in Intentions to Adopt Mobile Services – Cross-Service Approach </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82495NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82495&tid=41242&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82495NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82495','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82495NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41243" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 81</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/service-discovery-techniques-mobile-commerce/41243' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Service Discovery Techniques in Mobile E-Commerce </a>  (pages 812-823) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Nandini Sidnal, Sunilkumar S. Manvi</span></div><div><span title='With the rising number of web services in mobile E-commerce, service discovery has become an important feature in the future of E-commerce for mobile users. A service in the network can be any software or hardware entity that a user might be interested to utilize. Service discovery is the action of finding appropriate service provider for a requested service. When the location of the demanded service (typically the address of the service provider catering services such as shopping, auctions, edutainment, etc.) is retrieved, the user may further access the service and use it. Service discovery is an emerging field in the area of ubiquitous and pervasive computing owing to its mobile devices with limited resources. There are various service discovery techniques and protocols (proposed or/and already implemented) particularly tailored to specific set of objectives. With service discovery, devices may automatically discover network services including their properties, and services may advertise their existence in a dynamic way. This chapter discusses various mobile E-commerce issues with major focus on service discovery issue. It elaborates on syntax and semantic based various service discovery mechanisms and concludes with future directions to service discovery mechanism.' style="display:none;"> With the rising number of web services in mobile E-commerce, service discovery has become an important feature in the future of E-commerce for... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41243&ptid=37278&t=service discovery techniques in mobile e-commerce' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Service Discovery Techniques in Mobile E-Commerce </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82496NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82496&tid=41243&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82496NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82496','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82496NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41244" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 82</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/perspectives-viable-mobile-virtual-community/41244' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Perspectives on the Viable Mobile Virtual Community for Telemedicine </a>  (pages 824-835) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Jan-Willem van ’t Klooster, Pravin Pawar, Bert-Jan van Beijnum, Chariz Dulawan, Hermie Hermens</span></div><div><span title='A virtual community is an electronically supported social network: it can be seen as a group of people who have regular social interaction, independent of time and space, because of a common interest such as a problem, task, or feeling exchange (Eysenbach, Powell, Englesakis, Rizo, & Stern, 2004; Rheingold, 1993). When independence of time and space is achieved through the use of mobile devices and wireless communication technologies, such a virtual community is called a Mobile Virtual Community (MVC). Existing research interests in the MVC domain are grouped into technology-centered interest, user-centered interest and businesscentered interest (El Morr & Kawash, 2007). The technology-centered aspects include issues such as platform design, development framework, mobile network bandwidth limits and intelligent agents. The user-centered issues include user interface, behavior, personalization, privacy, data security and trust. Business-centered aspects include marketing, investment and business models. ' style="display:none;"> A virtual community is an electronically supported social network: it can be seen as a group of people who have regular social interaction... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41244&ptid=37278&t=perspectives on the viable mobile virtual community for telemedicine' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Perspectives on the Viable Mobile Virtual Community for Telemedicine </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82497NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82497&tid=41244&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82497NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82497','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82497NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41245" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 83</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/socio-economic-effects-mobile-phone/41245' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Socio-Economic Effects on Mobile Phone Adoption Behavior among Older Consumers </a>  (pages 836-845) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Sanna Sintonen</span></div><div><span title='Aging is one of the major trends that is about to change the structure of consumer markets. As people age, they face changes in their health and functioning, that make them differ from their younger counterparts. Retiring is one of the changes that people face when they age, it clearly gives them more opportunities to make choices and more time for decision-making, and therefore their consuming power shouldn’t be overlooked. As electronic services are continuously developed, it is important to analyze aging people and identify the typical characteristics that affect their mobile phone usage. ' style="display:none;"> Aging is one of the major trends that is about to change the structure of consumer markets. As people age, they face changes in their health and... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41245&ptid=37278&t=socio-economic effects on mobile phone adoption behavior among older consumers' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Socio-Economic Effects on Mobile Phone Adoption Behavior among Older Consumers </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82498NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82498&tid=41245&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82498NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82498','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82498NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41246" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 84</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/mobile-agents-commerce/41246' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Mobile Agents in E-Commerce </a>  (pages 846-853) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Bo Chen</span></div><div><span title='A mobile agent is a composition of computer program, data, and execution state, which is able to move from one computer to another autonomously and continue its execution on the destination computer. Mobile agents provide a new programming paradigm for building agile distributed systems. The ability to travel allows a mobile agent system to move computation to data source systems. This decentralized approach improves network efficiency since the processing is performed locally. For example, in an e-commerce application shown in Figure 1, mobile agents are used to search and purchase products. Once the Buyer Server receives a buyer’s purchase request, it generates a mobile agent and sends it to the Information Server to search retailers who sell the product. Having a list of retailers, the Buyer Server dispatches a mobile agent visiting these retailers. The mobile agent negotiates with retailers’ local seller agents and reports the offers to the Buyer Server. The Buyer Server evaluates all the offers, and sends a purchase mobile agent to the best offer retailer to make the final purchase. ' style="display:none;"> A mobile agent is a composition of computer program, data, and execution state, which is able to move from one computer to another autonomously and... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41246&ptid=37278&t=mobile agents in e-commerce' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Mobile Agents in E-Commerce </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82499NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82499&tid=41246&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82499NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82499','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82499NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41247" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 85</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/mobile-telephony-universal-service/41247' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Mobile Telephony as a Universal Service </a>  (pages 854-860) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Ofir Turel, Alexander Serenko</span></div><div><span title='The opening quote nicely conceptualizes one of the most difficult challenges managers and regulators in the telecommunications sector face. While such individuals are not, for the most part, concerned with world-safety, they do need to address similar diversity issues in order to be profitable and to provide true universal services (i.e., reasonably priced, high quality telecommunication services to everyone who wishes to use them). Similarly to John F. Kennedy, managers and regulators understand that one-service or set of regulations that fits all may not be a wise strategy. Rather, their offerings and regulatory mechanisms are always flexible, and they cater to a heterogonous subscriber market. While wireless service providers do try to cater to different market segments by offering a variety of service packages, regulators often employ a single set of regulations that serve the entire market. On the one hand, organizations offering mobile services to individuals attempt to segment the market to maximize various performance factors, such as usage airtime, revenues, and customer base. On the other hand, policies should be in place to avoid the discrimination of specific less profitable customer categories. In fact, in the 21st century, mobile telephony has become so critical for the well-being of millions of people that it is vital to ensure the fairness of mobile services delivery. ' style="display:none;"> The opening quote nicely conceptualizes one of the most difficult challenges managers and regulators in the telecommunications sector face. While... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41247&ptid=37278&t=mobile telephony as a universal service' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Mobile Telephony as a Universal Service </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82500NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82500&tid=41247&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82500NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82500','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82500NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41248" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 86</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/web-service-discovery-composition-interoperability/41248' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Web Service Discovery, Composition, and Interoperability </a>  (pages 861-870) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Duy Ngan Le, Karel Mous, Angela Goh</span></div><div><span title='Web services have been employed in a wide range of applications and have become a key technology in developing business operations on the Web. In order to leverage on the use of Web services, Web service operations such as discovery, composition, and interoperability need to be fully supported. Several approaches have been proposed for each of these operations but these have advantages and disadvantages as well as varying levels of suitability for different applications. This leads to a motivation to explore and to compare current approaches as well as to highlight problems of the operations and their possible solutions. In this chapter, an introduction, a brief survey, problems and possible solutions to the three Web service operations mentioned above are discussed. The research opportunities and possible future directions on Web service are also presented.' style="display:none;"> Web services have been employed in a wide range of applications and have become a key technology in developing business operations on the Web. In... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41248&ptid=37278&t=web service discovery, composition, and interoperability' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Web Service Discovery, Composition, and Interoperability </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82501NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82501&tid=41248&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82501NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82501','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82501NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41249" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 87</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/case-based-web-services/41249' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Case Based Web Services </a>  (pages 871-882) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Zhaohao Sun, Gavin Finnie, John Yearwood</span></div><div><span title='Web services are Internet-based application components published using standard interface description languages and universally available via uniform communication protocols (Singh & Huhns, 2005). Web services can be also considered the provision of services over electronic networks such as the Internet and wireless networks (Rust & Kannan, 2003). Web services is a new computing paradigm that has drawn increasing attention in information technology (Deitel, et al, 2004, p.13), information systems, and is playing a pivotal role in service computing and service intelligence (Singh & Huhns, 2005). Web services is a new business paradigm that is playing an important role in e-business, ecommerce and business intelligence (Wang, et al, 2006). The key motive for the rapid development of web services is the ability to discover services that fulfil users’ demands, negotiate service contracts and have the services delivered where and when the users request them (Tang, et al, 2007). The current research trend is to add intelligent techniques to web services to facilitate discovery, invocation, composition, and recommendation of web services (Wang, et al, 2006).' style="display:none;"> Web services are Internet-based application components published using standard interface description languages and universally available via... