A Criminological Study of the Socioeconomic Factors of Criminality Among Pakistani Females

A Criminological Study of the Socioeconomic Factors of Criminality Among Pakistani Females

Naima Saeed (Department of Criminology, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan), Tansif Ur Rehman (Area Study Centre for Europe, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan) and Mehmood Ahmed Usmani (Department of Sociology, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan)
Copyright: © 2018 |Pages: 11
DOI: 10.4018/IJCESC.2018100102

Abstract

The concept of female criminality is complicated and exhibits itself with diversified attributes in various countries. In Pakistani society, women have been largely involved in brutal criminal acts with the change in social aspects, such as economic conditions, illiteracy, violence against women, family environment, customs and traditions; which indicates an alarming situation in the country. The deprivations, desires, burden, and lack of the respective needs turn a woman into a criminal in the expression to release an outburst. The findings reveal that education plays an important role in the socialization and character building of women. Most of the illiterate and young females who belonged to the urban background are involved in crime. Female criminals reported that they have committed a crime due to a financial problem, unemployment of the husband and the need of money for the upbringing of their children. These socioeconomic conditions made them compulsive to involve in criminality.
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Female Criminality

Female criminality refers to any act that is forbidden or omitted by law and is performed by women in different circumstances due to any reason or in its simplest sense, it is an act of crime committed by any women. With more advancement and independence in different fields, this freedom and mobility have also increased the chances of criminality of women in the world of crime.

This study has been designed to highlight the factors that instigate a female to commit a crime. Sometimes women commit crime intentionally to take revenge or for pleasure, and even greed could be the main reason behind it, but sometimes this act is committed unintentionally, i.e., self-defense or for the safeguard of her children and other family members. There are also other causes that have been presented by many theorists and criminologists about the involvement of females in criminality.

In Pakistan, the situation has become complex and it is a pathological disorder of the society. This problem is grasping the attention of social scientists as it has to be either eliminated or at least minimized because its presence is detrimental to the whole society.

Socioeconomic Status and Criminality of Women

Ellen Adelberg and Claudia Currie (1993) suggest that there exists a connection between the socioeconomic condition and female criminality. With regards to correctional workers, women who enter into confrontation with the criminal justice system are often adolescent, undereducated, unskilled, as well as poor.

The majority is drugs and alcohol addict. Mostly happens to be the sufferer of sexual and physical abuse, as a lot of women are psychologically as well as economically dependent upon abusive males. Though, this outline is very different from the image of a liberated and independent female (Adelberg & Currie, 1993).

They have also identified that, “Their (women’s) offenses are concentrated in the types of property crimes that could be considered a mean of survival in a time when employment options for women with low education and few job skills are becoming increasingly restricted.” (p. 112).

The Causes of Crime Among Pakistani Females

The scenario of females in Pakistan not uniform. The condition varies, dependent on the social class as well as physical presence. The condition of females is somewhat improved in a metropolitan, middle, along with upper-class segments of contemporary society, because there exist better prospects for paid professional work and higher education in addition to it the women’s social mobility is relatively less confined.

Irrespective of the comparative advantage of females in a few segments, females from almost all areas of life in Pakistan continue as subsequent individuals. Seventy-five percent of the Pakistani female population of over fifty million is rural and the general causes of crime among females in Pakistan are varied (Bibi, 2006).

Family Environment

While studying crime and delinquency, family environment as a pertinent element has always been recognized because of its significance. As it is the primary institution with regards to the development of a child’s potential, i.e., physical, emotional, spiritual, intellectual, social as well as moral.

Other aspects usually do not enter a child’s life initial highly formative years. Family defines circumstances, place, as well time as under which these requirements can be satisfied in accordance with the social norms.

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