An Energy Efficient Scheduling Manager for Cloud-Based Mobile Navigation Applications

An Energy Efficient Scheduling Manager for Cloud-Based Mobile Navigation Applications

Chutiwan Rakjit (School of Computer and Mathematical Sciences, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand), William Liu (School of Computer and Mathematical Sciences, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand) and Jairo A. Gutiérrez (School of Computer and Mathematical Sciences, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand)
DOI: 10.4018/ijbdcn.2014040104
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Abstract

This paper presents an in-depth study on a navigation application that has cloud-based and non-cloud-based versions running on the Android platform. It discovered that the cloud-based Osmand is less energy efficient than the non-cloud based Osmand. This is because the tail energy in mobile communications causes extra energy consumption for cloud-based Osmand. Thus, it has designed an Energy Efficient Scheduling Manager (EESManager), which benefits from its awareness of both tail energy and the complexity of the navigation map. As the evaluation results show, the cloud-based Osmand with EESManager can reduce overall energy consumption in case of a simple map between the source and destination.
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2. Background

Pathak et al. (2012) presented an energy profiler for applications on modern smartphones which is called ‘eprof’. Its architecture has three components: code instrumentation and logging, power modeling and energy accounting, and profile presentation. Firstly, eprof needs to collect processes, threads, subroutines and application system calls. Secondly it tracks logs and draws back energy activities to smartphone hardware components. Thirdly, it draws the energy activities which matched the entities responsible for the activities. Then eprof was used in case studies to understand the energy spent in mobile applications. A result of using eprof shows that free applications use 65%-75% of energy in modules for third-party advertisement.

The measurement study conducted in (Pathak et al. 2012) has found that the tail energy phenomenon in wireless communications causes the 3G, GSM or WiFi-based devices to consume a large amount of energy. Tail energy is energy spent to keep a network interface in the same power state after a transfer is completed. However, if a data transfer occurs within tail time, there will be no energy spent. Therefore, TailEnder was developed based on a measurement study to reduce energy consumption while still meeting user expectations. With E-mail applications, for example, a data transfer is scheduled by TailEnder to minimize tail energy.

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