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41249&ptid=37278&t=case based web services' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Case Based Web Services </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82502NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82502&tid=41249&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82502NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82502','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82502NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41250" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 88</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/web-services-contract-reuse/41250' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Web Services E-Contract and Reuse </a>  (pages 883-891) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Marcelo Fantinato, Maria Beatriz Felgar de Toledo, Itana Maria de Souza Gimenes</span></div><div><span title='The Internet and the Service-oriented Computing (SOC) paradigm (Papazoglou, Traverso & Dustdar, 2008) made the electronic interchange of services possible. Consequently, the scope of Business Process Management (BPM) (Khalaf, Keller & Leymann, 2006) has broadened from intra-organizational service interchange to interorganizational cooperation. In this new scenario, organizations are concentrating efforts on their main business and subcontracting electronic services (e-services) from partners. Business processes that cross organizational borders are more complex, thus a simple definition of the process is no longer enough to ensure trust. An electronic contract (e-contract) is necessary to define the rights and obligations of each involved party and monitoring of business process execution becomes mandatory. ' style="display:none;"> The Internet and the Service-oriented Computing (SOC) paradigm (Papazoglou, Traverso & Dustdar, 2008) made the electronic interchange of services... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41250&ptid=37278&t=web services e-contract and reuse' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Web Services E-Contract and Reuse </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82503NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82503&tid=41250&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82503NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82503','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82503NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41251" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 89</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/situational-enterprise-services/41251' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Situational Enterprise Services </a>  (pages 892-901) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Paul de Vrieze, Lai Xu, Li Xie</span></div><div><span title='The ability to rapidly find potential business partners as well as rapidly set up a collaborative business process is desirable in the face of market turbulence. Collaborative business processes are increasingly dependent on the integration of business information systems. Traditional linking of business processes has a large ad hoc character. Implementing situational enterprise services in an appropriate way will deliver the business more flexibility, adaptability and agility.Service-oriented architectures (SOA) are rapidly becoming the dominant computing paradigm. SOA is now being embraced by organizations everywhere as the key to business agility. Web 2.0 technologies such as AJAX on the other hand provide good user interactions for successful service discovery, selection, adaptation, invocation and service construction. They also balance automatic integration of services and human interactions, disconnecting content from presentation in the delivery of the service. Another Web technology, such as semantic Web, makes automatic service discovery, mediation and composition possible. Integrating SOA, Web 2.0 Technologies and Semantic Web into a service-oriented virtual enterprise connects business processes in a much more horizontal fashion. To be able run these services consistently across the enterprise, an enterprise infrastructure that provides enterprise architecture and security foundation is necessary.The world is constantly changing. So does the business environment. An agile enterprise needs to be able to quickly and cost-effectively change how it does business and who it does business with. Knowing, adapting to diffident situations is an important aspect of today’s business environment. The changes in an operating environment can happen implicitly and explicitly. The changes can be caused by different factors in the application domain. Changes can also happen for the purpose of organizing information in a better way. Changes can be further made according to the users’ needs such as incorporating additional functionalities. Handling and managing diffident situations of service-oriented enterprises are important aspects of business environment. In the chapter, we will investigate how to apply new Web technologies to develop, deploy and executing enterprise services.' style="display:none;"> The ability to rapidly find potential business partners as well as rapidly set up a collaborative business process is desirable in the face of... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41251&ptid=37278&t=situational enterprise services' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Situational Enterprise Services </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82504NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82504&tid=41251&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82504NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82504','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82504NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41252" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 90</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/social-networks-web-services-based/41252' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Social Networks and Web Services-Based Systems </a>  (pages 902-907) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Zakaria Maamar, Leandro Krug Wives</span></div><div><span title='Web services are paving the way for a new type of business applications. This can be noticed from the large number of standards and initiatives related to Web services (Margaria, 2007; Papazoglou et al., 2007; Yu et al., 2008), which tackle a variety of issues such as security, fault tolerance, and substitution. These issues hinder the automatic composition of Web services. Composition handles the situation of a user’s request that cannot be satisfied by any single, available Web service, whereas a composite Web service obtained by combining available Web services may be used. Despite the tremendous capabilities that empower Web services, they still lack some capabilities that would propel them to a higher level of adoption by the IT community and make them compete with other integration middleware like CORBA and .Net. As a result, Web services adoption could be slowed down if some issues such as the complexity of their discovery are not properly addressed (Langdom, 2003). For this particular issue of discovery, we examine in this chapter the use of social networks (Ethier, visited in 2008; Wasserman and Glaskiewics, 1994). Such networks permit to establish between people relationships of different types like friendship, kinship, and conflict. These relationships are dynamic and, hence, adjusted over time depending on different factors like outcomes of previous interaction experiences, and natures of partners dealt with. Replacing people with Web services is doable since Web services constantly engage in different types of interaction sessions with users and peers as well ' style="display:none;"> Web services are paving the way for a new type of business applications. This can be noticed from the large number of standards and initiatives... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41252&ptid=37278&t=social networks and web services-based systems' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Social Networks and Web Services-Based Systems </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82505NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82505&tid=41252&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82505NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82505','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82505NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41253" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 91</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/interoperability-issues-business-processes/41253' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Interoperability Issues of Business Processes: Key Issues and Technological Drivers </a>  (pages 908-917) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Ejub Kajan</span></div><div><span title='At the beginning of the third millennium, we are facing one of the most important transition challenges: to build an electronic society. In that movement, EC (Electronic Commerce) represents one of the major driving forces that survived two big failures in the past, represented by EDI (1980s) and “dotcom era” (1990s). Despite different network technologies, EDI (Electronic Data Interchange) over OSI (Open Systems Interconnections) vs. dotcom over the Internet both left out of the e-business too many companies (e.g. most of SMEs, Small-to-Medium Enterprises). After disillusionment and failure analysis, new expansion of EC is taking place, especially in the form of B2B. In such circumstances there is a lot of heterogeneity between business processes, supported applications and associated data on one side and different hardware, operating systems, database systems, network infrastructure, etc. on the other side, that make huge difficulties and barriers in achieving the full potential of EC (Medjahed et al., 2003; Kajan & Stoimenov, 2005; Hepp, 2006). Similar situation is taking place inside companies where A2A (Application-to-Application) costs for data integration and access software were about $2.5 billion in 2007 and are going to grow further (Bernstein & Hass, 2008). ' style="display:none;"> At the beginning of the third millennium, we are facing one of the most important transition challenges: to build an electronic society. In that... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41253&ptid=37278&t=interoperability issues of business processes: key issues and technological drivers' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Interoperability Issues of Business Processes: Key Issues and Technological Drivers </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82506NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82506&tid=41253&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82506NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82506','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82506NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41254" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 92</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/integrated-business-process-designs-current/41254' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Integrated Business Process Designs and Current Applications of Workflow Systems in E-Business </a>  (pages 918-933) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Mabel T. Kung, Jenny Yi Zhang</span></div><div><span title='To enable effective cross-departmental automations and global transactions, business processes modeling offer external views on their infrastructure processes to all partners in the enterprise, such as product data, quality, costs and delivery requirements, quantity quotations, process plan efficiency, and interactions for meta-, macro-, and micro- distributed process planning (Livari & Livari, 2006; McKendrick, 2006; Siller, Estruch, Vila, Abellan, & Romero, 2008; Kuechler & Vaishnzvi, 2008). Business process modeling is significant as EBusiness and enterprise integration drive the need to deploy activities online (Tagg, 2001; Aissi, Malu, & Srinivasan, 2002; Weiss & Amyot, 2005; Sewing, Rosemann & Dumas, 2006; Chen, Zhang & Zhou, 2007). These management systems employ integrated productivity tools, specialized technical support systems, such as CAD systems, graphic packages, enterprise-wide integrated software applications, for example, ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning), CRM (Customer Relationship Management), mail and other communication systems. When the applications become more modulated and service oriented, stand-alone software will no longer be sufficient (Cimatti, Clarke, Giunchiglia & Roveri, 2000; Adner & Helfat, 2003; Andreescu, 2006). ' style="display:none;"> To enable effective cross-departmental automations and global transactions, business processes modeling offer external views on their infrastructure... