Client-Server Based LBS Architecture: A Novel Positioning Module for Improved Positioning Performance

Client-Server Based LBS Architecture: A Novel Positioning Module for Improved Positioning Performance

Mohammad AL Nabhan (Brunel University, UK), Suleiman Almasri (Anglia Ruskin University, UK), Vanja Garaj (Brunel University, UK), Wamadeva Balachandran (Brunel University, UK) and Ziad Hunaiti (Anglia Ruskin University, UK)
Copyright: © 2010 |Pages: 18
DOI: 10.4018/jhcr.2010070101
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Abstract

This work presents a new efficient positioning module that operates over client-server LBS architectures. The aim of the proposed module is to fulfil the position information requirements for LBS pedestrian applications by ensuring the availability of reliable, highly accurate and precise position solutions based on GPS single frequency (L1) positioning service. The positioning module operates at both LBS architecture sides; the client (mobile device), and the server (positioning server). At the server side, the positioning module is responsible for correcting user’s location information based on WADGPS corrections. In addition, at the mobile side, the positioning module is continually in charge for monitoring the integrity and available of the position solutions as well as managing the communication with the server. The integrity monitoring was based on EGNOS integrity methods. A prototype of the proposed module was developed and used in experimental trials to evaluate the efficiency of the module in terms of the achieved positioning performance. The positioning module was capable of achieving a horizontal accuracy of less than 2 meters with a 95% confidence level with integrity improvement of more than 30% from existing GPS/EGNOS services.
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Positioning Technologies Background

Generally, the positioning technologies are divided into two major categories. The first one is described as network-based which involves different types of implementations such as mobile network positioning, in which mobile signals and the network infrastructure are used to locate the mobile device utilising several methods such as Angle of Arrival (AoA), Time of Arrival (ToA) and Enhanced Observed Time Difference (E-OTD). Also, this category includes wireless local network (Wi-Fi) and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) based positioning, these methods are mainly used for position determination in local scales and indoor environments (Esmond, 2007). However, the network based positioning techniques are still not widely implemented as stand alone solutions because of its accuracy limitations. In addition, network operators still are not considering that LBS applications are typically to be utilised by all mobile phone users.

The second main category is known as satellite-based positioning, in which satellite signals are received by handheld receivers and used to position the mobile device based on a triangulation process of three or more different signals. This technology is known as the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) such as GPS which has been widely utilised for a variety of air, land and sea applications. GPS is considered as the cornerstone of positioning in LBS applications because of its simplicity of use, inexpensive implementation, and global availability (Filjar, 2003). However, the positioning performance provided by a single frequency GPS receiver has proved to be insufficient for some precision and accuracy demanding applications (Kaplan & Hegarty, 2006).

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