Yet Another Workflow Language: Concepts, Tool Support, and Application

Yet Another Workflow Language: Concepts, Tool Support, and Application

Chun Ouyang (Queensland University of Technology, Australia), Michael Adams (Queensland University of Technology, Australia) and Arthur H.M. ter Hofstede (Queensland University of Technology, Australia)
Copyright: © 2009 |Pages: 30
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-288-6.ch005
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Abstract

Due to the absence of commonly accepted conceptual and formal foundations for workflow management, and more generally Business Process Management (BPM), a plethora of approaches to process modelling and execution exists both in academia and in industry. The introduction of workflow patterns provided a deep and language independent understanding of modelling issues and requirements encountered in business process specification. They provide a comparative insight into various approaches to process specification and serve as guidance for language and tool development. YAWL (Yet Another Workflow Language) is a novel and formally defined workflow language based on workflow patterns and Petri nets, thus leveraging off both practical and theoretical insights in the field of BPM. This chapter provides an overview of this language and its corresponding open source support environment.
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Introduction

There exists an abundance of approaches to business process modelling and execution. This is partly due to the lack of commonly accepted conceptual and formal foundations. Standardisation efforts over time, while significant in number and level of industry support, have not (fully) succeeded in providing such foundations. In order to provide a deeper insight into constructs used in business process specification and execution, a collection of workflow patterns was introduced (van der Aalst, ter Hofstede, Kiepuszewski & Barros, 2003). Note that the word “patterns” here refers to components within business processes that have generic applicability and are recurrent in form.

The original patterns collection focussed on control-flow specification only and derived from an analysis of a number of commercially available systems and research prototypes. Over time, this pattern collection was revised (Russell, ter Hofstede, van der Aalst & Mulyar, 2006) and extended with patterns for the data perspective (Russell, ter Hofstede, Edmond & van der Aalst, 2005), the resource perspective (Russell, van der Aalst, ter Hofstede & Edmond, 2005), and exception handling (Russell, van der Aalst & ter Hofstede, 2006). The original control-flow patterns have been used for comparing process modelling languages, tool selection and as a basis for language development.

While Petri nets have a number of distinct advantages for the specification of executable processes (van der Aalst, 1996), they lack sufficient support for a number of the originally identified workflow control-flow patterns (van der Aalst & ter Hofstede, 2002). This observation led to the development of YAWL (Yet Another Workflow Language) (van der Aalst & ter Hofstede, 2005), a formally defined language that took Workflow nets (van der Aalst, 1997), which are based on Petri nets, as a starting point and introduced a number of constructs directly supporting those patterns. As such, YAWL provides powerful support for control-flow specification, and over time an open source support environment was developed which also provided support for the specification of data aspects, resource aspects and exception handling.

It is worthwhile noting that when it comes to the derivation of executable process models, two fundamentally different approaches can be observed. In the first approach emphasis is on the specification of intuitive models, easily understood by the various stakeholders, using an informal language. These models are subsequently to be transformed to models captured in an executable language. A typical example of this approach is BPMN (OMG, 2006) combined with BPEL (Jordan & Evdemon, 2007) (mappings from BPMN to BPEL are, for example, described in (Ouyang, Dumas, van der Aalst, ter Hofstede & Mendling, 2008)).

In the second approach, process models are captured in a formal language of which the models are directly executable. YAWL falls in the latter category and in this chapter this language and its support environment are examined in some depth. Firstly, the workflow patterns are elaborated upon and a brief overview of approaches to process specification is presented. Secondly, the specification of the various aspects involved in business process modelling using YAWL is studied. Thirdly, the support environment of YAWL is examined. Fourthly, we present a case study of the application of the YAWL environment in the film and TV domain. Finally, we conclude the paper briefly listing, among others, a number of current research topics in BPM.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Workflow Pattern: A workflow pattern is a specialized form of a design pattern as defined in the area of software engineering. Workflow patterns refer specifically to recurrent problems and proven solutions related to the development of workflow applications in particular, and more broadly, process-oriented applications.

Workflow: A workflow comprises cases, resources, and triggers that relate to a particular process.

Petri Net: A Petri net is the description of a process in terms of places (capturing conditions), transitions (capturing tasks), and arcs (capturing relation between conditions and tasks). The semantics is always formally defined.

Process Automation: Process automation is the application of software applications, tools and infrastructure to manage routine activities in order to free up employees to handle exceptions or perform more creative work.

Process Modelling: Process modelling is the use of information and graphics to represent processes in a consistent way.

Workflow System: A workflow system is one that supports the workflows in a specific business situation. It usually consists of a workflow management system (e.g. a workflow engine) plus process and resource classification definitions, applications, a database system, and so on.

Process Execution: Process execution is to enact a process according to the process definition (e.g. in format of a process model) using certain software or tools (e.g. a process execution engine or a workflow engine).

Workflow Engine: The workflow engine takes care of the actual management of the workflow. Among other things, it is concerned with task-assignment generation, resource allocation, activity performance, case preparation and modification, the launching of applications, and the recording of logistical information.

YAWL: YAWL stands for Yet Another Workflow Language. It is a process modelling and execution language based on the workflow patterns and Petri nets. YAWL is also the name of the corresponding workflow system that implements the YAWL language.

Process: The definition of a process indicates which tasks must be performed and in what order to successfully complete a case. A process consists of tasks, conditions, and sub-processes.

