An Architecture for Big IoT Data Analytics in the Oil and Gas Industry

An Architecture for Big IoT Data Analytics in the Oil and Gas Industry

Ramiz M. Aliguliyev (Institute of Information Technology, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku, Azerbaijan), Rashid G. Alakbarov (Institute of Information Technology, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku, Azerbaijan) and Shalala F. Tahirzada (Institute of Information Technology, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku, Azerbaijan)
DOI: 10.4018/IJHIoT.2020070102
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Abstract

The application of the fast-growing information and communications technologies (ICT) in the industry has led to an increase in the quality of industrial processes. Through the application of Internet of Things (IoT) considered as a new technological concept in the oil and gas industry, it is possible to provide a high level of security by detecting previously the errors, the faults in real-time, to minimize the costs of production processes such as exploration, search, monitoring in the oil industry, to achieve the optimization of the activity to ensure highly productive performance. The application of IoT in the industry can lead to collect an exponential volume of data and, consequently, to some challenges in the analysis phase. Taking these into account, the article deals with the research on IoT technologies and the application of industrial processes to improve the quality of production processes in the oil and gas industry. In this paper, multi-layered analysis architecture for processing big data in the oil & gas industry is proposed.
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1. Introduction

As a result of high development trends, in addition to the widespread use of ICT, the application of new technological concepts has created a global revolution in every field. The oil and gas industry has not been away from this development.

The oil and natural gas resources have a specific place in the natural resources map of the earth. The amount of gas reserves is being studied in comparison with oil reserves. According to the calculations, every 2 tons of oil is appropriate to 1 ton of gas. The natural gas, which is distinguished with its high heat capacity among hydrocarbon fuels, is used both in everyday life and in industry and plays the role of raw material for the production of various products. For the purpose, first of all, gas is processed.

The industrial production processes such as exploration, search, drilling is being implemented to realize oil extraction from natural resources in the oil and gas industry. Many different methods and means are used to extract oil, which is sorted as light, medium, heavy depending on density.

Hydrocarbon deposits, namely crude oil and free gas are found at depths of 1000-2000 to 5000-6000 meters above the Earth's surface in the oil and gas industry. In many cases, this depth is 1000-3000 meters. The current period is regarded as the transition from the light oil industry to the heavy oil era. As known, it is enough to apply simple methods to obtain oil located at a closer distance to the Earth's surface. However, if oil-bearing layers and rocks are located in deeper layers of the Earth, the use of more complicated means or methods is required. The use of special platforms for extracting oil in underwater places and offshore becomes necessary. It is clear that as a result of increasing oil and gas production the oil and gas reserves located near the surface of the Earth are reduced. Therefore continuation of extraction under deeper and complex conditions is required. As a result, the use of modern equipment has become necessary to reach oil and gas deposits. That's why the application of new technologies to automate processes is considered one of the necessary requirements to increase productivity in the oil and gas industry.

Today the rapid development and wider range of distributed scalable computing technologies have made inevitable the application of information technologies in the oil and gas industry processes. As an adequate solution for the problematic situations noted in the oil and gas industry, method and techniques such as wireless network equipment, sensors, cloud technology, IoT technology and data mining can be used. Today, as a result of the integration of IT into large-scale industrial processes the oil and gas industry are one of the most important data sources that generate big data.

It is clear that measures for growing oil and gas production increase the fuel balance and allows expanding the raw material base for the development of the chemical industry. As one of the main reasons for the increase in oil and gas production, in addition to the processing of new oil and gas condensate deposits which are highly productive, the application of new systems and new technologies in production processes can be noted. The use of non-traditional modern techniques in production processes offers many potential opportunities in the oil and gas industry. So the collaborative implementation of existing automation systems with IoT has the following perspectives:

  • Minimizing human intervention in the production process/ ensuring a high level of automated execution;

  • Ensuring efficiency while exploration of high-productive oil and gas condensate deposits;

  • Predicting previously faults and failures that may occur in industrial processes/implementation of protection measures accordingly;

  • Pre-defining of the deficit of raw materials for production to ensure continuity of the process;

  • Control possibility in enterprises from anywhere in the world;

  • Availability to information from anywhere by accessing the network.

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