COD Removal and Electricity Generation From Domestic Wastewater Using Different Anode Materials in Microbial Fuel Cells

COD Removal and Electricity Generation From Domestic Wastewater Using Different Anode Materials in Microbial Fuel Cells

G. Shyamala (S R Engineering College, Warangal, India), N. Saravanakumar (Arba Minch University, Sawla Campus, Sawla, Ethiopia) and E. Vamsi Krishna (S R Engineering College, Warangal India)
DOI: 10.4018/IJCCE.2019010101
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Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) set a new trend of converting chemical energy or bio energy to electricity from wastewater (domestic and industries) at the same time removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) from the wastewater. Electrical energy generated from microbial fuel cell could be used for small electrical device example biosensors. The main components of MFCs are the anode, and the cathode salt bridge. It contains an anode chamber and a cathode chamber which separate electrodes for the production of electricity, using wastewater in an anaerobic chamber helps grow native microorganisms. Adding substrates increases productivity of the electrons that are moving from the anode chamber to the cathode chamber by help of the salt bridge. Bioreactors based on power generation in MFCs are a new approach to wastewater treatment. Power generation and current is modulated in this system. If it is optimised, MFCs would prove to be new method to offset wastewater treatment plant operating costs.
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The generation of electricity can be done by using microbial fuel cell. The two chamber MFC is widely using traditional method and inexpensive. Output of the MFCs power depends upon the type of wastewater used in experiment, type of presence of bacteria in wastewater, using of electrode materials and oxidation efficiency (Liu et al., 2005). The graphical plots show that the power production rate differ based on cathode and anode material used. The amount of power generated in these systems is affected by surface area of the electrodes and the surface area of membranes (Bruce, 2006; Oh et al., 2004; Oh & Logan, 2006). In cathode chamber the ferricyanide is can be used as an electron acceptor at high concentrations. But it is restricted to use in studying laboratories and for student research. Compared to platinum – catalyst it enhances the power level by 1.5 to 1.8 times, but compared to that oxygen is more suitable for using as electron acceptor in low cost (Oh & Logan, 2006).

The material which is used as anode must have good conductive property, biocompatible and chemically stable. Metal anodes also can be used (Tanisho et al., 1989), but the toxicity of even trace copper ions to bacteria copper is not useful. The above declared properties are matched with most versatile materials of carbon products. The graphite shows low output compared with carbon because; in some graphite materials are mould with copper.

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