AODV Energy Routing Mechanism for Multi-Channel Multi-Interface Ad Hoc Networks (EMCMI-AODV) Using a Dynamic Programming Algorithm

AODV Energy Routing Mechanism for Multi-Channel Multi-Interface Ad Hoc Networks (EMCMI-AODV) Using a Dynamic Programming Algorithm

Hassan Faouzi (Sultan Moulay Slimane University, Faculty of Science and Techniques, Beni Mellal, Morocco), Hicham Mouncif (Sultan Moulay Slimane University, Polydisciplinary Faculty, Laboratory LIRST, Beni Mellal, Morocco) and Mohamed Lamsaadi (Sultan Moulay Slimane University, Polydisciplinary Faculty, Beni Mellal, Morocco)
DOI: 10.4018/IJMCMC.2016100101
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Abstract

Energy consumption is a significant issue and offers a rich scope for research in ad hoc networks. However, many energy efficiency routing protocols are configured to use only a single Interface single Channel (SISC). As a result, these networks rarely can fully exploit all bandwidth available in the radio spectrum provisioned by the standards. This paper proposes two extensions to the shortest-path routing algorithm that finds routes to balance load based on residual energy of nodes and hops of route, one uses Floyd Warshall and the other uses Bellman-Ford algorithm. The protocols work with nodes equipped with a multiple network interface to overcome the problems of SISC where each node is equipped with a single antenna to ensure connectivity with all other nodes. The proposed protocols primarily exploit the idea of interaction among MAC and Network layers by using a novel cross-layer routing solution. The performance of the proposed protocols were evaluated using different scenarios and performance metrics, and achieved good results compared with similar works in the field.
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Many researchers proposed many different approaches to MAC layer and network layer for utilizing multiple channels and multiple interfaces in mobile ad hoc networks. So the current work can be categorized into three classes.

MAC Layer

In the MAC layer channel assignment algorithms are generally classified into fixed, dynamic and hybrid algorithms. Kyansur et.al (2005) and Kyasanur (2006) used a hybrid channel assignment strategy with varying channel assignment. Their approach is designed for the scenario where the number of interfaces is smaller than the number of channels. For example, their results show that even with two interfaces, a five channel network can offer more than five-fold improvement over a single channel network.

Wu et al. (2000) propose a new multi-channel MAC protocol which can be applied to both FDMA and CDMA technology. The protocol requires two simplex transceivers per mobile host, one interface is assigned for control purposes, and the second interface is switched between the remaining channels and used for data exchange.

The authors in Bouras et al (2013) used the model of Calvo et al (2007) and design a cross-layer mechanism for an effective channel assignment and routing based on specific metrics used in Cognitive Radio Networks (CRN) for the purpose of improving the spectrum utilization (Marinho & Monteiro, 2012). The proposed mechanism is based on tracking real time metrics (Sound to Noise Ratio (SNR) and Channel Collision) during data packets transmission:

These metrics are helped to select the best channel for transmitting the data frames on the currently created route between the senders and the receivers. When a collision takes place in a particular channel, the current state of the nodes forwarding or receiving is reevaluated and possibly another channel will be used to retransmit the frame. The basic aim is to offload busy channels.

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