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41254&ptid=37278&t=integrated business process designs and current applications of workflow systems in e-business' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Integrated Business Process Designs and Current Applications of Workflow Systems in E-Business </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82507NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82507&tid=41254&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82507NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82507','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82507NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41255" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 93</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/facilitating-interaction-between-virtual-agents/41255' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Facilitating Interaction between Virtual Agents by Changing Ontological Representation </a>  (pages 934-941) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Fiona McNeill, Alan Bundy</span></div><div><span title='Fluent, effortless and diverse e-business transactions depend on the ability of automated agents to interact. The difficulties of tailoring representation and information to be consistent and therefore interoperable needs to fall not on human users but on these automated agents. In this chapter, the authors present our system, ORS (Ontology Repair System), which is designed to be a tool for automated agents, acting on behalf of people or systems, which need to interact, to enable them to understand one another, despite the fact that they are not centrally or consistently designed.' style="display:none;"> Fluent, effortless and diverse e-business transactions depend on the ability of automated agents to interact. The difficulties of tailoring... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41255&ptid=37278&t=facilitating interaction between virtual agents by changing ontological representation' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Facilitating Interaction between Virtual Agents by Changing Ontological Representation </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82508NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82508&tid=41255&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82508NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82508','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82508NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41256" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 94</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/modeling-collaborative-design-competence-ontologies/41256' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Modeling Collaborative Design Competence with Ontologies </a>  (pages 942-951) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Vladimir Tarasov, Kurt Sandkuhl, Magnus Lundqvist</span></div><div><span title='Collaborative design in dispersed groups of engineers creates various kinds of challenges to technology, organization and social environment. Selected examples are knowledge sharing, coordination support or secure tool integration (Jacucci, Pawlak, & Sandkuhl, 2005). Work presented in this chapter is located in the area of formation of teams for collaborative design. The challenge addressed is how to describe and represent the competences needed for a planned collaborative design project in a way that those individuals best suited for the collaboration can be identified. The proposed approach is to apply ontology engineering to modeling competences of individuals, including different competence areas like cultural competences, professional competences or occupational competences. ' style="display:none;"> Collaborative design in dispersed groups of engineers creates various kinds of challenges to technology, organization and social environment.... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41256&ptid=37278&t=modeling collaborative design competence with ontologies' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Modeling Collaborative Design Competence with Ontologies </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82509NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82509&tid=41256&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82509NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82509','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82509NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41257" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 95</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/event-driven-service-oriented-architectures/41257' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Event-Driven Service-Oriented Architectures for E-Business </a>  (pages 952-962) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Olga Levina, Vladimir Stantchev</span></div><div><span title='E-Business research and practice can be situated on following multiple levels: applications, technological issues, support and implementation (Ngai and Wat 2002). Here we consider technological components for realizing business processes and discuss their foundation architecture for technological enabling. The article provides an introduction to the terms, techniques and realization issues for eventdriven and service-oriented architectures. We begin with a definition of terms and propose a reference architecture for an event-driven service-oriented architecture (EDSOA). Possible applications in the area of E-Business and solution guidelines are considered in the second part of the article. Service-oriented Architectures (SOA) have gained momentum since their introduction in the last years. Seen as an approach to integrate heterogeneous applications within an enterprise architecture they are also used to design flexible and adaptable business processes. An SOA is designed as a distributed system architecture providing a good integration possibility of already existing application systems. Furthermore, SOA is mostly suitable for complex and large system landscapes. ' style="display:none;"> E-Business research and practice can be situated on following multiple levels: applications, technological issues, support and implementation (Ngai... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41257&ptid=37278&t=event-driven service-oriented architectures for e-business' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Event-Driven Service-Oriented Architectures for E-Business </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82510NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82510&tid=41257&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82510NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82510','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82510NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41258" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 96</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/speeding-internet-exploiting-historical-user/41258' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Speeding up the Internet: Exploiting Historical User Request Patterns for Web Caching </a>  (pages 963-968) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Chetan Kumar</span></div><div><span title='The Internet has witnessed a tremendous growth in the amount of available information, and this trend of increasing traffic is likely to continue. According to a Cisco Systems forecast report (2008) the growth in Internet traffic is to be driven by Web 2.0 technologies such as video and social networking and collaboration. Some excerpts of the Cisco forecast report (2008) are as follows. ' style="display:none;"> The Internet has witnessed a tremendous growth in the amount of available information, and this trend of increasing traffic is likely to continue.... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41258&ptid=37278&t=speeding up the internet: exploiting historical user request patterns for web caching' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Speeding up the Internet: Exploiting Historical User Request Patterns for Web Caching </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82511NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82511&tid=41258&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82511NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82511','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82511NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41259" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 97</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/effect-user-location-time-access/41259' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> The Effect of User Location and Time of Access on Ecommerce: A Long Tail Study of Website Requests </a>  (pages 969-974) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Chetan Kumar</span></div><div><span title='The amount and range of information on the Internet is growing at a rapid pace. Cisco systems report (2008) expects Internet traffic growth to be spurred by video, social networking and collaboration applications collectively referred to as Web 2.0 technologies. The Cisco systems report (2008) forecasts that “global Internet Protocol (IP) traffic will increase by a factor of six from 2007 to 2012, reaching 44 exabytes per month in 2012, compared to fewer than 7 exabytes per month in 2007.” ComScore report (2009) estimates that the total global Internet audience has surpassed 1 billion visitors in December 2008. Magid Abraham, CEO of ComScore Inc., says “Surpassing one billion global users is a significant landmark in the history of the Internet. It is a monument to the increasingly unified global community in which we live and reminds us that the world truly is becoming more flat. The second billion will be online before we know it, and the third billion will arrive even faster than that, until we have a truly global network of interconnected people and ideas that transcend borders and cultural boundaries.” The increase in Internet traffic is aided because making information available online is becoming relatively inexpensive, and as more people have Internet access demand for information increases. The trend of increasing Internet traffic is likely to continue (Datta et al. 2003, Cisco systems report 2008). ' style="display:none;"> The amount and range of information on the Internet is growing at a rapid pace. Cisco systems report (2008) expects Internet traffic growth to be... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41259&ptid=37278&t=the effect of user location and time of access on ecommerce: a long tail study of website requests' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> The Effect of User Location and Time of Access on Ecommerce: A Long Tail Study of Website Requests </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82512NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82512&tid=41259&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82512NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82512','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82512NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41260" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 98</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/incorporating-knowledge-management-into-commerce/41260' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Incorporating Knowledge Management into E-Commerce Applications </a>  (pages 975-982) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Sandra Moffett, Martin Doherty, Rodney McAdam</span></div><div><span title='Knowledge Management (KM) is the process of critically managing knowledge to meet existing needs, identify and exploit existing and acquired knowledge assets and develop new opportunities (Quintas et al, 1997). With the emergence of knowledge-intensive industries, where organisations rely on knowledge of their staff for competitive advantage (Lustri et al., 2007), KM has become key for business success (Mu-jung et al., 2007). KM is now an integral business function (Zhou and Fink, 2003) in both traditional and internet-based businesses (Borges Tiago et al., 2007) to the extent that KM is now viewed essential for profit (Yang, 2008). It is widely acknowledged today that new technologies, in particular access to the Internet, tend to modify communication between stakeholders in the business world, such as relationships between the organisation and its clients, the internal functioning of the organisation, including enterprise-employee relationships and the relationship of the organisation with partners and suppliers. This integration to improve the functioning of the organisation to create value for all parties involved is referred to as Electronic Commerce (e-commerce, EC) (Turban et al, 2006). ' style="display:none;"> Knowledge Management (KM) is the process of critically managing knowledge to meet existing needs, identify and exploit existing and acquired... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41260&ptid=37278&t=incorporating knowledge management into e-commerce applications' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Incorporating Knowledge Management into E-Commerce Applications </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82513NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82513&tid=41260&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82513NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82513','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82513NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41261" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 99</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/application-semantic-web-technology-business/41261' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Application of Semantic Web Technology in E-Business: Case Studies in Public Domain Data Knowledge Representation </a>  (pages 983-994) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Sotirios K. Goudos, Vassilios Peristeras, Konstantinos Tarabanis</span></div><div><span title='In the E-Business and particular in the eGovernment domain special focus is often given to the demand side, i.e. the everyday practice and reality of citizen and business contacts with government and businesses. Information services available online from public administration are the first stage for e-government. This stage has drawn a great amount of effort from many countries worldwide in order to satisfy the demand for readily available information. The implementation of an information system that will serve this demand is not always an easy task. This is due to the inherent difficulties that exist in the public administration domain. There are many complicated services with numerous executional paths, depending on the type of process. In many cases divergent and conflicting legislation may exist for the same case, which complicates the search effort for the average citizen. As a result, it may be difficult for a citizen to find, based on the relevant legislation the correct information regarding the formal documents and the procedure that must be followed for a certain service. ' style="display:none;"> In the E-Business and particular in the eGovernment domain special focus is often given to the demand side, i.e. the everyday practice and reality... