Application of Particle Swarm Optimization in Design of PID Controller for AVR System

Application of Particle Swarm Optimization in Design of PID Controller for AVR System

H. F. Abu-Seada (Ministry of Electricity, Cairo, Egypt), W. M. Mansor (Faculty of Engineering, “Shoubra” Benha University, Cairo, Egypt), F. M. Bendary (Faculty of Engineering, “Shoubra” Benha University, Cairo, Egypt), A. A. Emery (National Energy Control Center, Cairo, Egypt) and M. A. Moustafa Hassan (Elec. Power Department, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt)
Copyright: © 2013 |Pages: 17
DOI: 10.4018/ijsda.2013070101
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Abstract

This paper presents a method to get the optimal tuning of Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controller parameters for an AVR system of a synchronous generator using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm. The AVR is not initially robust to variations of the power system parameters. Therefore, it was necessary to use PID controller to increase the stability margin and to improve performance of the system. Fast tuning of optimum (PID) controller parameter yield high quality solution. New criteria for time domain performance evaluation was defined. Simulation for comparison between the proposed method and Ziegler-Nichols method is done. The proposed method was indeed more efficient also. The terminal voltage step response for AVR model will be discussed in different cases and the effect of adding rate feed back stabilizer to the model on the terminal voltage response. Then the rate feedback will be compared with the proposed PID controller based on use of (PSO) method to find its coefficients. Different simulation results are presented and discussed.
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2. Avr Model

The Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR) of the synchronous generator is responsible for controlling the terminal voltage and reactive power output of the generator and consequently its terminal voltage. A simple (AVR) consists of amplifier, exciter, generator and sensor.The block diagram of AVR with PID

Controller is shown in Figure 1. The linear model for each of the AVR elements is given in the following discussion as given in (H. Saadat, 1999).

Figure 1.

Block diagram of AVR with PID controller

  • 1.

    Amplifier Model: The amplifier model is represented by a gain KA and a time constant τA ; the transfer function is:

    (1)

Typical values of KA are in the range from 10 to 400. The amplifier time constant τA is very small ranging from 0.02 to 0.1 s.

  • 2.

    Exciter Model: The transfer function of a modern exciter may be represented by a gain KE and a single time constant τE.

    (2)

Typical values of KE are in the range of 10 to 400. The time constant τE is in the range of 0.5 to 1.0 s.

  • 3.

    Generator Model: In the linearized model, the transfer function relating the generator terminal voltage to its field voltage can be represented by a gain KG and a time constant τG.

    (3)

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