Challenges in Climate Change and Environmental Crisis: Impacts of Aviation Industry on Human, Urban and Natural Environments

Challenges in Climate Change and Environmental Crisis: Impacts of Aviation Industry on Human, Urban and Natural Environments

Mostafa Jafari (Tehran Process Secretariat for Low Forest Cover Countries (TPS for LFCCs), Iran & International Advisor, Islamic Republic of Iran Meteorological Organization (IRIMO), Iran & Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands (RIFR), Tehran, Iran, & Lead Author, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Geneva, Switzerland)
DOI: 10.4018/ijstmi.2013070102
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Abstract

Climate change challenges need to be considered in various dimensions. Aviation industry has multiple impacts on human lives such as impacts on the urban and natural environments. Various dimensions of the issue and its importance have been reported by the IPCC, following a request from the ICAO and the Parties to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer in 1999. In this paper different related topics have been investigated. Aviation: Development and Improvement, Climate changes as main environmental crisis, causative source of pollutions: Air pollution (GHGs, aerosol, smoke and particulate, dust), water pollution, biodiversity, hazardous materials, and aeronautical noise. Link between aviation impacts and environmental crisis have been discussed. Different perspectives of the aviation challenge briefly are presented: I- Human dimension, II- Urban environment (local, regional, and global), III- Natural environments (terrestrial, aquatic, and atmospheric) and IV- Birds killed by intervention. In concluding remarks two aspects of the issue, A) benefits, and B) impacts have been considered, and in the end some recommendations have been made on Emissions Trading, Environmental Performance, and Technological Developments.
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Aviation: Development & Improvement

The oldest testimonies about man's efforts to learn how to fly dates from the time of ancient civilizations, accordingly, aviation development leads to engine burning, and when aircraft engines burn fuel, they produce emissions that are similar to other emissions resulting from fossil fuel combustion. However, aircraft emissions are unusual in that a significant proportion is emitted at altitude. These emissions give rise to important environmental concerns regarding their global impact and their effect on local air quality. Air travel accounts for 5-14% of global climate emissions and is growing rapidly. Nevertheless, aviation emissions remain unregulated (Carbon Market Watch, 2013).

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