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41261&ptid=37278&t=application of semantic web technology in e-business: case studies in public domain data knowledge representation' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Application of Semantic Web Technology in E-Business: Case Studies in Public Domain Data Knowledge Representation </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82514NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82514&tid=41261&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82514NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82514','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82514NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41262" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 100</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/design-elements-principles-maintaining-visual/41262' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Design Elements and Principles for Maintaining Visual Identity on Websites </a>  (pages 995-1001) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Sunghyun R. Kang, Debra Satterfield</span></div><div><span title='The visual design of a website is critical when establishing a strong corporate identity on the web. The look and feel of a website will quickly influence a user with regard to how they perceive the image of the business. It will determine whether they feel comfortable or included in the site’s target audience and whether or not they feel the business is professional or trustworthy. If at a first glance, the visual design does not connect on these levels with the user the likelihood of them using the site or purchasing products is greatly diminished. Therefore, the site must quickly capitalize on a known and trusted pre-existing corporate identity, or establish a new corporate identity that is professional and appropriate. The purpose of this chapter is to examine design factors and determine which of these factors affect people’s ability to identify and perceive information on web sites. This chapter discusses how design elements can cross media boundaries and create a consistent and effective user experience between the physical business and its presence on the web. This chapter explains branding elements such as logos, color systems, typography, grid structure, photography, graphic style, and the visual hierarchy of information with regard to how they can be used in static and dynamic applications. ' style="display:none;"> The visual design of a website is critical when establishing a strong corporate identity on the web. The look and feel of a website will quickly... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41262&ptid=37278&t=design elements and principles for maintaining visual identity on websites' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Design Elements and Principles for Maintaining Visual Identity on Websites </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82515NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82515&tid=41262&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82515NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82515','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82515NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41263" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 101</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/designing-business-applications-patterns-computer/41263' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Designing e-Business Applications with Patterns for Computer-Mediated Interaction </a>  (pages 1002-1010) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Stephan Lukosch, Till Schümmer</span></div><div><span title='Probably the most important aspect of e-Business and e-Commerce is that it mediates the interaction between various stakeholders in a business setting. New organizational forms such as virtual organizations emerged in which independent companies form a strategic alliance for a close collaboration towards a shared goal (e.g., shared product development). New forms of B2C (business-to-customer) interaction argue for the importance of hearing the customer’s voice e.g., by providing means for customization (Piller, 2006) or by collecting the customers’ feedback (Levine, Locke, Searls, & Weinberger, 2000). And in some cases, C2C (customer-to-customer) interaction has become an integrated part of the business (in settings where customers also act as providers of goods or services). Closely related to these trends is the emergence of the Web 2.0 as “a set of economic, social, and technology trends that collectively form the basis for the next generation of the Internet – a more mature, distinctive medium characterized by user participation, openness, and network effects.” (Musser, O’Reilly et al., 2006, p. 4). Again, collaboration and user participation is one of the most important terms in this definition and it is what makes Web 2.0 different from traditional web sites that have mainly focused on content delivery rather than interaction and collaboration among users of content. Considered from an e-business perspective, there are important analogies, especially the shift from mass delivery to customized goods and services that are co-created by traditional sellers and customers. ' style="display:none;"> Probably the most important aspect of e-Business and e-Commerce is that it mediates the interaction between various stakeholders in a business... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41263&ptid=37278&t=designing e-business applications with patterns for computer-mediated interaction' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Designing e-Business Applications with Patterns for Computer-Mediated Interaction </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82516NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82516&tid=41263&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82516NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82516','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82516NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41264" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 102</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/soa-based-framework-internet-enabled/41264' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> A SOA-Based Framework for Internet-Enabled CRM </a>  (pages 1011-1020) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Wei-Lun Chang</span></div><div><span title='Because of changes in the service economy, the service-oriented management (SOM) approach has been adopted widely for contemporary enterprises. Service-oriented management is the operational management of service delivery within a serviceoriented architecture1 (SOA), which provides a differentiated service delivery capability during operation. SOA furnishes a basis for e-service composition and delivery over the Internet and allows e-service companies to design customized e-services and combine them dynamically based on their needs (Ordanini and Pasini, 2008). This concept enables firms to manage and serve customers anytime and anywhere via any device, that is, CRM can be executed without the limitations of location, time, device, and service type. Customer relationship management (CRM) is a significant issue for today’s companies. In particular, a good CRM strategy may assist firms to earn advanced profits, increase customer perceived value, and acquire new customers. In this study, CRM is transformed from traditional CRM (face-toface) to Internet-Enabled CRM (over the Internet). This chapter defines Internet-Enabled CRM as conducting CRM by utilizing devices which can deliver e-services through the Internet. The extent of Internet-Enabled CRM includes electronic CRM (E-CRM), mobile CRM (M-CRM), and ubiquitous CRM (U-CRM). ' style="display:none;"> Because of changes in the service economy, the service-oriented management (SOM) approach has been adopted widely for contemporary enterprises.... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41264&ptid=37278&t=a soa-based framework for internet-enabled crm' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> A SOA-Based Framework for Internet-Enabled CRM </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82517NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82517&tid=41264&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82517NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82517','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82517NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41265" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 103</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/building-context-aware-commerce-systems/41265' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Building Context-Aware E-Commerce Systems: A Data Mining Approach </a>  (pages 1021-1029) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Anahit Martirosyan, Thomas Tran, Azzedine Boukerche</span></div><div><span title='Context is any information/knowledge about an application and user that can be used by an e-commerce system to provide efficient services to the users of the system. In this article, we propose to extend usage of context as compared to previously designed context-aware e-commerce systems. While in previous work, context was mainly considered for mobile e-commerce systems, we propose to build and use context for e-commerce systems in general. The context is employed to tailor an e-commerce application to the preferences and needs of users and provide insights into purchasing activities of users and particular e-commerce stores by means of using Data Mining techniques. This article proposes a model of context that includes micro-, macro- and domain contexts that constitute knowledge about the application and its user on different levels of granularity. The article also proposes a technique for extracting groups in social networks. This knowledge is part of macro-context in the proposed model of context. Moreover, the article discusses some of the challenges of incorporating context with e-commerce systems, emphasizing on the privacy issue, with an ultimate goal of developing intelligent e-commerce systems.' style="display:none;"> Context is any information/knowledge about an application and user that can be used by an e-commerce system to provide efficient services to the... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41265&ptid=37278&t=building context-aware e-commerce systems: a data mining approach' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Building Context-Aware E-Commerce Systems: A Data Mining Approach </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82518NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82518&tid=41265&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82518NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82518','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82518NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41266" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 104</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/efficient-service-task-assignment-grid/41266' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Efficient Service Task Assignment in Grid Computing Environments </a>  (pages 1030-1040) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Angelos Michalas, Malamati Louta</span></div><div><span title='The availability of powerful computers and highspeed network technologies is changing the way computers are used. These technology enhancements led to the possibility of using distributed computers as a single, unified computing resource, leading to what is popularly known as Grid computing (Foster, 2001). The term Grid is adopted from the power Grid which supplies transparent access to electric power regardless of its source. Cloud computing, scalable computing, global computing, internet computing, and more recently peer-to-peer computing are well known names describing the Grid technology in distributed systems. ' style="display:none;"> The availability of powerful computers and highspeed network technologies is changing the way computers are used. These technology enhancements led... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41266&ptid=37278&t=efficient service task assignment in grid computing environments' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Efficient Service Task Assignment in Grid Computing Environments </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82519NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82519&tid=41266&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82519NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82519','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82519NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41267" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 105</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/policy-driven-negotiation-improve-qos/41267' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Policy Driven Negotiation to Improve the QoS in Data Grid </a>  (pages 1041-1056) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Ghalem Belalem</span></div><div><span title='Data grids have become an interesting and popular domain in grid community (Foster and Kesselmann, 2004). Generally, the grids are proposed as solutions for large scale systems, where data replication is a well-known technique used to reduce access latency and bandwidth, and increase availability. In splitting of the advantages of replication, there are many problems that should be solved such as, • The replica placement that determines the optimal locations of replicated data in order to reduce the storage cost and data access (Xu et al, 2002); • The problem of determining which replica will be accessed to in terms of consistency when we need to execute a read or write operation (Ranganathan and Foster, 2001); • The problem of degree of replication which consists in finding a minimal number of replicas without reducing the performance of user applications; • The problem of replica consistency that concerns the consistency of a set of replicated data. This consistency provides a completely coherent view of all the replicas for a user (Gray et al 1996). Our principal aim, in this article, is to integrate into consistency management service, an approach based on an economic model for resolving conflicts detected in the data grid. ' style="display:none;"> Data grids have become an interesting and popular domain in grid community (Foster and Kesselmann, 2004). Generally, the grids are proposed as... