Comparison of Baccalaureate Nursing Students' Experience of Video-Assisted Debriefing versus Oral Debriefing following High-Fidelity Human Simulation

Comparison of Baccalaureate Nursing Students' Experience of Video-Assisted Debriefing versus Oral Debriefing following High-Fidelity Human Simulation

Colleen Royle (Minnesota State University, Mankato, Mankato, MN, USA) and Kathleen Hargiss (Independent Researcher, Bradenton, FL, USA)
DOI: 10.4018/IJSITA.2015040103
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Abstract

High-Fidelity Human Simulation (HFHS) is used in many disciplines, including nursing, as an innovative teaching pedagogy that offers an active learning process. The simulation process involves a number of stages with the most critical stage identified as debriefing. The main focus of debriefing is to stimulate reflection and encourage communication while exploring the emotions of the participants. These emotions assist in framing the experience that aids in enhancement of learning for the student. This quantitative, quasi-experimental study explored the comparison of two debriefing processes, video-assisted and oral, by assessing the students' opinion of the debriefing experience and the students' rating of the importance of the debriefing experience. Participants were first semester baccalaureate nursing students. The overall finding and the four subscales for both dependent variables showed no statistical significance. This article provides further evidence to guide educators to a preferred method of debriefing students after a simulated experience.
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Background

Nursing education uses High-Fidelity Human Simulation (HFHS) as an innovative teaching method that offers an active learning process. A high-fidelity human simulator allows the simulation to reach a higher interactive level while maintaining boundaries of practice and safety prior to the hands-on experience with patients (Campbell & Daley, 2009). Simulation offers a creative approach to tackle the challenges confronting nursing education, such as the increased acuity level of patients, nursing faculty shortage, reduced clinical sites, and the shifting role of nurses (Campbell & Daley, 2009).

HFHS is used in nursing education to offer an authentic learning experience, teach critical thinking and clinical judgment, facilitate skill acquisition, evaluate skill mastery, encourage teamwork, decrease performance anxiety, and reduce the possibility of medical errors (Cato, 2012; Owen & Follows, 2006). This cost- and time-intensive teaching method provides hands-on experience with a life-like mannequin and a debriefing session where guided reflection occurs allowing students to reflect and analyze their thoughts, feelings, and actions following the simulation experience.

As mentioned, HFHS is one method to use when teaching nursing students clinical experiences through an authentic learning strategy; however, there are a number of issues hindering the use of simulation in many organizations: simulation is expensive, requires highly technical support, and additional training for faculty (Dowie & Phillips, 2011). For this reason, HFHS is not available in every school of nursing. If a school has simulation equipment, video-taping capabilities may not be available, or the faculty is not familiar with the use of a video-assisted debriefing process. No matter what fidelity level is used in simulation, the debriefing stage must be an essential component of the simulation process.

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