Artificial Insemination (AI) in Swine and New Product Development (NPD): Evidence from Nigeria

Artificial Insemination (AI) in Swine and New Product Development (NPD): Evidence from Nigeria

Ayodele C. Oniku (Business Administration, University of Lagos, Unilag, Nigeria), Ibrahim A.O. Bakare (Social Sciences, Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos, Nigeria) and O.R. Shabi (Management Sciences, Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos, Nigeria)
Copyright: © 2014 |Pages: 13
DOI: 10.4018/ijsem.2014010103

Abstract

The main contribution of this study to knowledge is that it has enriched our understanding on various thoughts that have shaped artificial insemination technology adaptability and practice. The debates in this area have strengthened its application to new product development in a developing economy like Nigeria. Such application has consequences for developing optimal strategies by the stakeholders for enhancing sustainable product development. Equally, it helps to understand the general views and positions of the stakeholders in agriculture marketing on what would be the market potentials of a new technology in a developing market like Nigeria. By and large the study examines the views of stakeholders in order to determine the success and acceptability of AI technology among farmers and other stakeholders in Nigerian market.
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Introduction

The challenges of introducing a new product into market is becoming more tasking as a result of dynamics of environmental factors and sophistication of consumers, especially emerging consumers for many products as a result of exposure or sophistication. The trend of introducing an existing product into a new market like sub-Sahara African economy like Nigeria may face different dimensional challenges because of the market and consumers’ peculiarities.

The understanding of certain peculiar factors in a new market, which might be totally different from the erstwhile experiences in other markets, is paramount for a successful introduction and subsequent performance of the product. The good knowledge of the various factors and developments amounts to contributing factors that determine product life-cycle (PLC) processing and ultimately acceptability and patronage in market.

A new product does not necessarily stands for a new invention or discovery in marketing parlance. A product becomes new as a result of modification it experiences or adjustments to basic features that characterise the product in terms of packaging, name, features or functions. Dibbs et al. (2001) state that a product becomes a new product in market as a result of undergoing change of modification, which subjects it to a new developmental process in the market that organisation perceive with risk and uncertainty. The aim of organisation is to serve a new segment, emerging customers or to achieving competitive advantages in terms of differentiation or positioning in a market. By and large the objective ultimately contributes to the profitable performance of organisation in the industry.

However, certain factors are alluded to the success or failure of a new product in market. Day (1981) retrospectively emphasise the influence and rate of diffusion process, relationship with substitutes in the market and competitive entry strategies as among the factors that are quite fundamental in determining new product performance and uncertainty reduction in a market. Equally, the need to seek adequate information about the market, the new consumers’ perceptions of the product, the peculiarities and distinct characteristics of a new market that might be different from the existing markets are indispensable for a successful introduction. Karlsson and Nystrom (2003) corroborate the information and knowledge factors with the emphasis on the trajectory of knowledge-intensity and number of firms in industry.

Artificial Insemination belongs to biotechnology which is applied to improve reproduction and genetics of farm animals (Foote, 2001). The popularity of and accessibility to the technology is sine qua non to livestock farmers in many parts of the world. Contrarily, the method is not popular among farmers in sub-Saharan Africa where natural mating for reproduction in livestock farming still remains dominant. AI (artificial insemination) popularity among the academics is high but practical application and usage on farms remains poor or non-existent in many countries in the region, especially in pigs (porcine) breeding.

Importantly, the present non-existent and poor usage situations are not unconnected to unavailability of AI, dearth of knowledge, low awareness and farmers’ unverified perception towards non-traditional practices in many Sub-Sahara African economies. Thus, AI becomes a new product and technology service among farmers that its marketability remains important based on the needs to strategise on answers to the questions of: What farmers will buy it? How does an average want it? How will marketing information orientate existing pig farmers and new entrants on its indisputable efficiency? Why should farmers prefer it to predominant natural mating and its attached cost and inefficiency? Thus, importantly, the study investigates the introduction of AI among pig farmers as a new product/service in the economy and how marketing concepts and analysis can be used to achieve the objectives of what different category of farmers will buy, information creation and awareness for the new product/service and the roles of government and Research Institutions to sustain the new product/services and improve farmers’ productivity.

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