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41267&ptid=37278&t=policy driven negotiation to improve the qos in data grid' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Policy Driven Negotiation to Improve the QoS in Data Grid </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82520NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82520&tid=41267&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82520NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82520','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82520NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41268" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 106</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/understanding-dimensions-broadband-gap/41268' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Understanding the Dimensions of the Broadband Gap: More than a Penetration Divide </a>  (pages 1057-1067) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Maria Rosalia Vicente, Ana Jesus Lopez</span></div><div><span title='Over the last decade the Internet has brought about significant changes in the economies and societies worldwide. It has changed communication habits, adapting incrementally to the needs of the users of the networks. It has created a world-wide web of knowledge sharing, creativity, and collaboration and has fostered globalization. In this context, new and traditional players are adapting to the challenges through new business models. Nowadays, the diffusion of broadband is providing the basis for the transition to the Internet of the future. In the next years the development of very high-speed networks will permit the launch of new interactive media and content services. The widespread expansion of low cost wireless broadband will allow the Internet to become more pervasive (European Commission, 2006). ' style="display:none;"> Over the last decade the Internet has brought about significant changes in the economies and societies worldwide. It has changed communication... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41268&ptid=37278&t=understanding the dimensions of the broadband gap: more than a penetration divide' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Understanding the Dimensions of the Broadband Gap: More than a Penetration Divide </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82521NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82521&tid=41268&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82521NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82521','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82521NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41269" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 107</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/inclusion-european-perspectives-beyond-digital/41269' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> E-Inclusion: European Perspectives Beyond the Digital Divide </a>  (pages 1068-1075) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Bridgette Wessels</span></div><div><span title='The development of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) is part of a reshaping of socio-economic life that is resulting in new forms of inclusion and exclusion. The use of ICT in economic activity is situated within global capitalism that is based on a networked organisation of production processes and patterns of consumption. This networked organisation of social and economic life is facilitated by an infrastructure based on ICT, which form part of an e-economy and information society (Castells, 2001). In order for economies to be competitive in a global market they need to be connected into the ICT infrastructure and they require a labour force that has the education and skills to work in an e-economy. From the point of view of ordinary people their life chances are linked to having the capability to work in the e-economy to ensure employment. Furthermore as ICT becomes embedded in political and cultural communication, individuals need access and skills in ICT to participate in their societies. These dimensions of change are creating concerns in policy-making communities and user groups regarding ensuring inclusion in the e-economy and for social cohesion more generally as societies undergo change. The focus of academics and policy-making groups first addressed the concept of a digital divide between those who have access to ICT and those that do not. However, this idea has now been extended into the concept of e-inclusion. In this article, the author first outlines the background to the emergence of the term and its definition and provides the policy response by the European Union. She then considers the problems, controversies and issues of the concept. This is followed by a discussion of some possible solutions, policy recommendations, and suggests areas of further research. The article concludes by ' style="display:none;"> The development of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) is part of a reshaping of socio-economic life that is resulting in new forms of... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41269&ptid=37278&t=e-inclusion: european perspectives beyond the digital divide' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> E-Inclusion: European Perspectives Beyond the Digital Divide </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82522NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82522&tid=41269&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82522NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82522','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82522NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41270" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 108</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/importance-electronic-record-preservation-business/41270' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Importance of Electronic Record Preservation in E-Business </a>  (pages 1076-1085) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Helena Halas, Tomaž Klobucar</span></div><div><span title='The development of information and communication technology (ICT) and the rapid increase of ebusiness have led to a rapid growth of the number of produced and exchanged electronic documents. The documents range from simple receipts to complex legal contracts and service level agreements. More and more types of documents are required to be preserved for longer periods of time, for example, due to legal reasons or as evidence of a business activity. Although electronic records are created and managed in an electronic form through their entire lifecycle, they are usually printed at the end and preserved in paper form to be legally valid. This has led to a situation where paper archives are becoming too complex to be effectively managed, and need to be replaced with electronic record preservation systems. Properly preserved electronic records have equivalent legal value as records in the paper form and can be used as evidence material in court. Advanced organizations use document management systems (DMSs) for managing large numbers of electronic records. For example, a mobile phone operator creates user contracts in an electronic form or converts them from paper, preserves the contracts as long as required by the law, and disposes them after that. Unfortunately, DMSs frequently do not provide adequate technologies for integrity and authenticity provisions, which are critically important for long-term electronic record preservation in business organizations. More advanced electronic records preservation technologies are therefore required. ' style="display:none;"> The development of information and communication technology (ICT) and the rapid increase of ebusiness have led to a rapid growth of the number of... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41270&ptid=37278&t=importance of electronic record preservation in e-business' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Importance of Electronic Record Preservation in E-Business </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82523NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82523&tid=41270&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82523NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82523','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82523NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41271" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 109</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/electronic-commerce-prospects-emerging-economies/41271' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Electronic Commerce Prospects in Emerging Economies: Lessons from Egypt </a>  (pages 1086-1097) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Sherif Kamel</span></div><div><span title='The information and communication technology (ICT) evolution is aggressively affecting many nations around the world, forcing changes and transformations to business and socioeconomic development plans, reflecting major implications on different economies and contributing to the notions of globalization and the evolution of the global digital economy irrespective of time and distance barriers. ICT is driving the radical transformation and change for individuals, organizations and societies from the marketplace to the cyberspace helping the realization of the digital economy, outsourcing and global outreach. In a fast changing global environment, speed, competition and catering for various diversified cultural elements become key factors for development and growth in the reengineered business environment where electronic commerce (E-commerce) applications promise to grow in volume helping the digital economy to mature and dominate. Egypt, as a developing nation with an economy in transition, started to invest in building its ICT infrastructure since 1985 as a vital tool for development and leading to availing opportunities for E-commerce to grow. This article describes the emergence of E-commerce in Egypt since the mid 1990s and its implications in the marketplace including the challenges faced relating to social, technological, financial, cultural and legal issues and the efforts exerted by different stakeholders including the government, the private sector and the civil society to diffuse E-commerce in Egypt. ' style="display:none;"> The information and communication technology (ICT) evolution is aggressively affecting many nations around the world, forcing changes and... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41271&ptid=37278&t=electronic commerce prospects in emerging economies: lessons from egypt' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Electronic Commerce Prospects in Emerging Economies: Lessons from Egypt </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82524NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82524&tid=41271&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82524NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82524','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82524NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41272" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 110</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/using-assistive-technology-ensure-access/41272' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Using Assistive Technology to Ensure Access to E-Learning for Individuals with Disabilities </a>  (pages 1098-1106) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Hwa Lee</span></div><div><span title='With the advancement of technology, Electronic Learning (E-Learning) now is more of the rule than the exception. E-learning has been the synonym for online learning, web-based learning, computerbased learning, in the fields of education, business, and information technology. E-learning utilizes a wide spectrum of technologies including internet, intranets, or multimedia platforms (O’Neill, Singh, & O’Donoghue, 2004). In order for individuals with disabilities to utilize E-Learning, often cases they need Assistive Technology (AT) which functions as a technological medium for accessing computer and the internet. The extent to which individuals need AT for computer and internet access varies depending on their residual abilities. Results from numerous empirical studies indicate the effectiveness of AT for individuals with disabilities in accessing learning and daily life activities. While a large body of studies exists in E-Learning, very few focus on supporting individuals with disabilities in their access to E-Learning. Providing AT for E-Learning access is not only the intent of the federal laws but also the principles of Universal Design for Learning (UDL). The core intent of the federal law, Americans with Disabilities Act, is to narrow the disparity between individuals with and without disabilities by ensuring access to technologies needed for equal employment (CAST, 2009). Given that rehabilitation, business, education agencies attempt to fulfill the intent of the laws, the purpose of this study is to provide an overview of technology access for E-Learning for individuals with disabilities including legislations relevant to technology access for individuals with disabilities, AT service delivery models, principles of UDL, effectiveness of AT for individuals with disabilities, issues and solutions, and discussions for future directions for research. ' style="display:none;"> With the advancement of technology, Electronic Learning (E-Learning) now is more of the rule than the exception. E-learning has been the synonym for... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41272&ptid=37278&t=using assistive technology to ensure access to e-learning for individuals with disabilities' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Using Assistive Technology to Ensure Access to E-Learning for Individuals with Disabilities </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82525NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82525&tid=41272&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82525NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82525','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82525NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41273" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 111</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/holistic-view-challenges-social-implications/41273' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> A Holistic View of the Challenges and Social Implications of Online Distribution: The Case of Pensions </a>  (pages 1107-1116) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Tina Harrison, Kathryn Waite</span></div><div><span title='Recent policies, aimed at reducing pension costs and improving consumer awareness, have contributed to the development of the Internet as a distribution channel within the pensions sector. This article critically evaluates the extent to which use of the Internet has facilitated and promoted pension distribution in the UK, as well as identifying the forces that are constraining or facilitating further change. Drawing on data gathered from pension providers, intermediaries and consumers the paper discusses the threat and implication of disintermediation, the capability of the Internet to empower those who use it, the resource implications of channel conflicts and the outcomes of shifts in responsibility for process enactment. The article reveals that the Internet has had some impact on the structure, geography and processes of pension distribution within the UK.' style="display:none;"> Recent policies, aimed at reducing pension costs and improving consumer awareness, have contributed to the development of the Internet as a... