Applications of Nano Technology in Civil Engineering: A Review

Applications of Nano Technology in Civil Engineering: A Review

Arslan Shamim (Civil Engineering Department, Mirpur University of Science and Technology, Mirpur, Pakistan), Sajjad Ahmad (Civil Engineering Department, Mirpur University of Science and Technology, Mirpur, Pakistan), Anwar Khitab (Civil Engineering Department, Mirpur University of Science and Technology, Mirpur, Pakistan), Waqas Anwar (Civil Engineering Department, Mirpur University of Science and Technology, Mirpur, Pakistan), Rao Arsalan Khushnood (NUST Institute of Civil Engineering, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan) and Muhammad Usman (NUST Institute of Civil Engineering, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan)
Copyright: © 2018 |Pages: 17
DOI: 10.4018/IJoSE.2018010104

Abstract

This article presents the recent trends in the field of civil engineering with an emphasis on the applications of nano materials and their beneficial effects at nano scale. The role and utilization of nanoparticles such as nano silica, carbon nano tubes, graphene, nano clays, nano CaCO3, nano TiO2, etc., is sharply increasing with the passage of time for achieving high performance composites. These nano materials not only enhance the mechanical properties of the resulting composites but also produce multifunctional characteristics. In this review, the authors have highlighted the various types of nanomaterials being used in the field of civil engineering and the performance improvements achieved by their utilization. Besides the potential benefits of Nano materials, they may pose some health and environmental concerns. A brief discussion is also provided on this issue.
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Nanotechnology For Concrete Improvements

Concrete is the most abundantly used construction material around the globe (Mehta & Monteiro, 2006; Rizwan, Ahmad, & Bier, 2012). Concrete is produced by mixing natural or artificial aggregates of various sizes i.e. fine and coarse with cement and water. Among all above ingredients, cement is the most costly, energy intensive and environmentally unsafe product. As an estimate, only cement industry produces about 5.0% of anthropogenic CO2 in the atmosphere (Ferro, Ahmad, Khushnood, Restuccia, & Tulliani, 2014; Worrell, Price, Martin, Hendriks, & Meida, 2001). Therefore, in the construction industry, researchers have been investigating the new ways and technologies for improving the mechanical efficiency and serviceability of the concrete structures. The performance improvements achieved in the concrete performance by incorporating nano-technological advancements can be broadly classified as; (i) the incorporation of nanoparticles, (ii) addition of carbon nano structures, (iii) inclusion of industrial waste products in the concrete.

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