A Systems Overview of Commercial Data Centers: Initial Energy and Cost Analysis

A Systems Overview of Commercial Data Centers: Initial Energy and Cost Analysis

Sardar Khaliq Uzaman (Comsats University Islamabad, Abbottabad Campus, Abbottabad, Pakistan), Atta ur Rehman Khan (Faculty of Computing and Information Technology, Sohar University, Sohar, Oman), Junaid Shuja (COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbottabad, Pakistan), Tahir Maqsood (Computer Science Department, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbottabad, Pakistan), Faisal Rehman (COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbottabad, Pakistan) and Saad Mustafa (COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbottabad, Pakistan)
DOI: 10.4018/IJITWE.2019010103
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Data center facilities play a vital role in present and forthcoming information and communication technologies. Internet giants, such as IBM, Microsoft, Google, Yahoo, and Amazon hold large data centers to provide cloud computing services and web hosting applications. Due to rapid growth in data center size and complexity, it is essential to highlight important design aspects and challenges of data centers. This article presents market segmentation of the leading data center operators and discusses the infrastructural considerations, namely energy consumption, power usage effectiveness, cost structure, and system reliability constraints. Moreover, it presents data center network design, classification of the data center servers, recent developments, and future trends of the data center industry. Furthermore, the emerging paradigm of mobile cloud computing is debated with respect to the research issues. Preliminary results for the energy consumption of task scheduling techniques are also provided.
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1. Introduction

Data centers are a fundamental part of the IT operations and provide computing facilities to large entities, such as, online social networks, cloud computing services, online businesses, hospitals, and universities (Brady, Kapur, Summers, & Thompson, 2013). Data center entails a cluster of resources that are interconnected through communication links, to host applications, store data, and provide various other services, such as, the cloud computing services (Khan, Othman, Madani, & Khan, 2013; Shuja, Gani, Shamshirband, Ahmad, & Bilal, 2016; Khan, Othman, Khan, Akhtar, & Madani, 2015). A typical data center comprises of floor space for accommodating IT equipment together with all the essential cabling required to connect the servers, power distribution systems, climate control normally using Computer Room Air Conditioning (CARC) devices, and physical security mechanisms (Bilal et al., 2012; Bilal, Rehman, Khalid, Hameed, & Alvarez, 2014).

Data centers have experienced rapid growth in the number of hosted servers. Large Internet corporations and IT equipment manufacturers such as Google, Amazon, Microsoft, Dell, IBM, and HP are continually expanding their existing data centers and building new ones. Global IT systems revenue is increasing at the rate of 53.7% yearly and the contribution of data center equipment to this growth is up to 3.5% (Connel, 2012). This notable growth needs to be examined in detail in terms of total number of server and manufacturers’ market share. The estimated market segmentation of various corporations in terms of server farms, and the market share of the leading server manufacturers in 2013, is presented in Table 1 (Google Inc., 2015; Pearn, 2012; Netcraft, 2013; Amazon, n.d.; Miller, 2009; Reichle & De-Massari, 2011; Miller, 2012; New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, n.d.; Yevgeniy, 2015; Statistica, 2015; Gallo, 2012; U.S Department of Energy, 2015) and Table 2 (Gartner, 2014), respectively.

Table 1.
Market segmentation
OrganizationEstimated Server Count
Table 2.
Server market share (US dollars)
CompanyRevenueMarket Share
Other Vendors2,904,637,56718.7%

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