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41273&ptid=37278&t=a holistic view of the challenges and social implications of online distribution: the case of pensions' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> A Holistic View of the Challenges and Social Implications of Online Distribution: The Case of Pensions </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82526NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82526&tid=41273&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82526NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82526','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82526NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41274" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 112</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/global-telecommunications-industry-facing-revolution/41274' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> The Global Telecommunications Industry Facing the IP Revolution: Technological and Regulatory Challenges </a>  (pages 1117-1124) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Harald Gruber</span></div><div><span title='Technological innovation in the telecommunications sector is a key contributor to the rapid diffusion of e-business. The steady drive towards semiconductor miniaturisation leads to a continuous decline in the price of telecommunications equipment and increase in performance. Technological change therefore continues to transform the way telecommunications services are provided and used. Telecommunication networks are subject to a technological switch from so called circuit switched technology to packet switched technology. In fact, digitalisation of audio and video signals has led to the convergence of telecommunications, data processing and broadcasting technologies into a single service platform based on Internet Protocol (IP). This has strong implications on legacy networks of existing operators, because they need to support during a transition period both technologies in the network, but this duplication is inefficient. This is more so as the incumbent telecommunications operators are subject to sector specific regulation. This regulation was motivated by the externalities that telecommunications generate and the concern that operators would exploit market power to the detriment of users. This appears to be less the case when there is a multiplicity of telecommunications networks. ' style="display:none;"> Technological innovation in the telecommunications sector is a key contributor to the rapid diffusion of e-business. The steady drive towards... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41274&ptid=37278&t=the global telecommunications industry facing the ip revolution: technological and regulatory challenges' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> The Global Telecommunications Industry Facing the IP Revolution: Technological and Regulatory Challenges </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82527NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82527&tid=41274&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82527NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82527','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82527NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41275" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 113</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/evolving-business-systems/41275' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Evolving e-Business Systems: Transgenic Forces in International Realpolitik Space in 2050 </a>  (pages 1125-1137) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Denis Caro</span></div><div><span title='This chapter posits that transgenic governance forces are evolving and will engage future international e-business professionals in a multi-polar world of 2050. Social governance will be a cogent and compelling force in a tomorrow’s internationalized world community. This is a call to e-business professionals and academicians to understand and engage themselves in the underlying different perceptions and paradigms, or Weltanschauung, of diverse sectors in a world of rising new cultures. They must become “transgenic” in their perspective and seize every opportunity to develop and sensitize themselves to the socio-political dynamics that influence future growth and development of international e-business systems. An understanding of strategic socio-political forces serves as an inter-organizational learning paradigm that fosters innovation and social responsibility for the betterment of humankind internationally.' style="display:none;"> This chapter posits that transgenic governance forces are evolving and will engage future international e-business professionals in a multi-polar... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41275&ptid=37278&t=evolving e-business systems: transgenic forces in international realpolitik space in 2050' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Evolving e-Business Systems: Transgenic Forces in International Realpolitik Space in 2050 </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82528NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82528&tid=41275&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82528NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82528','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82528NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41276" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 114</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/recruiting-sources-opportunities-challenges/41276' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> E-Recruiting: Sources, Opportunities, and Challenges </a>  (pages 1138-1146) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">In Lee</span></div><div><span title='Recently, a web-enabled e-recruiting emerged quickly as a powerful method for both job seekers and recruiters. E-recruiting has driven companies to redesign the recruiting process and to move quickly to web-based integrated human resource systems that provide standardized frameworks for key personnel processes (Cullen, 2001). Currently, corporate career web sites are among the most widely deployed e-business web sites (Maurer and Liu, 2007). Job seekers visit corporate career web sites to survey a job market in addition to searching for job opportunities. Recruiting via social networks such as Facebook, LinkedIn.com, and MySpace is also getting popular. E-recruiting systems have evolved through numerous technological developments since its introduction in the mid-1990s. A recent survey shows that Fortune 100 companies are in various stages of development (Lee, 2005). At the early stage of the corporate e-recruiting system, the purpose of the career web site was to simply post job openings on the static web page for job seekers’ information. As e-commerce technologies advanced and recruiters gained more e-recruiting experience, the front-end e-recruiting systems added new features and functions, targeted job seekers better, and integrated with a back-end human resource management system. An advanced e-recruiting system of large companies has been powered by an enterprise-wide system and incorporated best practice recruiting methodologies to achieve strategic advantage.' style="display:none;"> Recently, a web-enabled e-recruiting emerged quickly as a powerful method for both job seekers and recruiters. E-recruiting has driven companies to... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41276&ptid=37278&t=e-recruiting: sources, opportunities, and challenges' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> E-Recruiting: Sources, Opportunities, and Challenges </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82529NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82529&tid=41276&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82529NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82529','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82529NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41277" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 115</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/emerging-trends-business/41277' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Emerging Trends of E-Business </a>  (pages 1147-1159) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Pengtao Li</span></div><div><span title='E-business has grown dramatically in the last ten years. Its only constant is change. Awareness of these changes can help both business and customers better utilize and take advantage of e-business. This chapter presents the emerging trends of e-business in various areas, including Web services, Web 2.0, Mobile Commerce (M-Commerce), and corresponding ethical and social issues.' style="display:none;"> E-business has grown dramatically in the last ten years. Its only constant is change. Awareness of these changes can help both business and... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41277&ptid=37278&t=emerging trends of e-business' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Emerging Trends of E-Business </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82530NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82530&tid=41277&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82530NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82530','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82530NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41278" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 116</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/virtual-commerce/41278' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Virtual Commerce </a>  (pages 1160-1166) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Suzanne Altobello Nasco, Robert E. Boostrom, Kesha K. Coker</span></div><div><span title='Virtual reality, in a variety of implementations, is becoming more popular every day. Internet technology originally designed for education, information, and gaming is now three-dimensional, multifunctional, and morphing into loci for international economic activity. The virtual world population is quite immense. In Second Life alone, as of 2007, there was an estimated 3.1 million registered residents (Linden, 2007). There is also much user activity in Second Life with 1.4 million residents logged in within the last 60 days from March 25, 2009 (Second Life, 2009). In fact, the virtual world population is expected to reach 50 - 60 million by 2011 (Au, 2007). Of even greater interest is the revenue generated from virtual world activity. The worldwide virtual world economy is valued at approximately $1.8 billion (Dibbell, 2007). ' style="display:none;"> Virtual reality, in a variety of implementations, is becoming more popular every day. Internet technology originally designed for education... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41278&ptid=37278&t=virtual commerce' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Virtual Commerce </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82531NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82531&tid=41278&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82531NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82531','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82531NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41279" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 117</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/web-trend-implications-modern-business/41279' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> The Web 2.0 Trend: Implications for the Modern Business </a>  (pages 1167-1175) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Michael Dinger, Varun Grover</span></div><div><span title='This article introduces and describes the use of Web 2.0 technologies in contemporary business environments. Web 2.0 refers to many current generation internet technologies that are characterized by rich media, a dynamic nature, social networking elements and distributed contributions. The chapter presents three major Web 2.0 archetypes: blogs, wikis and social networking sites. It concludes with a value-oriented framework designed to guide firms in the development of Web 2.0 initiatives.' style="display:none;"> This article introduces and describes the use of Web 2.0 technologies in contemporary business environments. Web 2.0 refers to many current... