A Review of BIM Adoption in Turkey: Practitioners' Viewpoint

A Review of BIM Adoption in Turkey: Practitioners' Viewpoint

Mustafa Nabi Kocakaya (Istanbul University-Cerrahpaşa, Istanbul, Turkey), Osman Hürol Türkakin (Istanbul University-Cerrahpaşa, Istanbul, Turkey) and Ömer Giran (Istanbul University-Cerrahpaşa, Istanbul, Turkey)
Copyright: © 2018 |Pages: 10
DOI: 10.4018/IJ3DIM.2018100104

Abstract

BIM has been initiated in developing countries in recent years. It is a fact that adopting BIM has a large cost from the initiation of the implementation of the projects. This is the main reason that, in the company perspective, BIM methodology is not well-known at the beginning of a project, during the adaptation stage. Therefore, the transition to such a new system is quite costly, especially in terms of software licenses and personnel training. On the other hand, after some period of time, BIM starts to impact the progress of the projects in a positive way, such as the project becomes more transparent and more visible, as well as more manageable and controllable. So, the main outcome is the company starts to complete projects within a shorter duration and lower cost by using BIM. At the initial stage, BIM implementation investment is quite high, however in later stages these costs become more affordable. The main issue is quantifying effects and inserting to the evaluation of the investment. In this study, we proposed an interview analysis to conclude the keypoints of BIM adoption.
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Introduction

Nowadays, BIM methodology is a wide-spread discipline for modeling construction structures with accessing and monitoring construction data. With increasing computer technology (IT), BIM tools have become more accessible. In fact, the first usage of BIM is quite old. In as early as the 1970s, three-dimensional modeling began to be developed, depending on the first computer-aided design (CAD) studies in quite a few industries. While many industrial economists have developed integrated analysis tools and object-based parametric modeling that form the core concept of BIM, the construction industry has long been dependent on traditional 2D designs (Eastman, Teicholz, Sacks, & Liston, 2011).

There are various definitions for BIM methodology. The most well-known definition has made by the Associated General Contractors of America (AGC) as “a data-rich object-oriented, intelligent and parametric digital representation of the facility, from which views and data appropriate to various users' needs can be extracted and analyzed to generate information that can be used to make decisions and improve the process of delivering the facility.” (Ernstrom, 2006).

BIM usage is increased and popularized in recent years. In the report of McGraw Hill company, statistical representation of BIM adoption by countries is presented and it is concluded that the ratio of BIM adoption is increased between the years 2013 and 2015. It is concluded that countries started to recognize the advantages of BIM usage (McGraw Hill Construction, 2014). Since 1997, BIM has been boosted in Singapore, and in present-day, for it is a mandatory tool for variety of developing project drawings as well as for approvals and certifications in present-day (Wong, Wong, & Nadeem, 2009). On the other side, BIM is still used for only the early stage designing in Hong Kong (Chan, 2014). Nevertheless, as growing awareness of benefits of BIM, usage habits are shifted to different areas in Hong Kong, that is why users discerned benefits of BIM such as clash detection, producing alternative designs and plans and spotting design error at early stages. On the other hand, BIM will be able to merge with construction techniques that are being currently developed. For instance, in the statement of the Hong Kong Institute of Building Information Modelling and the Hong Kong Construction Industry Council, automated construction will be primer trend in the sector and will start to be synchronized with BIM for execution and project management (Chan, Olawumi, & Ho, 2019). In the case of Africa, BIM adoption and implementation are quite low despite BIM awareness (Ogwueleka, 2015). In South Africa, there are different issues that obstruct BIM adoption which are contractual issues, lack of skills and knowledge of personnel and increase in the population (Kekana, Aigbavboa, & Thwala, 2014). Over the globe, despite there are various frameworks and implementation models cite, there are still insufficiencies on practical BIM adoption. Gerges et.al (2017) approached this conclusion with comparing statuses in both developed and developing countries. And from this point, the practical outcomes of BIM should be boosted instead of potential advantages.

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