A Lifetime Forecast Scheme for a Distributed Low Duty Cycle Multi-Hop Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

A Lifetime Forecast Scheme for a Distributed Low Duty Cycle Multi-Hop Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

Oliver Stecklina (IHP, Frankfurt, Germany), Peter Langendörfer (IHP, Frankfurt, Germany) and Christian Goltz (OpenSynergy GmbH, Berlin, Germany)
DOI: 10.4018/ijbdcn.2013100101

Abstract

Wireless sensor nodes become more and more attractive for a broad variety of application scenarios. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) can be easily deployed and they require by design low maintenance effort. But running installations are still rare, because real world requirements and environmental conditions are even today a big challenge. Especially in multi-hop networks a minimum lifetime of several years cannot be achieved globally. In this paper, the authors present a Distributed Low Duty Cycle (DLDC) based Multi-Hop Routing (MHR) protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks guaranteeing a minimum network lifetime. The authors introduce a forecast scheme to calculate the expected life of a node with a minimal effort. The authors are convinced that by using a forecast scheme the network topology and the used protocols can be easily optimized before deploying the network. The authors evaluated their forecast scheme by measuring real sensor node parameters and simulating an example network in the Castalia simulation framework. The authors demonstrated that by using the proposed scheme an energy consumption forecast with a deviation of less than three per cent can be achieved.
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Mac And Routing In Wsns

In the literature several MAC approaches are discussed. Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) as a classic approach splits the time in slots, where every node gets a transmit and a receive slot. Slots are arranged so that neighboring nodes do not use the same time slot. Synchronization and time division will be provided and controlled by a base station. But in a globally applied TDMA all nodes of a network are controlled by a single base station. In complex networks with a multi-hop structure and long life-time a single base station approach becomes infeasible (El-Hoiydi, 2002). For managing large multi-hop networks a local TDMA scheme is used, where a complex network is clustered in multiple single hop networks (Zhang et al., 2009). Each cluster will be controlled by a cluster head, which operates as a TDMA base station. The cluster heads can be controlled by a global TDMA scheme.

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