Comparing Different Crowd Emergency Evacuation Models Based on Human Centered Sensing Criteria

Comparing Different Crowd Emergency Evacuation Models Based on Human Centered Sensing Criteria

Jaziar Radianti (Centre for Integrated Emergency Management (CIEM), University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway), Ole-Christoffer Granmo (Centre for Integrated Emergency Management (CIEM), University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway), Noureddine Bouhmala (Department of Information and Communication Technology, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway), Parvaneh Sarshar (Centre for Integrated Emergency Management (CIEM), University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway) and Jose J. Gonzalez (Centre for Integrated Emergency Management (CIEM), University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway)
DOI: 10.4018/IJISCRAM.2014070104
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Abstract

Emergency evacuation of crowds is a fascinating phenomenon that has attracted researchers from various fields. Better understanding of this class of crowd behavior opens up for improving evacuation policies and smarter design of buildings, increasing safety. Recently, a new class of disruptive technology has appeared: Human-centered sensing which allows crowd behavior to be monitored in real-time, and provides the basis for real-time crowd control. The question then becomes: to what degree can previous crowd models incorporate this development, and what areas need further research? In this paper, the authors provide a survey that describes some widely used crowd models and discuss the advantages and shortages from the angle of human-centered sensing. Their review reveals important research opportunities that may contribute to an improved and more robust emergency management.
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2. Crowd Models For Emergency Evacuation

Crowd dynamics has been investigated from various fields, particularly when pedestrian dynamics was introduced, self-organization phenomena, clogging effect, and intermittent flow were identified. Numerous crowd studies are inspired by this pedestrian model, e.g. Helbing (1992), Helbing & Molnár (1995), Helbing et al. (2005; 2000; 2007), Johansson and Helbing (2008).

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