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41279&ptid=37278&t=the web 2.0 trend: implications for the modern business' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> The Web 2.0 Trend: Implications for the Modern Business </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82532NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82532&tid=41279&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82532NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82532','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82532NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41280" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 118</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/web-era-user-generated-content/41280' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Web 2.0: The Era of User Generated Content on Web Sites </a>  (pages 1176-1182) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Jos van Iwaarden, Ton van der Wiele, Roger Williams, Steve Eldridge</span></div><div><span title='The Internet has come of age as a global source of information about every topic imaginable. A company like Google has become a household name in Western countries and making use of its internet search engine is so popular that “Googling” has even become a verb in many Western languages. Whether it is for business or private purposes, people worldwide rely on Google to present them relevant information. Even the scientific community is increasingly employing Google’s search engine to find academic articles and other sources of information about the topics they are studying. Yet, the vast amount of information that is available on the internet is gradually changing in nature. Initially, information would be uploaded by the administrators of the web site and would then be visible to all visitors of the site. This approach meant that web sites tended to be limited in the amount of content they provided, and that such content was strictly controlled by the administrators. Over time, web sites have granted their users the authority to add information to web pages, and sometimes even to alter existing information. Current examples of such web sites are eBay (auction), Wikipedia (encyclopedia), YouTube (video sharing), LinkedIn (social networking), Blogger (weblogs) and Delicious (social bookmarking). ' style="display:none;"> The Internet has come of age as a global source of information about every topic imaginable. A company like Google has become a household name in... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41280&ptid=37278&t=web 2.0: the era of user generated content on web sites' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Web 2.0: The Era of User Generated Content on Web Sites </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82533NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82533&tid=41280&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82533NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82533','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82533NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41281" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 119</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/web-concepts-social-software-business/41281' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Web 2.0 Concepts, Social Software and Business Models </a>  (pages 1183-1192) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Matthes Fleck, Andrea von Kaenel, Miriam Meckel</span></div><div><span title='This article provides an overview of the most prominent definitions, basic concepts and applications of the term Web 2.0. In addition to the seven principles outlined by O`Reilly, this article will investigate Anderson’s long tail concept, issues of transparency and the effects of an interconnected user base on E-Business. Later, the focus will shift from the concepts of Web 2.0 towards the social software applications of this new Web era. Blogs, social network sites, wikis, folksonomies and virtual worlds will be explained and their (potential) relevance to e-business will be outlined. The article closes with a brief discussion about the future research directions of Web 2.0 for successful E-Business.' style="display:none;"> This article provides an overview of the most prominent definitions, basic concepts and applications of the term Web 2.0. In addition to the seven... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41281&ptid=37278&t=web 2.0 concepts, social software and business models' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Web 2.0 Concepts, Social Software and Business Models </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82534NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82534&tid=41281&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82534NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82534','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82534NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41282" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 120</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/grounding-principles-governing-web-investments/41282' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Grounding Principles for Governing Web 2.0 Investments </a>  (pages 1193-1202) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Steven De Hertogh, Stijn Viaene</span></div><div><span title='During the early years of the World Wide Web, also commonly referred to as the internet, there was relatively little engagement between content providers and end-users, or between end-users. Although some specialized communities, such as newsgroups, approached the internet as an open, decentralized, participative platform, not many content providers really did. Communication occurred mainly in a top-down, one-to-many, centralized mode of content broadcasting. In many ways the internet remained similar to already existing media such as television or radio. This first era of development is now being referred to as web 1.0. The advent of Web 2.0 has been about embracing the inherently open and social characteristics of the internet. It supports a profound change in communication toward a many-to-many, decentralized format. The latter favors the emergence of bottom-up trends rather than the design of top-down, paternalistically imposed strategies and structures. Web 2.0 applications aspire to make maximal use of the level playing field for engagement offered by the internet, both technologically and socially (O’Reilly, 2005, 2006). The World Wide Web has thereby entered “the realm of sociality” (Bouman et al., 2007), where software becomes fused with everyday social life. Social software applications such as Wikipedia, Facebook and MySpace have all but become household names. ' style="display:none;"> During the early years of the World Wide Web, also commonly referred to as the internet, there was relatively little engagement between content... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41282&ptid=37278&t=grounding principles for governing web 2.0 investments' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Grounding Principles for Governing Web 2.0 Investments </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82535NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82535&tid=41282&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82535NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82535','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82535NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41283" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 121</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/web-web-web/41283' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Web 1.0, Web 2.0 and Web 3.0: The Development of E-Business </a>  (pages 1203-1210) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Tobias Kollmann, Carina Lomberg</span></div><div><span title='Both, Web 1.0 and Web 2.0 were linked directly to new stages in the development of e-business. Whereas the distinction between Web 1.0 and Web 2.0 became widely accepted in literature and practice, we are merely at the beginning of the possibilities arising from current trends culminating in our information society. Information emerges increasingly as a major factor of production, allowing the activation of innovative business opportunities. However, over the past years, a sheer explosion of supplies has taken place. This development is both a blessing and a curse as it leads to an oversupply of information within the World Wide Web. Thus, the time needed for finding required information may take longer eventually. Therefore, a next generation technology is needed being capable to cope with these challenges. Due to the logic of this chain of ideas, Web 3.0 technologies are characterized particularly by demand-orientated systems, i.e. demand for objects and services are at the centre. Starting point are demand-driven registration and specification systems. The consumer is at the centre of these processes and will gain individual help, comparable to an information desk. Not only information but also individual products and services may be released (customized products). ' style="display:none;"> Both, Web 1.0 and Web 2.0 were linked directly to new stages in the development of e-business. Whereas the distinction between Web 1.0 and Web 2.0... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41283&ptid=37278&t=web 1.0, web 2.0 and web 3.0: the development of e-business' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Web 1.0, Web 2.0 and Web 3.0: The Development of E-Business </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82536NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82536&tid=41283&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82536NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82536','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82536NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41284" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 122</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/new-generation-knowledge-management-web/41284' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> The New Generation of Knowledge Management for the Web 2.0 Age: KM 2.0 </a>  (pages 1211-1220) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Emilia Currás, Moez Limayem</span></div><div><span title='Today, due to spurred social (e.g. the “Millennials”) and technological (e.g. Broadband Internet, Mobile Technology, GPS1, Web 2.0), etc) changes, organizations are transformed in an economic environment that is more than ever competitive. In the context of the Social Organization in the Web 2.0 age, collaboration mediated by technology, social networking and virtual communities, culture of awareness and innovation have become new levers to put Collective Intelligence at the service of the organization. In such an organization, all employees can equally participate in creating, using and sharing information and knowledge. The “Individual”- knowledge worker, plays a central role in this case. ' style="display:none;"> Today, due to spurred social (e.g. the “Millennials”) and technological (e.g. Broadband Internet, Mobile Technology, GPS1, Web 2.0), etc) changes... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41284&ptid=37278&t=the new generation of knowledge management for the web 2.0 age: km 2.0' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> The New Generation of Knowledge Management for the Web 2.0 Age: KM 2.0 </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82537NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82537&tid=41284&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82537NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82537','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82537NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41285" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 123</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/recommender-systems-overview/41285' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Recommender Systems: An Overview </a>  (pages 1221-1230) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Young Park</span></div><div><span title='With the explosive growth of goods and services available on the Web through e-commerce, it is increasingly difficult for consumers to find the right products or services. Recommender systems provide consumers with personalized recommendations of goods or services and thus help them find relevant goods or services in the information overload. Since they were introduced a decade ago, recommendation technologies have made significant progress. This article presents a brief overview of recommender systems as an effective and powerful personalization tool in the e-commerce environment. Current major recommendation approaches are described and reviewed within a single unifying recommendation model and future directions are also discussed. Recommender systems and technologies will continue to have an essential role in future e-commerce and e-business.' style="display:none;"> With the explosive growth of goods and services available on the Web through e-commerce, it is increasingly difficult for consumers to find the... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41285&ptid=37278&t=recommender systems: an overview' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Recommender Systems: An Overview </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82538NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82538&tid=41285&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82538NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82538','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82538NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41286" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 124</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/linguistic-recommender-system-academic-orientation/41286' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> A Linguistic Recommender System for Academic Orientation </a>  (pages 1231-1243) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">E. J. Castellano, L. Martínez</span></div><div><span title='Students must face up to decision making situations since early ages, in order to keep on the chase of some professional competences. However, the suitability of people in jobs or studies is not only based on their preferences. Other factors are involved: capacities, skills, social attitudes, etc. that must be taken into account to successfully decide (Salgado, 1996). Many countries have created a so-called advisor figure, whose role is to guide them in decisions regarding their academic future. Advisors consider different criteria and indicators in their task, the key one being the student’s marks. Marks mean much more than a simple assessment: they indicate not only knowledge, but also skills, preferences about fields, attitudes, etc. Advisors generally are required to guide support several hundreds of students and hence analyze large amounts of information. The aim of this contribution is to support them in their task of guiding students by means of Decision Support systems (DSS) that uses students’ marks and provides linguistic information about the choices that students can make. ' style="display:none;"> Students must face up to decision making situations since early ages, in order to keep on the chase of some professional competences. However, the... