A Study on Cavitation Erosion Behavior of Different Metals in Biomass Fuel/Diesel Blend

A Study on Cavitation Erosion Behavior of Different Metals in Biomass Fuel/Diesel Blend

Huiqiang Yu (Institute of Tribology, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, China), Hu Wang (Institute of Tribology, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, China), Hengzhou Wo (Institute of Tribology, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, China), Yufu Xu (Institute of Tribology, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, China) and Xianguo Hu (Institute of Tribology, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, China)
DOI: 10.4018/ijseims.2013070102
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Abstract

The cavitation erosion behavior of different metals, such as pure copper (Cu), steel GCr15 (ASTM A295) and stainless steel 1Cr18Ni9Ti (ASTM A276 321), in the emulsified biomass fuel/diesel (10wt% biomass fuel in blend with diesel fuel) was investigated by using a magnetostrictive-induced cavitation vibratory apparatus. The morphology of surface was observed by optical microscope and scanning electron microscope, and the cavitation erosion rates of three metals were evaluated by mass loss method. The surface compositions after cavitation erosion were analyzed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The experimental results showed that the surface morphologies and elements of Cu and GCr15 were changed greatly before and after cavitation erosion in the emulsified biomass fuel/diesel blend, as contrast to 1Cr18Ni9Ti. The degree order of cavitation erosion among three metals was Cu, GCr15 and 1Cr18Ni9Ti, because that the anti-corrosion effect of 1Cr18Ni9Ti played a great role in the mass loss by cavitation erosion.
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2. Experimental Procedures

Figure 1 shows that schematics of the ultrasonic vibration cavitation erosion apparatus. The vibration horn performs an axial vibration with the frequency of 20kHz and the amplitude of 60μm. Cavitation tests were carried out in emulsified biomass fuel/diesel with different components. Since the test liquid temperature markedly affects the degree of erosion and impact pressure (Ahmed, 1997), the temperature was kept within 25±2°C by circulating cooling water around the beaker.

Figure 1.

Schematics of the cavitation experimental apparatus (1. water inlet, 2. cooling water, 3. container wall, 4. transducer, 5. vibratory horn and sample, 6. breaker, 7. water outlet, 8. ultrasonic generator)

GCr15 is one kind of nozzle materials with the process of spheroidization annealing. The sample was designed according to the ASTM standard of the vibration cavitation erosion system (ASTM, 1995); the working surfaces were polished by 800# emery paper. What was more, in order to fix the sample in the vibration horn, the back-end of samples was processed into thread shapes. As reference metals, the pure copper and stainless steel 1Cr18Ni9Ti were selected and prepared to compare their cavitation erosion performances with GCr15. Their pretreatment procedures were the same with those of GCR15 before cavitation tests. The chemical compositions of test metal samples were shown in Table 1.

Table 1.
Chemical compositions of three kinds of metal samples
MetalC (%)O (%)Cr (%)Fe (%)Si (%)Cu (%)Mn (%)Ni (%)
Cu0.61.3498.06
1Cr18Ni9Ti0.1417.9372.290.990.757.90
GCr151.020.411.3496.760.120.35

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