Co-Creation Among Small Scale Tourism Firm: Role of Information Communication and Technology in Productivity and Sustainability

Co-Creation Among Small Scale Tourism Firm: Role of Information Communication and Technology in Productivity and Sustainability

Sudhanshu Joshi (Doon University, Dehradun, India), Manu Sharma (Doon University, Dehradun, India), Satinder Kumar (Punjabi University, Patiala, India) and Manoj Kumar Pant (State Planning Commission, Govt of Uttarakhand, India)
DOI: 10.4018/IJSITA.2018100101


ICT enabled tourism brings planners and actors into a common platform. Uttarakhand falls under the L4 (above average) category as per an e-readiness report and subsequently within the span of 5 years, it has climbed to level L3 after the infusion of web-based technologies. Tourism Firm's innovation is primarily based on following criteria: coexistence with existing competitors, cross-value chain income generating activities (IGA) along tourism, new products/processes developed in the past 2 years. An intensive literature review has been done, out of which three critical success factors were identified: (a) Internet usage; (b) firm's innovation and competitiveness; (c) income generating activities (IGA) by the firm. Together, these critical success factors (CSFs) express high cumulative variance. The study identifies co-innovation strategies among supply chain actors at the micro and small levels, which is based on cross-functional linkage between allied industries, and on internet use and IGAs. Validation has been done using an explorative study.
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2. Literature Review

Critical Success Factor (CSF) is highly preferred approach used in business planning and partnership management (Ab Talib & Abdul Hamid 2014; Cakar, 2018; Engelbrecht, Kruger, & Saayman, 2014; Eusébio, & do Rosário, 2018; Hanafiah & Zulkifly, 2019; Jusoh et al., 2018; Law,Qi & Buhalis, 2010; Lundberg & Fredman, 2012; Lucchetti & Font, 2013; Kozak, Rita, & Bigné., 2018; Ramos, Santos, & Almeida, 2018; Vonder & Cochrane, 2012). As a strategic tool, CSF determines the sustainable performance of a firm across all functional areas (including, Human Resource, Finance Management, Supplier Relationship Management, etc). The prominent factors determined under management area could be organization commitment, ICT readiness, Technological mindset, and co-innovation, Education / Training. In other words, ICT has significant role in enabling the business process for competitive advantage and co-creation (Chala, Bermudez & Molano, 2018; Cimbaljević, Stankov, & Pavluković, 2018; del Vecchio, Secundo, & Passiante, 2018; Jovicic, 2019; Kono, 2018; Mandić & Praničević, 2019). Since micro, small firms always struggled with a lack of resources, co-innovation may increase the collective productivity among partners. Although, in recent academic research, very little literature support co-innovation, as Critical Success factor for small firms (especially in service industry e.g. Tourism) (Liu & Cheng, 2018; Marasco et al., 2018; Magadán, & Rivas, 2018; Sarmah, Kamboj, & Kandampully, 2018).

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