|Total results: 27||
|Nuclear Power Plant Instrumentation and Control Systems for Safety and Security
Michael Yastrebenetsky, Vyacheslav Kharchenko.
Accidents and natural disasters involving nuclear power plants such as Chernobyl, Three Mile Island, and the recent meltdown at Fukushima are rare, but their effects are devastating enough to warrant increased vigilance in addressing safety concerns.
Nuclear Power Plant Instrumentation and Control...
Optimum Design of Renewable Energy Systems: Microgrid and Nature Grid Methods
The management of global warming is a relevant issue throughout the world and has experts of various fields considering various methods to control Earth’s atmospheric temperature. While microgrid technology is emerging as the next generation energy supply system, renewable energy is often unstable and...
Michael Yastrebenetsky, Yuri Rozen.
This chapter contains definitions of the main terms in this book—Instrumentation and Control (I&C) system, individual and overall I&C system, central part of the I&C system and peripheral equipment, Software-Hardware Complex (SHC), Commercial Of The Shelf (COTS) products, and equipment family...
International Standard Bases and Safety Classification
Michael Yastrebenetsky, Grygoriy Gromov.
The main standard bases for NPP I&C systems are documents of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). Standards are interconnected through the following: IAEA develops general safety principles for NPP I&C systems, and IEC develops technical...
Properties of Safety Important I&C Systems and their Components
Operation reliability of NPP I&C and its components is considered in this chapter. Besides quantitative measures, qualitative features that provide required functional reliability such as protection against Common Cause Failures (CCF), single-failure criterion, redundancy, diversity, prevention of...
Field Programmable Gate Array Technology for NPP I&Cs
Vladimir Sklyar, Anton Andrashov, Eugene Babeshko, Andriy Kovalenko.
FPGA is a convenient technology that is being applied intensively to build I&CS for critical industries like NPPs. Practical experience confirms that in some cases application of the FPGA technology is much more reasonable than application of other technologies like microprocessors, etc. Experience of...
Software of Safety Important I&C Systems
Vyacheslav Kharchenko, Vladimir Sklyar, Andriy Volkoviy.
Features of software as a component of Instrumentation and Control (I&C) systems are analyzed. Attention is paid to the importance of functions performed by software and hazards of such software. Requirements for characteristics of software as a component of I&C systems are analyzed. Different...
Diversity and Multi-Version Systems
Alexander Siora, Vladimir Sklyar, Vyacheslav Kharchenko, Eugene Brezhnev.
To protect safety-critical systems from common-cause failures that can lead to potentially dangerous outcomes, special methods are applied, including multi-version technologies operating at different levels of diversity. A model representing different diversity types during the development of...
Security of Safety Important I&C Systems
Vyacheslav Kharchenko, Andriy Kovalenko, Anton Andrashov.
One of the most challenging modern problems—security assessment and assurance for safety important I&C systems—is discussed. Interrelations and hierarchical structure of I&C systems attributes, including safety and security, are considered. Review of existing regulatory documents that covers various...
Overall Instrumentation and Control Systems
Yuri Rozen, Grygoriy Gromov, Vladislav Inyushev.
Chapter 8 considers design principles of Overall Instrumentation and Control (OI&C) systems implemented at Ukrainian NPPs. The first section provides brief information on controlled objects—power units with reactors WWER, which are operated at Ukrainian NPPs. The main principles and features for...
Emergency and Preventive Reactor Protection Systems
Yuri Rozen, Svetlana Vinogradska, Alexander Siora.
In Chapter 9, Emergency and Preventive Reactor Protection (E&PRP) systems implemented at the Ukrainian NPPs during 2003-2013 are considered. The core of E&PRP systems is formed by software-hardware complexes (SHC E&PRP) developed on the base of the Research and Production Corporation “Radiy” equipment...
Rod Group and Individual Control System
Yuri Rozen, Alexander Siora.
