Analysis Sustainability of Women's Leadership for Watershed Conservation in the Urban Area

Analysis Sustainability of Women's Leadership for Watershed Conservation in the Urban Area

Donna Asteria (Communication Department, Faculty of Social and Political Science, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia) and Herdis Herdiansyah (School of Environmental Science, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia)
DOI: 10.4018/IJSESD.2020040103
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Abstract

The purpose of this study is to explore the pattern of sustainability of women's leadership roles in watershed management. A quantitative approach did the research. A survey was conducted as a data collection technique. The analysis technique used is the analysis of causality with regression, accompanied by multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) analysis. The quantitative research samples were 120 respondents in 2 cities by purposive sampling (with the criteria of women who actively participated in watershed conservation in urban areas). The results show that women's leadership as environmental activists contribute to the sustainability of watershed management. For the sustainability of women's leadership, it is necessary to integrate social, economic, and ecological dimensions by focusing on aspects of women's empowerment to improve innovation capabilities in change adaptation, access to information and local institutions will support participatory approaches in watershed conservation to increase women's participation.
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Introduction

Flood disaster that occurred in urban areas due to the overflow of river water due to damage to the watershed when rain. To prevent flooding which continuously, community participation to conserve soil and water in the basin is an important factor of watershed management planning at the meso and micro levels in the watershed. Awareness of citizens maintain vegetation around the watershed and avoid water pollution throughout the watershed be key to the success of watershed conservation. Urban water conservation to be one of the main keys to ensuring the availability of water and increase water supply in line with the increase of water needs (Kodoatie & Sjarief, 2010).

Watershed management is one of the mitigation efforts of climate change impacts and to achieve sustainable environmental stability. To achieve this sustainability, the inclusion of women's roles is in line with the objectives to be achieved from Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in the fifth goal of achieving gender equality and empowering all women and girls. In point 5.5 it is about ensuring women can fully participate effectively and equally within opportunities for leadership at all levels of decision-making in the political, economic, and public life fields. Furthermore, at point 5.a it suggests carrying out reforms to provide women's equal rights to the economy, resources, and access to ownership and control over land and other property forms, financial services, inheritance, and natural resources, in accordance with national law. At point 5.b it is also about increasing the use of activation technology, especially information and communication technology to promote women empowerment. In addition, in the 11th destination SDGs: Make cities inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable, at point 11.7 it is targeted that by 2030 can provide universal access to safe, inclusive and accessible conditions, green open spaces and public spaces, especially for women and children, the elderly, and disability groups.

Women are better able to respond to environmental change better than men, among others by actively participating in the traditional roles of men in situations of environmental damage and natural disasters. With a gender perspective, the role of women is very important in environmental management. Women can act as environmental activists in mediating environmental conflicts, with solutions that are oriented towards the well-being of citizens through environmental management, so that the settlement of environmental conflicts in urban areas will be more sustainable (Asteria, Herdiansyah, & Apriana, 2016).

An important role of women must also be considered as agents in watershed conservation. As Gomez-Roxas, Boniao, Burton, Gorospe-Villarino, & Nacua (2005) studies, women's participation is very active in various organizational and NGO activities. This shows that women can have a major role in planning and decision making. About watershed conservation, women are water managers, both as main collectors and household users of water. So, the role of women will be indispensable in efforts to conserve a sustainable watershed and achieve the welfare of women. Women should be knowledgeable about the importance of conserving wetlands, riparian zones, and catchment areas in watershed areas to ensure clean water supply and for household use. So, the increase of women's participation should get the attention of the government. Because although gender equality efforts have been prepared at various levels, the implementation of gender action in practice is limited and the voice and strength of women in planning and decision making is relatively limited compared to men.

The ability of women's groups to invite their communities to develop environmentally friendly and environmentally-friendly management is a form of environmental leadership of women in their communities. Because environmental leadership can be done all individuals who can show others about the importance of changes in environmental behaviour that is more useful and possible. This ability is related to the leader element in which others follow and believe in the vision of behavioral change, the ruler element in which others are willing to obey the behavior and speech of the individual, and the element of the manager where the individual can organize and delegate activities to others (Miller, 2004; Ni’mah, Herdiansyah, Soesilo, & Mutia, 2018).

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