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41286&ptid=37278&t=a linguistic recommender system for academic orientation' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> A Linguistic Recommender System for Academic Orientation </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82539NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82539&tid=41286&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82539NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82539','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82539NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41287" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#f5f5f5;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 125</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/wireless-technologies-shifting-into-next/41287' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Wireless Technologies: Shifting into the Next Gear? </a>  (pages 1244-1255) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Simona Fabrizi</span></div><div><span title='Mobile Operators (MOs) in several countries are constantly challenged with the urge to further enhance the quality of their existing wireless networks, often dictated by the need to meet the newest technological standards as progress in wireless technologies is made. While the pressure to upgrade wireless networks is constantly felt by MOs in this market, it is not uncommon to observe some MOs upgrading their networks earlier than others. This article provides a theoretical explanation for this apparent paradox of why some MOs postpone the upgrading while others do not. It is shown that in the presence of different types of users - conservative versus quality-seeking - MOs may find it more profitable to adopt asymmetric upgrading strategies. Furthermore, it is argued that the incentives by some MOs not to upgrade are the largest when the share of conservative users in the market is sufficiently high, relative to the additional cost that upgrading entails. In such a case the MOs that do not upgrade their networks enjoy higher profits than the ones that do so.' style="display:none;"> Mobile Operators (MOs) in several countries are constantly challenged with the urge to further enhance the quality of their existing wireless... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41287&ptid=37278&t=wireless technologies: shifting into the next gear?' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Wireless Technologies: Shifting into the Next Gear? </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82540NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82540&tid=41287&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82540NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82540','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82540NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41288" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 126</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/search-engines-past-present-future/41288' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Search Engines: Past, Present and Future </a>  (pages 1256-1265) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Patrick Reid, Des Laffey</span></div><div><span title='This chapter covers key issues in the area of search engines. It shows the importance of search by explaining what search engines are and their significance to business and society. The mechanics of search are outlined which includes developments to the current age. The search market is then covered which stresses Google’s dominance of most national markets. Search engine optimization is then analysed looking at the key factors which determine position. The chapter also looks at the key funding mechanism for search, paid search advertisements. Finally, the article looks at emerging issues in search, including rich media and mobile, and privacy issues.' style="display:none;"> This chapter covers key issues in the area of search engines. It shows the importance of search by explaining what search engines are and their... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41288&ptid=37278&t=search engines: past, present and future' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Search Engines: Past, Present and Future </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82541NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82541&tid=41288&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82541NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82541','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82541NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41289" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 127</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/government-status-quo-future-trends/41289' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> E-Government: Status Quo and Future Trends </a>  (pages 1266-1274) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Tobias Kollmann, Ina Kayser</span></div><div><span title='According to the recent worldwide UN e-government survey, a rising trend towards the electronic reform of the public sector around the world becomes apparent (UNPAN 2008). Hence, the mere processing of detached transactions in government e-services is increasingly replaced by a complex process framework to develop an integrative approach for unidirectional as well as for bidirectional government and citizen (G2C, C2G), government and business (G2B, B2G), and government and government (G2G) communication and services. This article provides an overview of current findings in the realm of e-government and presents future directions of research. Therefore, we perform a keyword analysis of current high-quality research in the field of e-government. ' style="display:none;"> According to the recent worldwide UN e-government survey, a rising trend towards the electronic reform of the public sector around the world becomes... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41289&ptid=37278&t=e-government: status quo and future trends' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> E-Government: Status Quo and Future Trends </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82542NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82542&tid=41289&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82542NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82542','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82542NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41290" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 128</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/blog-marketing-potential-limits/41290' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> Blog Marketing: Potential and Limits </a>  (pages 1275-1283) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Calin Gurau</span></div><div><span title='In the last ten years blogs have become a familiar feature of the Internet landscape, and the number of blogs multiplied exponentially. A blog is a specific form of online community, organised, coordinated and moderated by a person or an organisation, which attracts a number of participants/members, because of the specific topics posted and discussed on the blog web site. The interest of marketers for blog communities was quickly translated in a number of methods designed to enhance online marketing campaigns (Cohen, 2005). ' style="display:none;"> In the last ten years blogs have become a familiar feature of the Internet landscape, and the number of blogs multiplied exponentially. A blog is a... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41290&ptid=37278&t=blog marketing: potential and limits' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> Blog Marketing: Potential and Limits </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82543NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82543&tid=41290&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82543NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82543','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82543NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div><div id="chapter41291" class="listitemouter" style="background-color:#fff;"><div class="listiteminner"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="lnkarea tbllnk"><tr><td valign="top" style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="display:inline-block;"><div style="margin-bottom:7px;font-size:14px;color:#111;">Chapter 129</div><div style="font-size:12px;margin-bottom:7px;"><a id="detailsNoClick" href='/chapter/rfid-enabled-b2b-commerce-technologies/41291' class="lnkarealink" style="display:inline;"> RFID Enabled B2B E-Commerce Technologies and Applications </a>  (pages 1284-1294) </div><div class="info" style="color:#093;"><span class="notranslate">Ygal Bendavid</span></div><div><span title='This article focuses on the emerging phenomenon of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technologies & the EPC Network by examining how it enables innovative B2B E-Commerce supply chain applications. A business process approach is used to facilitate the understanding on HOW to design RFID enabled B2B E-Commerce scenarios. Results indicate that RFID with other ubiquitous computing technologies constitute another step in the evolution from E-Commerce to “U-commerce”.' style="display:none;"> This article focuses on the emerging phenomenon of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technologies & the EPC Network by examining how it enables... </span><span style="display:inline;"><a id="sampleNoClick" href='/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=41291&ptid=37278&t=rfid enabled b2b e-commerce technologies and applications' target="_blank" class="navlinkcsmall">Sample PDF</a></span></div></div><div style="display:none;"> RFID Enabled B2B E-Commerce Technologies and Applications </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="overview-price">$37.50</div><span id="lnkAddToCart82544NoClick" class="add-to-cart" onclick="AddToCart('id=82544&tid=41291&ctid=3&sid=1&p=$37.50&a=Instant Access Upon Order Completion');"></span><span id="lnkQuickAdd82544NoClick" class="quick-add" onclick="AddShoppingCartSessionItem('82544','Instant Access Upon Order Completion','QuickAdd82544NoClick');"></span></td></tr></table></div></div></div><div id="toc-back-materials-container"><div class="listitemouter"><div class="listiteminner" style="padding:5px 0px;"><table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0"><tr><td style="width:477px;padding-left:10px;"><div style="font-size:14px;"> Index </div></td><td valign="top" style="width:102px;text-align:right;"><div class="preview-alt" style="width:93px;"><a id="samplePdfNoClick" href='/pdf.aspx?tid=109343&ptid=37278&ctid=17&t=index' target="_blank" class="sample" style="width:76px;margin:0px 2px 0px 0px;text-align:center;"> View Full PDF </a></div></td></tr></table></div></div></div></div></div></div><div id="key-terms" class="contentareac"><span class="tophash"><a href="#" class="navlinkc">Top</a></span><h2>Key Terms in this Chapter</h2><div class="headerdivider"></div><p><a href="/dictionary/vertical-differentiation/31492">Vertical Differentiation</a>: Different qualities of products or services are offered in the market.</p><p><a href="/dictionary/conservative-users/5399">Conservative Users</a>: Users whose additional valuation for upgraded services does not exceed the additional costs for providing them.</p><p><a href="/dictionary/quality-seeking-users/24311">Quality-Seeking Users</a>: Users whose additional valuation for upgraded services exceeds the additional costs for providing them.</p><p><a href="/dictionary/mobile-operators-mos/18908">Mobile Operators (MOs)</a>: Operators offering mobile Internet services.</p><p><a href="/dictionary/strategic-game/28383">Strategic Game</a>: A game in which each player’s payoff is affected by the combination of actions chosen by this player and every other player – in this article, MOs are players in the strategic upgrading game, where actions are ‘to upgrade’ and ‘not to upgrade’, and payoffs are the profits achievable as a function of all possible combinations of these upgrading decisions.</p><p><a href="/dictionary/individual-rationality-constraint/14152">Individual Rationality Constraint</a>: The incentive an individual economic agent has to participate in a given game. In this article, when this incentive is satisfied a user is ready to accept to subscribe to a network given the subscription fee, the quality and the variety offered by that network.</p><p><a href="/dictionary/horizontal-differentiation/13226">Horizontal Differentiation</a>: Different varieties of products or services are offered in the market.</p><p><a href="/dictionary/upgrading/31074">Upgrading</a>: Improvement of the quality of mobile Internet services.</p><p><a href="/dictionary/nash-equilibrium/19894">Nash Equilibrium</a>: A Nash equilibrium of a strategic game is a profile of strategies , where (is the strategy set of player), such that for each player, and for every , where withbeing the strategies set of any other player but, and where stands for the utility (or payoff, or profits) each player derives as a function of his or her own chosen strategy and the strategy chosen by any other player. Another way to state the Nash equilibrium condition is that solves for each. In other words, in a Nash equilibrium, no player has an incentive to deviate from the strategy chosen, since no player can choose a better strategy given the choices of the other players.</p><p><a href="/dictionary/dominant-strategy/8271">Dominant Strategy</a>: A strategy which is preferred over any other available strategy by one player regardless of what other players’ strategies are.</p></div></div></td></tr></table></td><td valign="top" class="InnerRight"><div class="SidebarRight"><div class="rightouter"><div class="rightheader"> Complete Book </div><div class="rightinner"><strong>$790.00 - $3,390.00</strong><div style="margin-top: 2px; padding-left: 2px;"><a href="/book/encyclopedia-business-development-management-global/37278" id="ctl00_ctl00_cphMain_cphSidebarRightTop_lnkBookPricing" class="navlinkcsmall">View Book Pricing Options</a></div></div></div><div id="ctl00_ctl00_cphMain_cphSidebarRightTop_ucInfoSciOnDemandSidebar_pnlSearch" class="rightouter"><span style="display: none;"><input type="submit" name="ctl00$ctl00$cphMain$cphSidebarRightTop$ucInfoSciOnDemandSidebar$btnSearch" value="" onclick="RemoveSpecialCharacters();" id="ctl00_ctl00_cphMain_cphSidebarRightTop_ucInfoSciOnDemandSidebar_btnSearch" /></span><div class="rightheader"><a href="/infosci-ondemand/search/"><img src="/Images/infosci-ondemand-small.png" alt="InfoSci-OnDemand Powered Search" width="155" height="32" /></a></div><div class="rightinner"><div style="margin-bottom: 7px; 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