Chapter 10 considers the Rod Group and Individual Control (RG&IC) system, which is one of the individual I&C systems and a part of the reactor control and protection system. RG&IC is an actuation system, which performs functions initiated by emergency and preventive reactor protection, reactor power...
Safety Parameters Display Systems
The chapter contains a description of Safety Parameters Display Systems (SPDS) implemented at NPP units WWER-1000 of Ukraine. These systems were designed by Westinghouse Electric Corporation (USA). LLC “Westron” (Ukraine) took development and implementation of these systems. These systems were provided...
NPP: Power Grid Mutual Safety Assessment
Eugene Brezhnev, Vyacheslav Kharchenko.
The problem of the safe interaction between a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) and a Power Grid (PG), considering the Fukushima nuclear accident, is becoming topical. There are a lot different types of influences between NPPs and PG, which stipulate NPPs’ safety levels. To evaluate the influences, two metrics...
Operating Schedule of a Combined Energy Network System
This chapter consists of two sections, ‘Operating Schedule of a Combined Energy Network System with Fuel Cell’ and ‘Fuel Cell Network System Considering Reduction in Fuel Cell Capacity Using Load Leveling and Heat Release Loss’. The chromosome model showing system operation pattern is applied to GA...
Dynamic Characteristics of a Fuel Cell System and Microgrid
This chapter consists of two sections, ‘Load Response Characteristics of a Fuel Cell Microgrid with Control of Number of Units’ and ‘Dynamic Characteristics of a PEFC System for Individual Houses’. The dynamic characteristics and generation efficiency of a microgrid structured from 17 houses are...
Effective Improvement in Generation Efficiency of a Fuel Cell Microgrid
This chapter consists of two sections, ‘Effective Improvement in Generation Efficiency due to Partition Cooperation Management of a Fuel Cell Microgrid’ and ‘Equipment Plan of Compound Interconnection Microgrid Composed from Diesel Power’. In the 1st section, the PEFC microgrid is explored as a...
Installation Plan of a Fuel Cell Cogeneration System
This chapter consists of two sections, ‘Installation Plan of a Fuel Cell Microgrid System Optimized by Maximizing Power Generation Efficiency’ and ‘Fuel Cell Network with Water Electrolysis for Improving Partial Load Efficiency of a Residential Cogeneration System.’ A microgrid that use PEFC may...
Fuel Cell Microgrid with Wind Power Generation
This chapter consists of two sections, ‘Analysis of a Fuel Cell Microgrid with a Small-Scale Wind Turbine Generator’ and ‘Power Characteristics of a Fuel Cell Microgrid with Wind Power Generation.’ An independent microgrid is expected to be effective in cutting greenhouse gas discharge and energy...
Compound Microgrid of City-Gas Engine and Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell
This chapter consists of two sections, ‘Amount of CO2 Discharged from Compound Microgrid of Hydrogenation City-Gas Engine and Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell’ and ‘Power Characteristics of a Fuel Cell Microgrid with Wind Power Generation’. In the 1st section, a microgrid composed from a PEFC and a...
Independent Microgrid Composed of Distributed Engine Generator
This chapter consists of two sections, ‘Energy Cost of an Independent Microgrid with Control of Power Output Sharing of a Distributed Engine Generator’ and ‘Improvement of Power Generation Efficiency of an Independent Microgrid Composed of Distributed Engine Generators’. In the 1st section, small...
Design Support Using a Neural Network Algorithm
This chapter consists of two sections, ‘Dynamic Operational Scheduling Algorithm for an Independent Microgrid with Renewable Energy’ and ‘Operation Prediction of a Bioethanol Solar Reforming System Using a Neural Network’. In the 1st section, a dynamic operational scheduling algorithm is developed...
Microgrid with Numerical Weather Information
This chapter consists of two sections, ‘Compound Microgrid Installation Operation Planning of a PEFC and Photovoltaics with Prediction of Electricity Production Using GA and Numerical Weather Information’ and ‘Energy Supply Characteristics of a Combined Solar Cell and Diesel Engine System with a...