3D Web Services for Visualization and Data Sharing in 3D Cadastre

3D Web Services for Visualization and Data Sharing in 3D Cadastre

Ali Zare Zardiny (School of Surveying and Geospatial Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran) and Farshad Hakimpour (School of Surveying and Geospatial Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran)
Copyright: © 2015 |Pages: 15
DOI: 10.4018/IJ3DIM.2015100101
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Abstract

Land has an essential role in any society, either as one of the most important capitals of mankind or as a place for people's life and activities. Therefore, registration of ownership and land use rights in a formal system is a major issue. In different countries, Cadastre systems can register extent, rights, restrictions and responsibilities related to land parcels. Many organizations such as municipality, tax and banks need to this information for planning and decision making. Considering the needs for land information by different organizations, access to cadastre data gains a lot of importance. Despite this importance, access to cadastre information encounter with different challenges such as differences in platforms or data structures and access to semantic and geometric data. The main goal of this research is to overcome these challenges and to improve the interoperability in sharing and accessing 3D cadastre data and challenges. This paper investigates capabilities of current 3D Spatial Web Services: WFS, WVS, WTS and W3DS as well as advantages of using these 3D services for access to 3D cadastre data. The authors also combined the legal classes of LADM with geometrical classes of CityGML for transferring the semantic and geometric cadastre data. Finally, some prospects of using 3D Web Services will be illustrated through implementation the scenarios. The most important advantages of using 3D Spatial Web Services in cadastre are on the fly construction and on demand presentation of 3D cadastral model, facilitating of access to legal and descriptive cadastre information, no necessity to user's awareness of data structure in cadastre database and compatibility with different levels of users.
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1. Introduction

Land has specific role in various aspects of human life such as economic, social and legal. Accordingly, Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) introduces land as one of the most important capitals of men in any society (Kalantari, 2008). In legal aspect, land is a volume of space from centre of earth to infinite sky that contains different rights such as ownership rights and land use rights. Therefore, in order to perform better land management, registration of these rights in cadastre system is a major issue. Current cadastre system divides land to 2D parcels and registers certain legal rights for any parcel. In addition to registration of land rights, presentation of these rights is a major issue because “in some situations, legal rights are tightly attached to the physical object like an apartment or underground construction which makes the visualization indispensable” (Wang et al, 2012, p. 6). Although 2D cadastre can register the rights and restriction related to land, it has several limitations for representing these rights. Some of these limitations are:

  • Representation of multiple ownership rights for a 2D parcel (Fiqure1.a)

  • Representation of interference in the land rights (Fiqure1.b)

  • Representation of rights of easement

  • Representation of rights of superficies

  • Representation of rights for underground buildings and urban infrastructures (Figure 1.c)

  • Representation of several independent land use for a parcel (Fiqure1.d)

Figure 1.

Some limitation of 2D cadastre

These limitations find more significance by urban growth and rapid developments of multilevel structural constructions above and below land parcels. 3D cadastre by considering elevation for parcels can overcome these limitations (Stoter, 2004). “3D cadastre is a discrete division of 3D urban geospace, and many urban features, such as buildings, parks, tunnels/metro, underground constructions and overcrossing buildings are the 3D cadastral entities” (Ying et al, 2012, p.4). Using 3D geometry and 3D topology, land rights are transferred from 2D space to 3D space. In different analyses, for example in subway’s route designing, we need to 3D cadastre data. In fact, in the new generation of cadastre systems, the vertical boundaries for parcels are defined along the horizontal boundaries and 2D maps are replaced by 3D representation. Visualization of 3D cadastre allows graphical means to communicate complexity of overlapping situations and helps users to spatially comprehend such situations.

Another important issue related to cadastre is access to geometrical data. Cadastre by registration of land rights is known as a main data source in land information management. Different organizations such as tax, legal, judicial, disaster management organizations and municipality require land information. Most important government uses of 3D cadastre are their management and decision making support. For example, in planning and disaster management applications, online access and visualization of 3D cadastral data are often effective (Aditya, 2011). 3D representation of parcels and buildings needs to be visualized on top of the terrain and flood hazard map of the area as a 3D view. 3D visualization provides convincing perspectives for community and decision makers in the flood disaster responses (Aditya, 2011). In addition to this, municipalities often favour the management and application of a 3D cadastral system in urban space to plan and make decisions for future urban space and future land use. Nevertheless, access to cadastre information faces some limitations such as:

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