A New Spread Spectrum Based Approach for Ensuring Energy Efficiency and Security in Wireless Sensor Networks

A New Spread Spectrum Based Approach for Ensuring Energy Efficiency and Security in Wireless Sensor Networks

Nejla Rouissi (National Engineering School of Manouba University, Manouba, Tunisia), Hamza Gharsellaoui (University College, Taif University, Khurma, Saudi Arabia) and Sadok Bouamama (FCIT, Jeddah University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia)
DOI: 10.4018/IJAPUC.2018100104

Abstract

Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) play a central role in the Internet of Things (IoT). It consists of small-size sensor nodes connected to the internet through gateways providing content rich information. So, the traffic transmission between sensor nodes over radio links requires highly bandwidth and needs to ensure the reliability of the data. Therefore, providing safe communications of sensor data over wireless communication channel plays an essential role. Thus, the important issue on wireless sensor networks is to find an optimal schema that ensuring energy efficiency together with the security. In contrast, implementing traditional cryptographic algorithms is not very well suited for WSNs nodes. In this article, a novel combination of spread spectrum into watermarking scheme is presented. This watermarking schema based on direct-frequency-time spread spectrum secures data communication against jamming and falsification to ensure data integrity and increases resistance to interference at the same time ensures the energy efficiency.
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1. Introduction

Today, with the rapid technological development of sensors, WSNs will become the key technology for IoT, they consist of distributed sensors to monitor the physical conditions with their applications used in smart city, telemedicine, smart home and other fields. The basic characteristic of IoT is the comprehensive perception, reliable transmission, and intelligent processing of information. Due to the energy limited constraint and limited bandwidth availability and the relatively high power of narrowband. Interference in WSNs can strongly get affected and lose their availability and performance which necessitates the need for more efficient modulation algorithms. So, the traffic transmission between sensor nodes via Cluster-Heads (CHs) to the base station (BS) over radio links requires highly bandwidth. Thus, WSNs require more resources in terms of processing capability, memory storage and battery. Thus, the important issue on wireless sensor networks is to find an optimal schema that ensuring energy efficiency together with the security. In contrast, therefore, providing safe communications of sensor data over wireless communication channel plays an essential role. So, cryptography is effective technique that provides integrity to sensed data. In brief, cryptography allows to secure communication by protecting information for transforming original unprotected information into unreadable secure data in the presence of adversaries. However, implementing traditional cryptographic algorithms is not very well suited for Internet of Things (IoT). So, a current limitation of these traditional schemes can be extracted by an attacker through a compromised node and delivering a falsification to a base station (BS). In this case, this drawback could be overcome by using watermarking technique because it has light requirements for resources. Therefore, digital watermarking technology has the following advantages in comparison with the traditional encryption technology; first, the low energy consumption: because the embedding and extraction watermark process uses lightweight calculations. Second, no additional overhead for network communication and storage capacity of nodes in WSNs: because the watermarks information is directly integrated into the carrier data. Third, the watermarks can always guarantee the data security: because once the encrypted data is decrypted, the protection of the encryption technique loses its effect, but as the inseparable part of the host carrier (Guoyin. Zhang, 2017). In this way, the watermarking techniques recently emerged as an effective solution to preserve the security and copyright of the data. In this context, the recently scheme works (Dragoi. IC, 2015), (Ding. Q, 2015), (Guoyin. Zhang, 2017) based on watermarking techniques insures only the data confidentiality and data integrity. So, the originality of this journal approach is that the jamming attack into watermarking scheme is treated, thus it’s the first work in this context. Jamming is the type of attack that interferes with the radio frequencies used by network nodes. In cases where an attacker trying to jam the radio channel with a strong signal, functioning sensor networks will be unavailable and out of service because with watermarking schemes based on Direct Sequence, Frequency Hopping, Time-Hopping spread spectrum, the location of the modulation bit is unknown to the adversary, it’s not able to produce the same watermark generation process by modulating watermark. The work presented in this journal paper is concerned with a novel combination of spread spectrum into watermarking scheme. With watermarking schemes based on Direct Sequence, Frequency Hopping, Time-Hopping spread spectrum to secure data communication against jamming and falsification to ensure data integrity and increases resistance to interference at the same time ensure the energy efficiency. The proposed DFT-SS-Watermark scheme is inspired by previous papers works (Rouissi, 2017, 2016) the spread spectrum approach into watermarking scheme. To this end, the implemented simulation of DFT-SS-Watermark approach is done with the MATLAB tool simulator and the evaluation of security and energy is made to perform a comparative analysis of this technique with other techniques proposed by different researchers. The remainder of this journal paper is organized as follows. In background and related works Section, the existing WSNs security mechanisms based on watermarking and some preliminaries and concepts used in this approach are reviewed. Section 3 presents the proposed DFT-Spread Spectrum-Watermark scheme. Section 4 presents the experimentation steps and results. Finally, section 5 concludes the paper work.

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