A Study on the Parameters in Hard Turning of High Speed Steel

A Study on the Parameters in Hard Turning of High Speed Steel

Krishnaraj Vijayan (PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, India), N. Gouthaman (PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, India) and Tamilselvan Rathinam (PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, India)
DOI: 10.4018/IJMFMP.2018070101


The objectives of hard turning of high speed steel (HSS-M2 Grade) are to investigate the effect of cutting parameters on cutting force, tool wear and surface integrity. This article presents the experimental results of heat treated high speed steel machined in a CNC lathe using cubic boron nitride (CBN) tools. Turing experiments were carried out using central composite design (CCD) method. From the experiments the influence of cutting parameters and their interactions on cutting forces, temperature and surface roughness (Ra) were analyzed. Following this, multi response optimization was done to find the best combination of parameters for minimum force, minimum temperature and minimum surface roughness. The experimental results showed that the most contributing factors were feed followed by depth of cut and spindle speed. A white layer formed during hard turning was also analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the results showed that it was greatly influenced by the speed and depth of cut. Tool wear was experiments were conducted at the optimum cutting conditions and it was noted that the tool satisfactorily performed up to 10 minutes at dry condition.
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1. Introduction

Heated treaded steels are preferred due to their higher wear resistance and high strength. They are machined to the final shape and size in the hardened state. These hardened steels have been traditionally machined to finish geometries by abrasive processes such as grinding and polishing and in few cases by electrical discharge machining. The current trend is to finish the hard part directly in CNC machines for industrial requirement. The present research work involves an experimental investigation on machining of hardened AISI M2 high speed steel. M2 steel is a molybdenum based high speed steel, having a density of 8.16 g/cm3 and a melting point of 4680°C. The researchers have worked upon many aspects of hard turning and came up with their own recommendations about the process. The process is essentially a high speed, low feed rate and low depth of cut finishing process. The cutting speeds used for machining of hardened AISI 4340 steel were from 100 m/min to 150 m/min, feeds in the range of 0.1 mm/rev to 0.2 mm/rev, whereas depth of cut was maintained as 0.25 mm (Abhijeet et al., 2006). The suitable machining parameters for minimum surface roughness while machining of using Nimonic alloy was found to a cutting speed of 54 m/min with a feed of 0.05 mm/rev. Machining parameters have significant role on surface quality (Ezilarasan et al., 2011).

Several researchers have reported that the cutting forces are influenced by a number of factors such as cutting conditions, cutting time, work piece hardness and tool geometry (Thakur et al., (2014), Ezilarasan et al., (2013)). As the machining involves a workpiece material of above 45 HRC, the forces generated are expected to be high, so as per convention a harder tool material with low wearing capabilities is required. Mostly the researchers have used CBN, PCBN and coated CBN tool inserts for the purpose. Few researchers have even used ceramics as well as WC coated with TiN or CBN–TiN cutting tools (Abhijeet et al., (2006), Grezesik et al., (2006), Dessoly et al., (2004)). Lima et al., (2005) reported that the three machining force components, namely, cutting force, feed force and thrust force decrease with increase in cutting speed. The highest tool life was obtained at the lowest feed & speed combination. At low cutting speeds, high cutting forces are encountered due to low cutting temperature and built up edge formation. High speeds result in high cutting temperature thus reduced forces due to thermal softening of the workpiece material (Ebrahimi et al., 2009; Lin et al., 2008). Many researchers reported that the force conditions in hard turning were different from those in conventional turning; i.e. the radial force was dominant rather than the tangential force for most of the tool geometries except variable edge hone radius tool.

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