Complete Chapter List

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Table of Contents
Preface
Jorge Cardoso, Wil van der Aalst
Chapter 1
Tiziana Margaria, Bernhard Steffen
The one thing approach is designed to overcome the classical communication hurdles between application experts and the various levels of IT experts.... Sample PDF
Business Process Modeling in the jABC: The One-Thing Approach
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Chapter 2
Huy Tran, Ta’id Holmes, Uwe Zdun, Schahram Dustdar
This chapter introduces a view-based, model-driven approach for process-driven, service-oriented architectures. A typical business process consists... Sample PDF
Modeling Process-Driven SOAs: A View-Based Approach
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Chapter 3
Stefan Jablonski
This chapter presents a process modeling approach for holistic process management. The main idea is that domain specific process models are required... Sample PDF
Process Modeling for Holistic Process Management
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Chapter 4
Matthias Kloppmann, Dieter Koenig, Simon Moser
This chapter introduces a set of languages intended to model and run business processes. The Business Process Modeling Notation 1.1 (BPMN) is a... Sample PDF
The Dichotomy of Modeling and Execution: BPMN and WS-BPEL
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Chapter 5
Chun Ouyang, Michael Adams, Arthur H.M. ter Hofstede
Due to the absence of commonly accepted conceptual and formal foundations for workflow management, and more generally Business Process Management... Sample PDF
Yet Another Workflow Language: Concepts, Tool Support, and Application
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Chapter 6
Modelling Constructs  (pages 122-141)
Ekkart Kindler
There are many different notations and formalisms for modelling business processes and workflows. These notations and formalisms have been... Sample PDF
Modelling Constructs
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Chapter 7
Kwanghoon Kim, Clarence A. Ellis
This chapter introduces the basic concepts of information control net (ICN) and its workflow models. In principle, a workflow model is the... Sample PDF
ICN-Based Workflow Model and its Advances
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Chapter 8
Manfred Reichert, Peter Dadam
In dynamic environments it must be possible to quickly implement new business processes, to enable ad-hoc deviations from the defined business... Sample PDF
Enabling Adaptive Process-Aware Information Systems with ADEPT2
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Chapter 9
Macello La Rosa, Marlon Dumas, Arthur H.M. ter Hofstede
A reference process model represents multiple variants of a common business process in an integrated and reusable manner. It is intended to be... Sample PDF
Modeling Business Process Variability for Design-Time Configuration
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Chapter 10
Cesare Pautasso
Model-driven architecture (MDA), design and transformation techniques can be applied with success to the domain of business process modeling (BPM)... Sample PDF
Compiling Business Process Models into Executable Code
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Chapter 11
Cinzia Cappiello, Barbara Pernici
This chapter illustrates the concept of repairable processes and self-healing functionalities and discusses about their design requirements.... Sample PDF
Design of Repairable Processes
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Chapter 12
Web Process Adaptation  (pages 245-253)
Kunal Verma
Adaptation is an important concept for Web processes. The author provides an overview of adaptation with respect to control theory and how it is... Sample PDF
Web Process Adaptation
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Chapter 13
Carlo Combi, Giuseppe Pozzi
Time is a very important dimension of any aspect in human life, affecting also information and information management. As such, time must be dealt... Sample PDF
Temporalities for Workflow Management Systems
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Chapter 14
Karsten Ploesser, Nick Russell
This chapter discusses the challenges associated with integrating work performed by human agents into automated workflows. It briefly recounts the... Sample PDF
The People Integration Challenge
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Chapter 15
Dimka Karastoyanova, Tammo van Lessen, Frank Leymann, Zhilei Ma, Joerg Nitzche, Branimir Wetzstein
Even though process orientation/BPM is a widely accepted paradigm with heavy impact on industry and research the available technology does not... Sample PDF
Semantic Business Process Management: Applying Ontologies in BPM
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Chapter 16
Hernani Mourao, Pedro Antunes
In this chapter the authors propose a solution to handle unexpected exceptions in WfMS. They characterize these events deeply and recognize that... Sample PDF
Using WfMS to Support Unstructured Activities
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Chapter 17
Guillermo Jimenez
In this chapter the authors introduce the role of a business process engineer (BPE) and necessary competencies to define, simulate, analyze, and... Sample PDF
Business Process Engineering
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Chapter 18
Christoph Bussler
This chapter introduces the application of process management to business-to-business (B2B) integration and enterprise application integration... Sample PDF
B2B and EAI with Business Process Management
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Chapter 19
Paul Grefen
This chapter is devoted to automated support for interorganizational business process management, that is, formation and enactment of business... Sample PDF
Systems for Interorganizational Business Process Management
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Chapter 20
Guido Governatori, Shazia Sadiq
It is a typical scenario that many organisations have their business processes specified independently of their business obligations (which includes... Sample PDF
The Journey to Business Process Compliance
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Chapter 21
M. Castellanos, A.K. Alves de Medeiros, J. Mendling, B. Weber, A.J.M.M. Weijters
Business Process Intelligence (BPI) is an emerging area that is getting increasingly popular for enterprises. The need to improve business process... Sample PDF
Business Process Intelligence
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Chapter 22
Diogo R. Ferreira
This chapter introduces the principles of sequence clustering and presents two case studies where the technique is used to discover behavioral... Sample PDF
Applied Sequence Clustering Techniques for Process Mining
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Chapter 23
Kamal Bhattacharya, Richard Hull, Jianwen Su
This chapter describes a design methodology for business processes and workflows that focuses first on “business artifacts”, which represent key... Sample PDF
A Data-Centric Design Methodology for Business Processes
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Chapter 24
Laura Sanchez, Andrea Delgado, Francisco Ruiz, Felix Garcia, Mario Piattini
The underlying premise of process management is that the quality of products and services is largely determined by the quality of the processes used... Sample PDF
Measurement and Maturity of Business Processes
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